New York (The Empire State) is a state in north east USA. It was was one of the original thirteen colonies. The area was first discovered by Verrazano in 1524 and was rediscovered by Henry Hudson in 1609 while in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, while seeking for a passage to India. The first state constitution for New York was adopted in 1777, and New York state abolished slavery in 1817.
The surface in the south-east is traversed by several mountain ranges from New Jersey, one of which, crossing the Hudson, presents a bold and lofty front on both banks, and forms magnificent scenery. The Catskill Mountains have the greatest average height, and in Round Topattain 3800 feet; but the culminating point is Mount Marcy, which belongs to the Adirondack group, and has a height of 5467 feet. In the west the large tract extending between Lake Ontario on the north and Pennsylvania on the south is generally level.
New York was originally rich in forests which used to include nearly half the state, but these were greatly reduced during the late 19th century. The most important mineral is iron. Lead ore is also found, and a vast amount of salt is made from the salt springs. Granite, marbles, sandstones, limestones, clay, sand, and all building materials are abundant. The mineral springs of Saratoga are the most celebrated in America.
New York (New York City), nicknamed 'Gotham City' since at least the 18th century, is a city partly in Bronx County, partly in Richmond County, partly in Queens County, partly in Kings County and partly in New York County USA.
The site of New York is said to have been discovered in 1524 by Verrazzano, a Florentine; but authentic history commences with the subsequent visit of Henry Hudson. In 1614 a Dutch colony arrived and founded the settlement of New Amsterdam on the site of the present Bowling Green, where they built a fort. In 1648 New York contained but 1,000 inhabitants; and in 1664 it was surrendered to the British, when the name New Amsterdam was changed to that of New York, in honor of James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II.
In 1667 the City contained but 384 housees. In 1700 the population had increased to about 6,000. In 1696 Trinity Church was founded. In 1673 New York was taken from England by the States General of Holland and renamed New Orange in honour of the Prince of Orange. It was restored to the British crown, however, on November the 10th 1674, and returned to being called New York.
In 1711 a slave-market was opened in Wall Street. In 1725 the New York Gazette was founded. In 1729 a city library was founded. In 1740 the New York Society Library was organized. In 1750 a theater was established. In 1754 King's (now Columbia) College was chartered. In 1763 the Sandy Hook light-house was first lit. In 1765 the famous Congress known as the Stamp Act Congress assembled in the city, and the Sons of Liberty were organized. On November the 1st the effigies of Govenor Golden and the devil holding the Stamp Act were burned on the Bowling Green. In 1768 the Chamber of Commerce was organized. In,1775 the ColonialAssembly adjourned, and delegates were elected to the Continental Congress the same year. In January 1776, a, body of the militia took possession of the city, and was followed by the American army in the spring. On July the 8th of the same year the Declaration of Independence was read to the army; on the 26th of August, after the battle of Long Island, the city fell into the hands of the British; and on December the 21st a destructive fire consumed an eighth of its whole bulk. On November the 25th, 1783, the British evacuated the city, and George Washington entered it at the head of the American army.
In January, 1785, Congress moved from Philadelphia to New York, and met in the City Hall, corner of Wall and Nassau Streets, now the site of the U S Sub-Treasury. In this year the Bank of New York was organized, and a manumission society established. On July the 26th, 1788, the new Constitution of the US was adopted by the Legislature, and celebrated by a grand procession. On April the 30th 1789, General George Washington was inaugurated President of the US on the gallery front of the old City Hall, facing Broad Street.
On June the 1st, 1795, the Park Theater was erected. In 1799 the Manhattan Company was chartered to supply the city with water. In 1804 hackney coaches were first licensed. In 1805 the New York Free School was incorporated, and also the Tammany Society. In 1806 steamnavigation was first successfully inaugurated on the Hudson by Robert Fulton. In 1807 the city was surveyed and laid out. In 1812, on the declaration of war against Great Britain, a large number of privateers left the city and became the terror of British traders until peace was declared. This year the first steamferry was established to Jersey City. On February the 12th, 1815. the first news of the treaty of peace was received at New York with great enthusiasm. In 1824 the House of Refuge was established. In 1873 a business panic paralysed the city of New York and several great corporations went bankrupt. In 1882 the New York and Brooklyn bridge was opened, joining the cities of New York and Brooklyn. In 1885 and 1886 the statue of Liberty Enlightening the World (the Statue of Liberty) was erected on Liberty Island. On September the 1st, 1892, owing to the presence of cholera, President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed a twenty-days' quarantine of New York.