The piano or pianoforte is a musical stringed instrument, the strings of which are extended over bridges rising on the sounding-board, and are made to vibrate by means of small felted hammers, which are put in motion by keys, and where a continued sound is not intended to be produced have their sound deadened immediately after the touch of the keys by means of leathern dampers. Its name is compounded of two Italian words signifying soft and strong, and it was so called in contradistinction to the harpsichord, the instrument which it superseded, and which did not permit of the strength of the notes being increased and diminished at will.
The mechanism by which the movement of the keys is conveyed to the strings is called the action, and there is no part of the piano in which the variations are more numerous. There are usually three strings in the piano for each note in the higher and middle octaves, two in the lower, and one in the lowest notes. The strings are of steel wire. The lowest notes have their strings wound round with a double coil of brass wire, and those next above with a single coil. Pianofortes are either in the form of the grand piano, in which the strings lie in the direction of the keys, or they have the strings stretched vertically perpendicular to the keys, which is now the most common form, and constitutes the upright piano.
A variety called the upright grand was also introduced in the 19th century. Grand pianos are used as concert instruments, and have the greatest compass and strength. The common compass of the piano at present is six and seven-eighths or seven octaves. The invention of the piano can scarcely be ascribed to any one man in particular. The first satisfactory hammer-action appears to have been invented by an Italian of Padua, named Bartolommeo Cristofali, about 1711. The instrument was not introduced into England until the latter half of the 18th century. Among the principal improvers of the piano are Sebastian Erard, the founder of the celebrated firm still in existence; Roller et Blanchet, the French firm which introduced the upright piano; Broadwood, Collard, Hopkinson, Kirkman, Bechstein, Steinway, Bluthner, besides others.
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