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G E BENSON

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Colonel G E Benson was a British soldier. He was born in 1861 and died in 1901. He joined the Royal Artillery in 1880 and was made a Captain in 1888 and a Major in 1896, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1900 and a full Colonel in 1901. he served in the Sudan Campaign of 1885 and in the Ashanti Expedition under Sir Francis Scott in the same year. In 1896 he served as Brigade-Major of the Mounted Corps under Kitchener with the Dongola Expeditionary Force and was on the staff during the South African War of 1899 to 1901. He was with the Kimberley Relief Forces and in action at Magersfontein during 1899 to 1900 afterwards being a Staff Officer at Rustenburg commanding a column. He was killed in action at Brakenlaagte on October the 30th 1901.
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G H BRYAN

G H Bryan was an English mathematician. He was one of the first mathematicians to apply the fundamental equations of rigid dynamics to a solution of the problem of stability of aeroplanes. Bryan carried out his experimental investigations on model gliders and in 1903 read a paper before the Aeronautical Society on 'The Longitudinal Stability of Aeroplane Gliders'. In 1911 he published his book, Stability in Aviation. In 1915 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Society for his work, in which year he read the Wilbur Wright Memorial lecture on 'The Rigid Dynamics of Circling Flight'.
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G H C HAMILTON

Brigadier-General G H C Hamilton was a British soldier. He was born in 1852. He joined the 14th Hussars in 1875 and spent over five years in the ranks. He was aide-de-camp to Major-General Madras from 1877 to 1878 and served in the Afghan War of 1878. He was aide-de-camp to Sir Samuel Browne, 1st Peshawur Field Force from 18979 to 1880. He served in the Boer War of 1881 with the 14th Hussars and was made a Captain in 1885. He was Adjutant to the Yeomanry Cavalry from 1888 to 1893 and made a Major in 1893. He was made a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1899 and a full Colonel in 1900 before becoming Brigadier-General commanding the 4th Cavalry Brigade in South Africa in November 1900.
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G. MENNEN WILLIAMS

G Mennen Williams was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Michigan from 1949 until 1960.
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GA

The Ga are a Negroid people of west Africa living chiefly in southern Ghana.
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GABAR

The Gabar (Gheber) were the original inhabitants of Iran. They practised Zoroastrianism, and after the invasion of their country by Arabs the Gabar were cast out. Today the Gabar (Gheber) are an Iranian religious sect practising a modern version of Zoroastrianism.
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GABBY LOGAN

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Gabby Logan is an English television presenter. She was named Sports Presenter of the Year 2001 by the British Television and Radio Industries Club.
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GABRIEL CHIABRERA

Gabriel Lo Chiabera was an Italian poet. He was born in 1552 and died in 1637. He wrote various kinds of poems, and imitated Pindar and Anacreon in odes and canzonets, not unsuccessfully.
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GABRIEL DERZHAWIN

Gabriel Romanowitch Derzhawin was a Russian lyric poet. He was born in 1743 and died in 1816. He entered the army as a private soldier, distinguished himself highly, and was eventually transferred to the civil service, in which he obtained the highest offices. In 1803 he retired from public life and devoted himself entirely to poetry. One of his most beautiful poems is the Oda Bog, or Address to the Deity.
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GABRIEL DUVAL

Gabriel Duval was an American politician. He was born in 1752 and died in 1844. He represented Maryland in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1794 to 1796. He was a Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1811 to 1836.
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GABRIEL FAHRENHEIT

Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit was a German scientist. He was born in 1686 at Dantzig and died in 1736. He gave up his business and moved to Amsterdam to study natural philosophy, and there invented the mercury thermometer. He invented the Fahrenheit scale of temperature, with zero based upon the lowest point the mercury in his thermometer dropped to in the winter of 1709.
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GABRIEL FAURE

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Gabriel Urbain Faure was a French composer. He was born in 1845 at Parniers and died in 1924.
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GABRIEL HOLMES

Gabriel Holmes was an American politician. He was a governor of North Carolina from 1821 until 1824.
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GABRIEL MONTGOMERY

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Gabriel Montgomery (Comte de Montgomery) was a French knight of Scottish origin. He was born in 1530 and died in 1574. He accidentally killed Henry II of France in a tournament, and fled to England where he became a protestant. On the outbreak of the Huguenot wars he returned to France became one of the Protestant leaders. He was executed in Paris following his surrender at Domfont in Normandy.
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GABRIEL MOORE

Gabriel Moore was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Alabama from 1829 until 1831.
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GABRIEL SLAUGHTER

Gabriel Slaughter was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Kentucky from 1819 until 1820.
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GABRIEL VOISIN

Gabriel Voisin was a French aviation pioneer. He was born in 1886. From the age of 20 Gabriel Voisin worked on the construction of flying models and began to learn to glide. Aeroplanes Voisin was the first firm to be founded for the construction of heavier-than-air craft, being founded in 1905. During the years 1906 to 1913 the Voisin Brothers constructed many experimental machines, including the famous Voisin box kite upon which many early pilots learnt to fly. During the Great War the firm built a large number of fighting aircraft, but following the War they went into the motor-car industry and produced no new aircraft.
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GABRIELE D'ANNUNZIO

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Gabriele D'Annunzio was an Italian poet, novelist, dramatist and politician. He was born in 1863 and died in 1938. Educated at Prato and in Rome, at an early stage he took to literature and journalism, and was elected a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1898, in which he joined the Socialist party. He came before the public when a school-boy with a volume of verse called Prime Vere, to which others - naturally much more mature - were subsequently added. Several of his novels have been published in English, as: The Child of Pleasure, The Victim, The Triumph of Death, The Virgin of the Rocks, The Fire of Life. Some of these have been very successful, though disfigured to some extent by coarse realism and voluptuousness. He began to write plays later in life. Among them Gioconda, The Dead City, and Francesca da Rimini may be read in English versions, and Gioconda and Francesca have been performed on the English stage.

He served as a volunteer during the Great War, and in 1919 siezed Fiume and ruled as a dictator until removed by the Italian government. With the ascent of Mussolini and the Fascist part, Gabriele D'Annunzio became a strong supporter of both Facism and of Mussolini.
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GABRIELE D'ANNUNZIO

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Gabriele d'Annunzio was an Italian writer, adventurer and politician. He was born in 1863 at Pescara and died in 1938. He started his career as a journalist on the Tribuna at Rome, and then in 1879 became noted for his poetry and later was an ardent fascist and supporter of Mussolini. He is best known for his trilogy of novels 'Romances of the Rose'.
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GABRIELE ROSSETTI

Gabriele Rossetti was an Italian poet and patriot. He was born in 1783 at Vasto and died in 1854. He was forced to leave Italy and in 1824 he came to London, where he was appointed to the Italian professorship at King's College.
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GABRIELLE D'ESTREES

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Gabrielle d'Estrees was a mistress of Henry IV of France. She was born in 1573 and died in 1599. She was famous for both her beauty and her scandalous lifestyle. She was married to Nicolas d'Amerval but left him in 1592 to become Henry's mistress. It was said that it was only her death that prevented Henry from marrying her and raising her to the throne.
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GABRIELLO BARLETTA

Gabriello Barletta was an Italian monk. He was born in the 15th century in the kingdom of Naples. He became famous at Naples on account of his sermons, in which he mixed sarcasm and the ludicrous with the sacred; quoting, now Virgil, now Moses; placing David at the side of Hercules;
and commencing a sentence in Italian to continue it in Latin and end it in Greek. Sometimes he forgot himself so far as to use expressions of which he had not considered the signification, as when he asked by what signs the Samaritan knew Jesus was a Jew. There is under his name a collection of Latin sermons, which have gone through more than twenty editions.
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GABRIELLO FALLOPIUS

Gabriello Fallopius was an Italian anatomist. He was born in 1523 at Modena and died in 1562. He discovered the ovarian tubes in the human female, named the vagina and placenta and investigated muscles in the head.
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GACHUPIN

Gachupin is an American term for a Spaniard.
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GAD

The Gad (meaning a troop) were one of the twelve tribes of Israel, which took its name from Gad, the son of Jacob and Zillah. At the time of the exodus the tribe numbered 45,650 men of twenty years old and upwards: and as being a pastoral tribe they were assigned a rich district in Gilead between Reuben and Manasseh.
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GADDO GADDI

Gaddo Gaddi was a Florentine worker in mosaic and the founder of the modern mosaic art. He was born in 1249 and died in 1312.
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GAEL

Gael (Gadhel) is the name of the branch of Celts inhabiting Scotland, Ireland and the Isle Of Man. *Gael Albinnich
Gael Albinnich are the Gael people of the Scottish Highlands.
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GAEL ERINNICH

Gael Erinnich is the division of the Gael people living in Ireland.
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GAETAN PUGNANI

Gaetan Pugnani was an Italian violen player. He was born in 1727 at Turin and died in 1803. He founded the Italian school of violinists.
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GAETANO CASATI

Gaetano Casati was an Italian explorer. He was born in 1838 at Lesmo and died in 1902. At the request of the Commercial Geographical Society of Milan he undertook a journey to the Sudan, during which he explored the region of the river Welle-Makua and in 1881 met the German traveller Junker. In 1883 he arrived at Lado, where he joined Emin Pasha. In 1888 he had a narrow escape, being condemned to death by Kabba Rega, king of Unyoro, to whom he was sent on a mission by Emin Pasha. In 1889 he returned to Italy.
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GAETANO DONIZETTI

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Gaetano Donizetti was an Italian operatic composer. He was born in 1797 at Bergamo and died in 1848. He studied music at Bologna under the distinguished Abbe Mattei and in the Naples Conservatoire and later joined the Army. While a soldier he wrote his first opera, Enrico di Borgogna, in 1818. In 1822 his Zoraide di Granata gained him the honour of being crowned on the Capitol. In 1830 appeared his Anna Bolena, which first, along with Lucrezia Borgia and Lucia di Lammermoor - the latter his masterpiece - acquired for him a European fame. In 1835 Donizetti was appointed professor of counterpoint at the Royal College of Naples, but removed in 1840 to Paris, bringing with him three new operas, Les Martyrs, La Favorita, and La Fille du Regiment, of which the last two are amongst his most popular productions. Of his other operas none except Linda di Chamouni (1842) and Don Pasquale (1843) achieved any special triumph. He had written as many as sixty-four operas when he died.
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GAETANO FILANGIERI

Gaetano Filangieri was an Italian writer. He was born in 1752 and died in 1788. Of a noble family, he studied law, and soon became distinguished in his profession by his learning and eloquence. His life was mainly devoted to a great work, La Scienza della Legislazione (The Science of Legislation), which was characterized by great fearlessness of speech in the advocacy of reforms, and was condemned by an ecclesiastical decree in 1784.
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GAFFER

Gaffer is a shortening of the term grandfather, and means a respectable and good old man.

Gaffer is a term for a foreman of a gang of labourers or similar.
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GAIUS CATULLUS

Gaius Valerius Catullus was a Roman lyric poet. He was born at Verona in 84 BC and died in 54 BC. He was the friend of Marcus Cicero, of Plancus, Cinna, and Cornelius Nepos; to the last he dedicated the collection of his poems. Almost all the known details of his life are derived by inference from his works, and relate to such matters as his passion for Lesbia, his journey to Bithynia, and voyage home in his yacht, his pleasant villa on Lake Benacus, etc. He was the first of the Romans who successfully caught the Greek lyric spirit, and gave to Roman literature its most genuine songs.
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GAIUS TREBONIUS

Gaius Trebonius was a Roman soldier and tribune. Caesar made him a lieutenant in Gaul. As tribune of the people, in 55 BC he introduced a bill to prolong Caesar's command in Gaul and the administration of the provinces allotted to caesar, Pompey and Marcus Crassus. Despite receibing favours from caesar and being made consul in 45 BC he was one of the conspirators against Caesar, and after his death went to Asia where in 43 BC he was ambushed at Smyrna by Dolabella and killed.
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GALEAZZO ALESSI

Galeazzo Alessi was a distinguished Italian architect. He was born in 1512 at Perugia and died in 1572. Many palaces, villas, and churches were erected after his designs.
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GALENISTS

Galenists was the name of the body of controversialists who, appealing to the authority of Claudius Galen, opposed the introduction of chemical ;md alchemical methods of treatment into medicine. They adhered to the ancient formulas, which prescribed preparations of herbs and roots by infusion, decoction, etc, while the chemists professed to extract essences and quintessences by calcination, digestion, fermentation, etc. Neither body possessed a monopoly of the truth, and modern medicine combines the better elements in each method.
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GALGACUS

Galgacus was a chieftain of the Caledonian tribes, who in 84 AD resisted Agricola's invasion of Scotland, but was defeated in a great battle near the Grampian mountains.
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GALIBI

The Galibi are an American Indian people of French Guiana.
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GALILEO

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Galileo Galilee was an Italian physicist. He was born in 1564 at Pisa and died in 1642. The son of a Florentine nobleman, his father intended him to go into medicine and procured for him an excellent education in literature and the arts, and in 1581 he entered the University of Pisa. At nineteen the swinging of a lamp in Pisa cathedral led him to investigate the laws of the oscillation of the pendulum, which he subsequently applied in the measurement of time; and in 1586 the works of Archimedes suggested his invention of the hydrostatic balance. He now devoted his attention exclusively to mathematics and natural science, and in 1589 was made professor of mathematics in the University of Pisa.

In 1592 he was appointed professor of mathematics in Padua, where he continued eighteen years, and his lectures acquired European fame. Here he made the important discovery that the spaces through which a body falls, in equal times, increase as the numbers 1, 3, 5, 7. If he did not invent he improved the thermometer, and made some interesting observations on the magnet. To the telescope, which in Holland remained not only imperfect but useless, he gave a new importance. He noted the irregularity of the moon's surface, and taught his scholars to measure the height of its mountains by their shadow.

A particular nebula he resolved into individual stars, and conjectured that the Milky Way might be resolved in the same manner. His most remarkable discovery was that of Jupiter's satellites in 1610, and he observed, though imperfectly, the ring of Saturn. He also detected the sun's spots, and inferred, from their regular advance from east to west, the rotation of the sun, and the inclination of its axis to the plane of the ecliptic.

In 1610 Cosmo II, grand-duke of Tuscany, appointed him grand-ducal mathematician and philosopher, and with increased leisure he lived sometimes in Florence, and sometimes at the country seat of his friend Salviata, where he gained a decisive victory for the Copernican system by the discovery of the varying phases of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. In 1611 he visited Rome for the first time, where he was honourably received; but on his return to Florence he became more and more involved in controversy, which gradually took a theological turn.

The, monks preached against him, and in 1616 he found himself again obliged to proceed to Rome, where he is doubtfully said to have pledged himself to abstain from promulgating his astronomical views. In 1623 Galileo replied to an attack upon him in his Saggiatore, a masterpiece of eloquence, which drew upon him the fury of the Jesuits. In 1632, with the permission of the pope, he published a dialogue expounding the Copernican system as against the Ptolemaic. A congregation of cardinals, monks, and mathematicians, all sworn enemies of Galileo, examined his work, condemned it as highly dangerous, and summoned him before the tribunal of the Inquisition. The veteran philosopher was compelled to go to Rome early in 1633, and was condemned to renounce upon his knees the truths he had maintained. At the moment when he arose, he is said (but this is doubtful) to have exclaimed, in an undertone, stamping his foot, 'E pur si muove!' (and yet it moves!). Upon this he was sentenced to the dungeons of the Inquisition for an indefinite time, and every week, for three years, was to repeat the seven penitential psalms of David. After a few days' detention his sentence of imprisonment was commuted to banishment to the villa of the Grand-duke of Tuscany at Rome, and then to the archiepiscopal palace at Sienna.

He was afterwards allowed to return to his residence at Arcetri, near Florence, where he employed his last years principally in the study of mechanics and projectiles. The results are found in two important works on the laws of motion, the foundation of the present system of physics and astronomy. At the same time he tried to make use of Jupiter's satellites for the calculation of longitudes; and though he brought nothing to perfection in this branch, he was the first who reflected systematically on such a method of fixing geographical longitudes. He was at this time afflicted with a disease in his eyes, one of which was wholly blind and the other almost useless, when, in 1637, he discovered the libration of the moon.

Domestic troubles and disease embittered the last years of Galileo's life. After his death his remains were ultimately deposited in the church of Sta. Croce, at Florence.
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GALLAS

The Gallas are a Hamitic people of East Africa, mainly Kenya and Ethiopia. They are tall, with dark brown skin, wiry bodies. Their nose is often straight or arched and they have moderate lips.
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GALLEY-SLAVE

A Galley-slave is a person condemned to work at the oar on board a galley, being chained to the deck. This mode of punishment was common in France prior to 1748.
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GALLIENUS

P Licinius Gallienus was a Roman emperor, associated with his father Valerianus until the capture of the latter by the Persians in 260, when Gallienus continued to reign alone. His empire was limited by the revolt of most of the legions in the provinces, who chose their commanders as Caesars, and thus gave rise to the period known as the 'Time of the Thirty Tyrants.' Though given up to pleasure, he defeated the Goths in Thrace and Postumus in Gaul, and forced Aureolus, whom the legions of Illyria had proclaimed emperor, to take refuge in Milan. While making preparations to reduce that town he himself was assassinated in 268 AD.
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GAM

In Assam, Gam is the title of a village headman.
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GAMAL NASSER

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Gamal Abdel Nasser was Prime Minister of Egypt from 1954 until 1956. He was born in 1918 and died in 1970. He was one of the leaders of the coup that deposed King Farouk in 1952 and became premier in 1954. His nationalization of the Suez Canal in 1956 led to an international crisis, and during his presidency Egypt was twice defeated by Israel.
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GANDHI

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Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian national leader. He was born in 1869 and died in 1948. He sought Indian independence through non-violent civil disobedience which earned him great respect.
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GARBLER

A garbler was formerly an officer of the city of London, vested with power to enter any shop, warehouse, etc, to examine drugs and Spices, and garble (sift out the coarse parts, dirt, etc) and make clean the same, or see that it were done. The office was extinct by the end of the 19th century.
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GARCILASO DE LA VEGA

Garcilaso de la Vega (properly Garcias Laso de la Vega) was a Spanish poet, He was born in 1500 or 1503 at Toledo and died in 1536. He went in his youth to the Spanish court, and in 1529 distinguished himself in the Spanish corps serving against the Turks in Austria. An intrigue with a lady of the court led to his imprisonment on an island in the Danube, where several of his poems were composed. In 1529 he was engaged in the expedition against Soliman, and in 1535 in that against Tunis. He was made commander of thirty companies of infantry in 1536, and accompanied the imperial army against Marseilles, but was mortally wounded in attempting to scale a tower near Frejus. He died at Nice in that year, and was buried at Toledo. His name is associated with that of his contemporary Boscan in the impetus given to Spanish literature by the imitation of the Italian poetic style as exemplified in Francesco Petrarch, Ariosto, and Jacopo Sannazaro. His works, which consist of eclogues, epistles, odes, songs, sonnets, etc, are graceful and musical.
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GARCILASO DE LA VEGA 2

Garcilaso de la Vega; or Garcias Laso de la Vega was a Peruvian historian. The son of Garcilaso de la Vega, one of the conquerors of Peru, and a princess of the race of the Incas, he was born in 1530 or 1540 at Cuzco, Peru and died in 1616 or 1620. Having fallen under the groundless suspicion of the Spanish government he was sent home in 1560. His great work on the history of Peru is in two parts: the first entitled Los Comentarios Reales que tratan del Origen de los Incas, etc (published in Lisbon in 1609); the second, the Historia general del Peru (published in Cordova in 1616). He wrote also Historia de la Florida (published in Lisbon in 1609).
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GARNET WOLSELEY

Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley (Viscount Wolseley) was a British soldier. He was born in 1833 near Dublin and died in 1913. The son of Major Garnet Wolseley he entered the army as ensign in 1852 and took part in the second Burmese war of 1852-1853, where he was severely wounded; served with distinction in the Crimea, and was wounded at the siege of Sebastopol; engaged in the siege and capture of Lucknow during the Indian mutiny of 1857-1858; and was employed in 1860 in the Chinese war. He was despatched to Canada in 1861, and again in 1867, having received command of the Red River expedition, which he carried to a successful issue. Three years afterwards Wolseley (now KCMG and a major-general) was appointed to the command of an expedition to punish the King of Ashantee, and after a brief campaign he entered Coomassie in February 1874 and received the submission of the king, being rewarded by a grant of 25,000 pounds and the dignity of KCB.

After the defeat of a British force by the Zulus in South Africa in 1879 he was despatched as high commissioner, but before his arrival the Zulus had been defeated at Uluudi, and little remained for him to do. His next command was in Egypt in 1882, where his forces successfully stormed the lines of Tel-el-Kebir and captured Arabi Pasha. For this he received the thanks of parliament and was created a baron, his army rank being also raised to that of general. His next appointment was as adjutant-general of the forces. When the Mahdi subdued the Soudan, and held General Gordon prisoner in Khartoum, Wolseley was despatched in 1884 with a relief expedition. He concentrated his forces at Korti, and sent a column across the desert to Khartoum, but the place had fallen.

In 1885 he was created a viscount, in 1890-1895 was commander-in-chief in Ireland, in 1894 made field-marshal; commander-in-chief of the army, 1895-1900 during which time he carried out reforms of the British army and mobilised forces for the Boer War of 1899-1902. He was the author of Narrative of the War with China, the Soldier's Pocket Book, Life of the Duke of Marlborough etc.
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GARO

The Garo are a tribe of Mongoloid peoples inhabiting the Garo Hills of Assam, India and Bangladesh.
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GARRET D. WALL

Garret D Wall was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey during 1829.
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GARREY CARRUTHERS

Garrey Carruthers was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of New Mexico from 1987 until 1991.
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GARY PLAYER

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Gary Player is a South African golfer. He was born in 1935. He was Open champion in 1959 and 1968 and US Open Champion in 1961.
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GARY SOBERS

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Sir Garfield St Auburn Sobers (popularly known as Gary Sobers) is a West Indian cricketer. He was born in 1936 at Bridgetown, Barbados. He played for Nottinghamshire - captaining them from 1968 to 1974, South Australia and the West Indies, captaining the West Indies from 1965 to 1974. He retired from cricket in 1975 and was knighted the same year. An outstanding left-handed batsman in 1958 at the Test match against Pakistan he set the world record for the highest Test innings score, scoring 365 not out, a record which stood until Brian Lara made 375 against England in 1994. He was the first player to score the maximum 36, from six sixes in one over, which he achieved in county cricket against Glamorgan at Swansea in 1968.
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GASPAR BECERRA

Gaspar Becerra was a Spanish painter and sculptor. He was born in 1520 and died in 1570. He studied under Michel Angelo at Rome, and is credited with the chief share in the establishment of the fine arts in Spain.
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GASPAR CORTEREAL

Gaspar Cortereal was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in Lisbon and died in 1501. He received a license from the King of Portugal to make a voyage of discovery in 1500. He is reported to have visited a country far to the North, which was probably Greenland. He made a second voyage with three ships in 1501, during which he sailed for six or seven hundred miles along the coast of America before disappearing.
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GASPAR CRAYER

Gaspar Crayer was a a Dutch painter. He was born in 1582 at Antwerp and died in 1669. He gained a great reputation as a historical and portrait painter. He painted a great number of altar-pieces for Ghent, Brussels, and other cities of the Netherlands, and received high praise from Rubens.
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GASPAR DE GUZMAN

Gaspar de Guzman (Count of Olivarez) was a Spanish statesman. He was born in 1587 and died in 1645. He was educated at the University of Salamanca, afterwards appointed gentleman of the bed-chamber to the Prince of Asturias, and when his royal master succeeded to the throne as Philip IV he was appointed prime-minister. For twenty-two years from 1621 until 1643 his power was almost unlimited, but the severity of his administration ultimately caused revolt in Catalonia and Andalusia, while the Portuguese declared independence. The end of his policy was public discontent and his own private disgrace. He was confined by the king at Toro, where he died.
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GASPAR DE JOVELLANOS

Gaspar Melchior de Jovellanos was a Spanish statesman and writer. He was born in 1744 and died in 1811. It is mainly as a political economist and legist that he stands in the front rank as a Spanish writer; but he also wrote satires and miscellaneous pieces, a tragedy (El Pelayo), etc.
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GASPAR GIL POLO

Gaspar Gil Polo was a Spanish poet. He was born about 1517 at Valencia and died in 1572. His reputation was established by his Diana Enamorada, a pastoral romance, partly in prose and partly in verse. Cervantes excepts the Diana of Polo from his list (in Don Quixote) of works condemned to be burned. It has been translated into French, English, and Latin.
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GASPAR POUSSIN

Gaspar Poussin was a French landscape-painter. He was born in 1613 at Rome and died about 1675. His real name was Dughet; but having been placed under the instructions of the celebrated Nicolas Poussin, who had married his sister, he assumed the surname of his master. He lived mostly in Rome or its neighbourhood, and had extraordinary facility of execution, so that his works are very numerous, specimens being found in all the chief collections in Europe. His paintings are distinguished by grandeur and rather sombre characteristics, and storms or high winds were subjects in which he excelled although he was also highly successful with morning and evening effects.
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GASPARD BAUHIN

Gaspard Bauhin was a Swiss botanist. He was born in 1560 at Basel in 1560 and died in 1624. In 1580 he was elected to the Greek chair at Basel, and in 1589 to that of anatomy and botany. His fame rests chiefly on his Pinax Theatri Botanici and Theatnun Botanicum. Linnaeus gave his name to a genus of plants.
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GASPARD DE COLIGNY

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Gaspard de Coligny was a French admiral. He was born in 1517 and died in 1572. He distinguished himself under Francis I and Henry II., who made him in 1552 Admiral of France. After the death of Henry II. Gaspard de Coligny took the Protestant side in the religious strifes of the time, and became the head of the Huguenot party. He was generally unfortunate in the battles he fought, but speedily repaired his defeats by prudence and good management. When peace was made Gaspard de Coligny was received with apparent favour at court. But this was only a blind; and on the night of St Bartholomew's (August the 24th, 1572) Gaspard de Coligny was murdered and his corpse given up to the outrages of the mob.
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GASPARD MONGE

Gaspard Monge was a French mathematician and natural philosopher. He was born in 1746 and died in 1818.
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GASPARDO LANDI

Gaspardo Landi was an Italian painter. He was born in 1756 at Piacenza and died in 1830. He studied in Rome under Corvi and Batoni, and was elected to the Academy of St Luke, of which he was president from 1817 to 1830.
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GASPARO BALBI

Gaparo Baibi was a Venetian dealer in precious stones. He was born about the middle of the sixteenth century. He travelled first to Aleppo and thence down the Euphrates and Tigris to the Malabar coast, sailing finally for Pegu, where he remained for two years. His Viaggio all' Indie Orientale, published on his return to Venice in 1590, contains the earliest account of India beyond the Ganges.
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GASTON BACHELARD

Gaston Bachelard was a French philosopher and scientist. He was born in 1884 and died in 1962. He argued for a creative interplay between reason and experience. He attacked both Cartesian and positivist positions, insisting that science was derived neither from first principles nor directly from experience.
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GASTON DE FOIX

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Gaston de Foix, Duke of Nemours, was a French soldier. He was born in 1489 and died in 1512. The son of John de Foix, count d'Estampes, and Mary of Orleans, sister of Louis XII, whose favourite he became. At the age of twenty-three he routed a Swiss army, rapidly crossed four rivers, drove the pope from Bologna, and won the celebrated battle of Ravenna in 1512, but was killed while attempting to cut off a body of retreating Spaniards.
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GASTON MASPERO

Gaston Vamille Charles Maspero was a French Egyptologist. He was born in 1846 at Paris and died in 1916. He began to study Egyptology at an early age, in 1869 he was appointed professor of the Egyptian language and archaeology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and in 1874 became professor of Egyptian philology and archaeology at the College de France.

Sent to Egypt in 1880 as head of a government archaeological mission, he succeeded Mariette in the following year in the directorship of excavations and antiquities. He founded and directed an archaeological institute at Cairo, and carried out many important excavations, but in 1886 he returned to France to resume his duties at the College. In 1899 he again went to Egypt as director of excavations and antiquities.

His great work is Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de L'Orient (1875, revised in three volumes 1894-99). The three volumes of the later edition have been translated into English under the titles The Dawn of Civilisation (1894) The Struggle of the Nations (1896), and The Passing of the Empires (1900). His other works include Etudes Egyptiennes (1886-1891), Archeologie Egyptienne (1887), Lectures Historiques (1890), Etudes de Mythologie et d'Archeologie Egyptienne (1893), besides contributions to the Memoires of the French Archaeological Mission at Cairo, etc.
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GATHERER

A gatherer is a person who blows glass. A gatherer was formerly a title for a bookbinder.
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GAUCHOS

The Gauchos are a native people of the Pampas of the La Plata countries in South America. They are descended from the Spanish invaders and are noted for their strong will, independence, horsemanship and skill with a lasso.
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GAUDENZIO FERRARI

Gaudenzio Ferrari was an Italian painter. He was born in 1480 at Piedmont and died in 1546. He became famous during his lifetime, and painted numerous frescoes for the churches of the Duchy of Milan, as well as the altar-piece in the Church of San Gaudenzio at Novara.
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GAVARNI

Gavarni was the assumed name of Sulpice Paukl Chevalier, a French caricaturist. He was born in 1801 at Paris and died in 1866. Originally a mechanical draughtsman, he began his artistic career in 1835 by designing costumes for theatres and journals of fashion. He then established
Les Gens du Monde; but the journal was a failure, and he spent some time in the debtor's prison of Clichy. On his release he was employed upon the Charivari, the success of which was due in great part to his genius. His best known works are Les Enfants Terribles, Les Reves, Les Fourberies de Femmes, and Impressions de Menages. In 1847 he visited England, and the sketches which he sent from St Giles, London, to L'Illustration created an immense sensation. He afterwards illustrated Eugene Sue's Wandering Jew, Balzac's novels, and other works.
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GAVIN DOUGLAS

Gavin Douglas was a Scottish poet and Bishop of Dunkeld. He was born in 1474 and died in 1522. He translated the Aeneid into English, the first time a classical poem had been translated into English.
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GAVIN HAMILTON

Gavin Hamilton was a Scottish painter. He was born in about 1730 at Lanark and died in 1797. He studied at Rome, devoting himself to historic painting. In 1773 he published at Rome a folio volume, The Italian School of Painting, illustrated with splendid plates. His illustrations of Homer are amongst his best productions. He was very successful also as a discoverer of classical antiquities.
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GAVRILO PRINCIP

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Gavrilo Princip (Gavrilo Prinzip) was a Serbian nationalist. He was born in 1895 at Bosnia and died in 1918. A member of the Serbian secret organisation the 'Black Hand' he was dedicated to independence for the South Slav people from the Austro-Hungarian empire, and to this end on the 28th of June 1914 he assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria, and his wife Sophie while they were visiting Sarajevo. A bomb was first thrown at the carriage of the royal couple by Cabrinovitch, but the archduke flung it aside. Later, while driving along a narrow street Gavrilo Princip shot the couple, and was arrested.
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GAWIN DOUGLAS

Gawin Douglas was a Scottish poet. He was born in 1474 at Brechin and died in 1522 of the plague. He was the son of Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus and received a liberal education, commenced at home and completed at the University of Paris. On returning to Scotland he took orders in the church, and ultimately became Bishop of Dunkeld. He translated Virgil's AEneid into verse with much spirit and elegance, prefixing original prologues to the different books of the original. This was the first poetical translation into English of any classical author. It was written about 1512, and first published in 1553. He also wrote The Palace of Honour and King Hart, both allegorical poems.
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GAYLORD A. NELSON

Gaylord A Nelson was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Wisconsin from 1959 until 1963.
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GEBER

Geber was an Arabian chemist or alchemist, often designated the father of chemistry. He lived during the 8th century. He was acquainted with nearly all the chemical processes in use down to the 18th century. His writings describe various kinds of furnaces and other apparatus, and cupellation, distillation, and other chemical processes; the purification, composition, and properties of the metals then known - gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, and iron, and the functions of mercury, sulphur, and arsenic. He is the reputed author of an immense number of works, as well on metaphysics, language, astronomy, etc, as on chemistry.
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GEBHARD BLUCHER

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Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher was a Prussian soldier. He was born in 1742 at Rostock and died in 1819. He entered the Swedish service when 14 years of age and fought against the Prussians, but was taken prisoner in his first campaign, and was induced to enter the Prussian service. Discontented at the promotion of another officer over his head, he left the army, devoted himself to agriculture, and by industry and prudence acquired an estate.

After the death of Frederick II he became a major in his former regiment, which he commanded with distinction on the Rhine in 1793 and 1794. After the battle of Kirrweiler in 1794 he was appointed major-general of the army of observation stationed on the Lower Rhine, In 1802, in the name of the King of Prussia, he took possession of Erfurt and Muhlhausen. On October the 14th, 1806, he fought at the battle of Auerstadt. After the Peace of Tilsit he laboured in the department of war at Konigsberg and Berlin. He then received the chief military command in Pomerania, but at the instigation of Napoleon was afterwards, with several other distinguished men, dismissed from the service.

In the campaign of 1812, when the Prussians assisted the French, he took no part; but no sooner did Prussia rise against her oppressors than Blucher, then seventy years old, engaged in the cause with all his former activity, and was appointed commander-in-chief of the Prussians and the Russian corps under General Winzingerode. His heroism in the battle of Ltitzen on May the 2nd, 1813 was rewarded by the Emperor Alexander with the order of St George. The battles of Bautzen and Hanau, those on the Katzbach and Leipzig, added to his glory. He was now raised to the rank of field-marshal, and led the Prussian army which invaded France early in 1814. After a period of obstinate conflict the day of Montmartre crowned this campaign, and, on March the 31st, Blucher entered the capital of France. His king, in remembrance of the victory which he had gained at the Katzbach, created him Prince of Wahlstadt, and gave him an estate in Silesia.

On the renewal of the war in 1815 the chief command was again committed to him, and he led his army into the Netherlands. On June the 15th Napoleon threw himself upon him, and Blucher, on the 16th, was defeated at Ligny. In this engagement his horse was killed, and he was thrown under his body. In the battle of the 18th Blucher arrived at the most decisive moment upon the ground, and taking Napoleon in the rear and flank assisted materially in completing the great victory of Belle Alliance or the Battle of Waterloo. He was a rough and fearless soldier, noted for his energy and rapid movements, which had procured him the name of ' Marshal Vorwarts' (Forward).
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GEISHA

A geisha is a Japanese female professional entertainer. They undergo a long training in singing, conversation and etiquette and often contract with tea- houses. It is an honourable profession, often combined with prostitution.
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GELASIUS I

Gelasius I was a pope who held the see from 492-496, founding on the alleged primacy of Peter, was one of the first who openly maintained that the Roman bishop alone was entitled to regulate matters of faith and discipline, though in practice he had not then attained any such superiority.
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GELASIUS II

Gelasius II was a pope. He was pope for only one year 1118 - 1119, and originally called John of Gaeta. He was elected by the party hostile to Henry V, but was obliged to give way to Gregory VIII, supported by the emperor, and shortly after died in the monastery of Clugny.
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GELIMER

Gelimer was king of the Vandals from 530 to 534. He was a great-grandson of Genseric, and usurped the throne of his cousin Hilderic in 530, but was defeated by Belisarius at Carthage in 533, and at Bulla in Numidia, where he was taken prisoner, and the Vandal kingdom in Africa overthrown.
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GELON

Gelon was an ancient Greek ruler. He was tyrant of Gela, and afterwards of Syrracuse. Afetr the death of Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, he seized the sovereign power in 491 BC, and about 485 BC gained possession of Syracuse. From this time he bent all his energies to the aggrandizement of his new Capitol, the power and importance of which he greatly increased by his conquests and good government. His aid was sought by the Greeks against Xerxes, but a formidable invasion of Carthaginians under Hamilcar engaged him in Sicily. The result was the total defeat of the Carthaginians in the great battle of Himera in 480 BC. It is celebrated in an ode by Pindar. Gelon died in 478 BC, and was succeeded by his brother Hieron.
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GENE PITNEY

Gene Pitney was an American singer and songwriter. He was born in 1941 at Hartford, Connecticut and died in 2006. Although best known for his song '24 Hours From Tulas' - which he performed, but didn't write - he wrote the hits 'Rubber Ball' which was a hit for Bobby Vee and 'Hello Mary Lou' which was a success for Ricky Nelson.
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GENE TUNNEY

Gene Tunney was an American boxer. He was born in 1900 and out fought Jack Dempsey for the World Heavyweight Championship in 1926 and again in 1927. He retired from boxing in 1928 and married Josephine Lauder, an American heiress.
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GENEALOGIST

A genealogist is someone who traces the descent of persons or families.
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GENERAL CHARLES GORDON

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General Charles George Gordon (known as Chinese Gordon and Gordon Pasha) was an English military leader. He was born in 1833 at Woolwich and died in 1885 following his capture during the siege of Khartoum. He entered the Royal Engineers in 1852, and served in the Crimea from 1854 to 1856. During the Taeping rebellion in China Charles Gordon succeeded in completely crushing the revolt by means of a specially-trained corps of Chinese, exhibiting marvellous feats of skilful soldiership. On his return to England with the rank of colonel he was appointed chief engineer officer at Gravesend, where his military talents and philanthropy were conspicuously displayed.

From 1874 to 1879 he was governor of the Sudan under the Khedive. For a few months in 1882 he held an appointment at the Cape, and he had just accepted a mission to the Congo from the king of the Belgians, when he was sent to withdraw the garrisons shut up in the Sudan by the insurgent Mahdi. He was shut up in Khartoum by the rebels, and gallantly held that town for a whole year. A British expeditionary force under Lord Wolseley was despatched for his relief; an advance corps of which sighted Khartoum on the 24th of January, 1885, to find that the town had been treacherously betrayed into the hands of the Mahdi two days before, and Charles Gordon killed. Charles Gordon's character was marked by strong religious feelings, which latterly became so intensified as to make him somewhat of a religious enthusiast and fatalist.
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GENERAL FRANCO

General Francisco Franco was the dictator of Spain. He was born in 1892. He rose to power during the Spanish Civil War.
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GENERAL MARSHALL

General George Marshall was an American General and statesman. He was born in 1880 and died in 1959. He was chief of staff during the Second World War.
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GENGHIS KHAN

Genghis Khan (Jenghiz Kahn, Genghiz Kahn) was a Mongolian chieftain and warrior. He was born in 1162 and died in 1227. His father was chief over thirty or forty clans, but paid tribute to the Tartar Khan. He succeeded his father when only fourteen years of age, and made himself master of the neighbouring tribes. A great number of tribes now combined their forces against him. But he found a powerful protector in the great Khan of the Karaite Mongols, Oung, or Ung, who gave him his daughter in marriage. After much intestine warfare with various Tartar tribes Genghis was proclaimed Khan of the United Mongol and Tartar tribes. He now professed to have a divine call to conquer the world, and the idea so animated the spirit of his soldiers that they were easily led on to new wars.

The country of the Uigurs, in the centre of Tartary, had long excited his ambition. This nation was easily subdued, and Genghis Khan was now master of the greatest part of Tartary. Soon after several Tartar tribes put themselves under his dominion, and in 1209 he passed the great wall of China. The conquest of China occupied the Mongols more than six years. The capital, then called Yenking, now Beijing, was taken by storm in 1215 and plundered. The murder of the ambassadors whom Genghis Khan had sent to the King of Kharism (now Khiva) occasioned the invasion of Turkestan in 1218 with an army of 700,000 men; and the two cities of Bokhara and Samarcand were stormed, pillaged, and burned. Seven years in succession was the conqueror busy in the work of destruction, pillage, and subjugation, and extended his ravages to the banks of the Dnieper.

In 1225, though more than sixty years old, he marched in person at the head of his whole army against the King of Tangut (South-western China), who had given shelter to two of his enemies, and had refused to give them up. A great battle was fought, in which the King of Tangut was totally defeated with the loss of 300,000 men. The victor remained some time in his newly-subdued provinces, from which he also sent two of his sons to complete the conquest of Northern China. At his death his immense dominions were divided among his four sons.
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GENS

In Roman history, a gens was a clan or stock embracing several families united together by a common name and certain religious rites; as, the Fabian gens, all having Pabius as part of their personal name; the Julian gens, all named Julius; the Cornelian gens, etc.
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GENSERIC

Genseric was a Vandal king. Having obtained joint possession of the throne of Spain with his brother Gonderic, he crossed the Straits of Gibraltar with 50,000 men in 429, on the invitation of Bonifacius, the Roman governor of Africa, to assist him against the Moors. He, however, soon declared his independence, and, having completely defeated Bonifacius, founded a kingdom, which, in 439, had its seat at Carthage. He collected a powerful fleet, ravaged the coasts of Sicily and Italy, and in 455 took and sacked Rome.Two unsuccessful attempts were made by the Eastern and Western emperors to overthrow his power, but Genseric secured all his conquests, and, notwithstanding all his cruelties, was permitted to die in peace in 477.
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GENTLEMAN

In English law, the term gentleman was applied to every man above the rank of yeomen, including noblemen; in a more limited sense, the term was applied to a man who without a title bore a coat of arms, or one who was 'a gentleman by reputation,' through belonging to some liberal profession or holding some office giving him this rank.
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GEOFFREY CHAUCER

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Geoffrey Chaucer was an English poet. He was born in 1340 at London and died in 1400. He was the son of a vintner named John Chaucer. Nothing is known of his education, but in 1356-1359 he was a page to Princess Lionel. He tells us himself that in 1359 he bore arms in France and was taken prisoner. He was ransomed next year, the king paying 16 pounds towards the necessary sum. In 1367 we find his name as a valet of the king's chamber. Whether he married his wife Philippa in 1366 or not until 1374, and who she was we do not know for certain. In 1367 he received a pension of twenty marks, and between 1370 and 1380 he was employed abroad in seven diplomatic missions. In one of these, in 1372, he was sent to Genoa as a commissioner to negotiate a commercial treaty. It is probable that he visited the Italian poet Francesco Petrarch on this occasion.

In 1374 he was appointed comptroller of the customs on wool at London, a lucrative post, and he also received an annual allowance. In 1377 he was sent to Flanders and France on diplomatic business, and next year to Lombardy. In 1382 he was appointed comptroller of the petty customs. In 1386 he was returned to parliament as knight of the shire for Kent, but in the same year he shared the disgrace of his patron, John of Gaunt, was dismissed from his coontrollerships, and reduced to a state of comparative poverty. Three years later, however, he was made clerk of the works at 2 shillings a day, and afterwards had other offices and one or two annuities bestowed upon him, but in 1394-1398 must have been quite poor.

In 1399 he got a pension of forty marks from Henry IV, but did not live long to enjoy it. His most celebrated work, The Canterbury Tales, was written at different periods between 1373 and 1400. It consists of a series of tales in verse (two in prose), supposed to be told by a company of pilgrims to the shrine of St Thomas (Becket) at Canterbury in 1386. In its pages we get such pictures of English life and English ways of thought in the 14th century as are found nowhere else. Besides his great work Chaucer wrote many poems (and others are falsely attributed to him): The Book of the Duchess (1369), The Parliament of Fowls (1374), Troilus and Cres-sida (1380-82), The Legend of Good Women (1385), The House of Fame (1386), etc, some of which are founded on French or Italian works. He also translated Boethius, and wrote a treatise on the Astrolabe (1391) for his son Lewis (who probably died early). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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GEOFFREY DE HAVILLAND

Geoffrey de Havilland was an English aircraft designer. He was born in 1882. Educated as an engineer, Geoffrey de Havilland experimented with an aeroplane of his own design and construction as early as 1908. There being no satisfactory engine available, he designed and built his own. He learnt to fly in 1911 on a machine of his own design and construction. During the years 1910 to 1914 he acted as chief designer and test pilot at the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough, and was also at this time an officer in the Royal Flying Corps Reserve. At Farnborough he produced the B.E. (Bleriot Experimental) series, culminating in the B.E.2c. Very shortly before the Great War, in June, 1914, he was engaged by Holt Thomas as chief designer to the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, better known as the 'Airco'. As soon as he joined Airco, he began to produce the famous 'DH' series of aircraft. As a designer he achieved instant success, combining sound engineering knowledge with a wide experience of flying.

At the end of 1920 de Havilland and others of Airco, again with the support of Holt Thomas, started the De Havilland Aircraft Company. The firm was largely concerned with the production of civil aircraft, which included the 'Moth' light aeroplane and the 'Moth' series - Puss Moth, Tiger Moth, Leopard Moth, etc, the 'Hercules' air liner, the 'Dragon' air liner, the 'Comet', etc. In 1927 the firm began the construction of aero engines and produced the well-known 'Gipsy' series of engines. In 1933 de Havilland won the Kings Cup Air Race, and in 1934 was awarded the British Gold Medal for Aeronautics by the Royal Aeronautical Society, the first time the medal was awarded, for his achievement in the science of aviation.
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GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH

Geoffrey of Monmouth (also known as Geoffrey ap Arthur, that is Geoffrey son of Arthur) was a British historian. He was born in 1100 and died in 1154. He sprang from the Norman settlers in Wales; became archdeacon of Monmouth, whence he was, in 1152, raised to the bishopric of St Asaph. His famous history was first published in 1128. This ' Chronicon sive Historia Britonum' is now known to be, as the compiler states, chiefly a translation from an ancient book in the Breton tongue, discovered by Walter Calenius, an archdeacon of Oxford. It contains a pretended genealogy of the kings of Britain from the time of the fabulous Brutus, or Brute, the Trojan, to the death of Cadwallader, king of Wessex, in 688. It was soon translated into French, English, and Welsh, and became a great source of romance to the writers of successive generations.
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GEOFFROY DE VILLEHARDOUIN

Geoffroy de Villehardouin was a French historian. He was born about 1160 and died about 1213. He took an important part in the fourth crusade, was present at the siege and capture of Constantinople (Istanbul), and when the Greek emperor was overthrown and Baldwin established in his stead, he received an extensive territory for himself in Thrace. His Histoire de la Conquete de Constantinople, is one of the most valuable historical works of the middle ages.
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GEORG AGRICOLA

Georg Agricola was a German physician and mineralogist. He was born in 1490 at Saxony and died in 1555, Though tinged with the superstitions of his age, he made the first successful attempt to reduce mineralogy to a science, and introduced many improvements in the art of mining.
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GEORG AST

Georg Anton Feiedeich Ast was a German scholar and philosopher. He was born in 1776 and died in 1841. He wrote on aesthetics and the history of philosophy, but is best known as an editor of Plato, whose works he published with a Latin translation and commentary.
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GEORG CALIXTUS

Georg Calixtus (Georg Callisen) was a German theologian of the Lutheran Church in the 17th century. He was born in 1586 at Schleswig and died in 1656. In 1614 he became professor of theology in Helmstedt. He wrote against the celibacy of the clergy, and proposed a reunion of Catholics and Protestants upon the basis of the Apostle's creed.
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GEORG CREUZER

Georg Friedrich Creuzer was a German philologist and archaeologist. He was born in 1771 and died in 1858. For nearly forty-five years he filled the chair of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg. He wrote on the mythology of Greece and other nations, on Greek history and literature, Rman antiquities, etc.
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GEORG CURTIUS

Georg Curtius was a German philologist. He was born in 1820 at Lubeck and died in 1862. The brother of Ernst Curtius, he is notable for his application of the comparative method to the study of the Greek and Latin languages. In 1862 he became professor of classical philology at Leipzig. Of his works a Greek Grammar, Principles of Greek Etymology, and The Greek Verb, have been translated into English.
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GEORG EBERS

Georg Moritz Ebers was a German Egyptologist and novelist. He was born in 1837 at Berlin and died in 1898. He studied at Gottingen, and afterwards at Berlin, where he devoted himself to Egyptology. In 1870 he was made professor at the University of Leipzig, but he had to resign in 1889. He made more than one visit to Egypt. His most important works have been translated into English, such as Egypt, Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, and the novels, An Egyptian Princess, Uarda, Homo Sum, The Emperor, The Sisters, all dealing with old Egyptian life; The Burgomaster's Wife, Only a Word, etc.
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GEORG EWALD

Georg Heinrich August Von Ewald was a German Orientalist and Biblical critic. He was in 1803 born at Gottingen and died in 1875. After studying at the University of Gottingen, in 1827 he became extraordinary, in 1831 ordinary professor of theology, and in 1835 professor of Oriental languages. In 1837 he lost his chair at Gottingen on account of his protest against the king's abrogation of the liberal constitution, became professor of theology at Tubingen, but in 1818 returned to his old chair at Gottingen. When Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866 he became a zealous defender of the rights of the ex-king. Among his chief works are the following: Complete Course of the Hebrew Language; The Poetical Books of the Old Testament; History of the People of Israel; Antiquities of the People of Israel. The History is considered his greatest work.
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GEORG GERVINUS

Georg Gottfried Gervinus was a German critic and historian. He was born in 1805 at Darmstadt and died in 1871. He quit commerce in 1825 to study at Heidelberg, was for some time a teacher, and qualified as a privat-docent. After a visit to Italy he published his Geschichte der Poetischen Nationalliteratur der Deutschen (History of the Poetic National Literature of the Germans, 1835-42). In 1835 he was appointed extraordinary professor at Heidelberg, and the following year ordinary professor of history and literature at Gottingen; but in 1837, being one of the seven professors who protested against King Ernst August's breach of the constitution, he was banished from Hanover.

After another visit to Italy he returned to Heidelberg, where in 1844 he was appointed an honorary professor. He now began to take an active part in politics on the liberal side; became editor of the newly-founded Deutsche Zeitung, and was returned to the federal diet by the Hanse towns. Discontented with the tendency of affairs after 1848, he gave up politics and resumed his old studies. In 1849 he published the first part of his great work on. William Shakespeare, in 1853 his History of German Poetry, and in 1855 the first volume of his History of the Nineteenth Century, which, however, was never carried farther than the French revolution of 1830. Amongst his last writings was a critical essay on Handel and William Shakespeare.
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GEORG HEGEL

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher. He was born in 1770 at Stuttgart and died in 1831. He is renowned for creating a fundamentally influential system of thought - The Hegelian dialectic.

He studied at the theological institute of Tubingen from 1788 until 1793, and was next a private tutor at Berne from 1793 to 1796, and subsequently at Frankfort-on-the-Main from 1797 until 1800.

Having moved to Jena, and contracted an intimacy with Schelling, he devoted himself to metaphysical study. After the Battle of Jena, Georg Hegel was employed on a newspaper at Bamberg until 1808, when he became successively rector of Nurnberg Gymnasium, professor of philosophy at Heidelberg in 1816, and at Berlin from 1818 until his death in 1831.

Among his works the most important are his Phanomenologie des Geistes (1807), Wissenschaft der Logik (1812-16), Encyclopadie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1817), and Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft (1821).

The philosophy of Hegel followed that of Schelling, in adopting as a presupposition the identity of Knowing and Being, of Thought and Reality, of Subjective and Objective. But he differs from Schelling, who contemplates this identity with its inner opposites through the medium of a purely intellectual intuition, for Hegel seems rather to revert to Kant's Transcendental Logic. He thus asserts that if the order and connection of our thoughts is involved in the order and connection of things, the universal form in the course of objective action must exactly agree with the form of the development of our thoughts, and vice versa. As there are, according to him, three stages in the process of thought and existence, his system has necessarily a threefold division: logic; the philosophy of nature; and mental philosophy. Hegelianism has been more influential in the direction of the philosophy of religion than in any other department; but it is divided into three camps, representing respectively the supernatural, the rational, and the mystical.
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GEORG HERMES

Georg Hermes was a German theologian. He was born in 1775 and died in 1833. He studied theology at the University of Miinster; became teacher in the gymnasium of that city, and in 1807 professor of dogmatic theology in the university. When the Prussian government established the University of Bonn, Georg Hermes was appointed to the chair of Catholic theology in 1820. Here he distinguished himself by an ingenious effort to base the doctrines of the church on Kant's system of philosophy - an attempt known as Hermesianism. It aroused powerful opposition, being condemned as heretical by a papal letter of 1835.
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GEORG JENATSCH

Georg Jenatsch was a patriot leader in the Thirty Years War. He was born in 1596 and died in 1639. He drove the Austrians out of the Grisons with French aid, and then expelled the French. He then became governor of Valtelline, but was assassinated at Coire during a banquet.
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GEORG OHM

Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist born in 1787, died 1854, who discovered Ohm's Law. He became successively professor of physics at Cologne, director of the Polytechnic at Nuremberg, and professor of physics at the University of Munich. Among his scientific works were Die Galvanische Kette, Grundzuge der Physik, etc.
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GEORG RUGENDAS

Georg Philipp Rugendas was a German battle-painter. He was born in 1666 at Augsburg and died in 1742. He often exposed himself to great danger studying his subjects on the field. His paintings and engravings are very numerous; among the latter are six representing the siege of Augsburg, at which he was present. His compositions are spirited and unstrained; he also executed engravings in mezzotint and etchings. His three sons are also known as engravers; and his great-great-grandson, Johann Rugendas, as a genre and landscape painter.
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GEORG SCHWEINFURTH

Georg August Schweinfurth was a German explorer, He was born in 1836 at Riga and died in 1925. He studied, especially botany, at Heidelberg, Munich, and Berlin. In 1864-1866 he journeyed along the valley of the Nile and the shores of the Red Sea. In 1868 he was commissioned to explore the interior of East Africa, and the results of this expedition, which lasted until 1871, appeared under the title In the Heart of Africa published in 1874. In 1873-1874 he accompanied Rolilfs in an expedition to the Libyan desert. In 1875 he settled at Cairo. From 1876 to 1888 he made expeditions to various parts of Egypt and the Arabian desert. In 1889 he went to reside at Berlin, and in 1891-1894 he undertook botanical investigations in the Italian colony of Eritrea, on the Red Sea. In 1901-1902 he again visited Egypt. He published Artes Africanse (1875), and contributed to periodicals.
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GEORG STAHL

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Georg Ernst Stahl was a German chemist. He was born in 1660 at Ansbach and died in 1734. He studied at Jena in 1687, became physician to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar and was appointed chair of medicine and chemistry at Halle University in 1694. In 1716 he was appointed physician to the King of Prussia and he became one of the foremost chemists of his generation and wrote many books on chemistry, in which he showed the fallacy of many scientific ideas of his time. He was one of the exponents of the phlogiston theory. His principal works are Experimenta et Observationes Chymicae et Physicae; Disputationes Medicae; Theoria Medica vera; Fundamenta Chymiae Dogmaticae et Experimentalis.
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GEORG STJERNHIELM

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Georg Stjernhielm was a Swedish poet, etymologist, mathematician and philosopher. He was born in 1598 and died in 1672. Educated at Greifswald he travelled through Europe before becoming a teacher at Stockholm.
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GEORGE A. CARLSON

George A Carlson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Colorado from 1915 until 1917.
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GEORGE A. RAMSDELL

George A Ramsdell was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of New Hampshire from 1897 until 1899.
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GEORGE A. SINNER

George A Sinner was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Dakota from 1985 until 1992.
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GEORGE A. WILSON

George A Wilson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Iowa from 1939 until 1943.
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GEORGE ABBISS

Sir George Abbiss was an English policeman. He was born in 1884 at Hitchin and died in 1966. He was the second officer to rise through the ranks to become Assistant Commissioner of Scotland Yard. Originally a gardener, he joined the Metropolitan police in 1905 and was an ordinary constable, later a Sergeant and Station Sergeant before being promoted to Inspector in 1919. In 1920 he was awarded the MBE and in 1932 the OBE in 1933 being appointed Assistant Commissioner before retiring in 1946.
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GEORGE ABBOT

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George Abbot was an English archbishop. He was born in 1562 at Guildford, Surrey and died in 1633. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford, he became Master of University College and Vice-Chancellor. In 1599 he was made Dean of Winchester and was entrusted with the translation of the Gospels. In 1611 he was promoted to the Primacy under the patronage of the King, James I. After retiring to Guildford in 1619, in 1621 he accidentally killed Peter Hawkins, a gamekeeper while shooting deer in Lord Zouch's Bramshill Park, Hampshire. He founded a hospital in Guildford.
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GEORGE ADAMS

George Madison Adams was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1837 at Kentucky. He was educated at Center college and served as an officer in the Union Army from 1861 until 1865. He was a member of Congress from 1867 until 1875 and Clerk of the House of Representatives from 1875 until 1879.
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GEORGE AIRY

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Sir George Biddell Airy was a British astronomer. He was born in 1801 at Alnwick, Northumberland and died in 1892. Educated at Hereford, Colchester, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was senior wrangler in 1823. At Cambridge he was Lucasian professor of mathematics, and subsequently Plumian professor of astronomy and experimental philosophy, in the latter capacity having charge of the observatory. In 1835 he was appointed astronomer-royal, and as such his superintendence of the observatory at Greenwich was able and successful. He resigned this post with a pension in 1881. He wrote largely and made numerous valuable investigations on subjects connected with astronomy, physics, and mathematics. Among separate works published by him may be mentioned Popular Astronomy, On Sound and Atmospheric Vibrations, A Treatise on Magnetism, On the Vndulatory Theory of Optics, On Gravitation.
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GEORGE ANSON

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George Anson was a British admiral. He was born in 1697 at Shugborough, Staffordshire and died in 1762. He entered the navy in 1712, became a captain in 1724 and in 1739 upon the outbreak of war with Spain was appointed to the command of a squadron of six ships detailed for operations in the Pacific Ocean. The expedition set off in 1740, but was ill-equipped and ill-manned and all but the flag ship, the Centurion, were lost or abandoned off Cape Horn, the Centurion alone returning by the Cape of Good Hope and arriving back in Portsmouth in 1744 with 500,000 pounds of Spanish treasure, thus circumnavigating the globe. Anson was created a rear-admiral in 1744 for his success against Spanish ships and in 1747 he defeated the French fleet off Cape Finisterre, in recognition of which he was made Baron Anson of Soberton. From 1751 until 1756 he was first lord of the Admiralty and again from 1757 until his death in 1762.
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GEORGE ATTWOOD

George Attwood F.R.S. was an English mathematician. He was born in 1745 and died in 1807. He is best known by his invention, called after him Attwood's Machine, for verifying the laws of falling bodies. It consists essentially of a freely moving pulley over which runs a fine cord with two equal weights suspended from the ends. A small additional weight is laid upon one of them, causing it to descend with uniform acceleration. Means are provided by which the added weight can be removed at any point of the descent, thus allowing the motion to continue from this point onward with uniform velocity.
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GEORGE B CRITTENDEN

George B Crittenden was an American soldier. He was born in 1812 and died in 1880. A son of John J Crittenden, he was a major and a lieutenant-colonel in the Texan Revolution, joined the Confederates as a brigadier-general, and as a major-general was defeated in a rash attack upon general Thomas at Fishing Creek.
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GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN

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George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, writer and politician. He was born in 1826 at Philadelphia and died in 1885. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania and at West Point, after graduating from West Point in 1846 he took a commission in the Engineers and served as a lieutenant under Scott in the Mexican War, and was promoted to captain for his services. After the war he worked as an instructor at West Point, leaving in 1855 and went to Europe to study military affairs, and to follow the course of the Crimean War, and he published as a result, The Armies of Europe.

For a few years he was engineer for the Illinois Central Railroad, and a railroad president. At the outbreak of the American Civil War he was appoinred major-general and entrusted with command in West Virginia and he broke up Garnett's army, and was summoned to Washington after the Bull Run catastrophe. In August, 1861, he became commander of the Army of the Potomac, and in November he succeeded General Scott as commander-in-chief. McClellan's services in organizing the army were invaluable. Excess of caution and friction between the Washington authorities and himself led to disappointments in his achievements against the enemy. He commanded through the Peninsula campaign, executing his famous 'change of base', was relieved of the command, reappointed on September the 7th, 1862, after Pope's disasters, and commanded in the Battle of Antietam. On November the 7th he was removed and placed on waiting orders. He resigned from the army in 1864, and was the same year the Democratic candidate for President, receiving twenty-one electoral votes. He was Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881. 'Little Mac' was phenomenally popular with the soldiers of the Army of the Potomac in spite of outside criticism.
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GEORGE B. TIMMERMAN JR

George B Timmerman, Jr was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of South Carolina from 1955 until 1959.
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GEORGE BACK

Sir George Back was an English Arctic explorer. He was born in 1796 and died in 1878. He accompanied Franklin and Richardson in their northern expeditions, and in 1833-34 headed an expedition to the Arctic Ocean through the Hudson Bay Company's territory, on which occasion he wintered at the Great Slave Lake, and discovered the Back or Great Fish River.
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GEORGE BANCROFT

George Bancroft was an American historian. He was born in 1800 at Worcester, Massachusetts and died in 1891. Educated at Harvard he studied in Germany before returning to the USA and becoming a Democrat politician. In 1823 he published a translation of Heeren's Politics of Ancient Greece, and a small volume of poems, and was also meditating and collecting materials for a history of the United States. In 1834 he published his first volume of a history of the United States. In 1845 he was appointed secretary of the navy, and effected many reforms and improvements in that department. He was American ambassador to Britain from 1846 to 1849, when the University of Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L. He took the opportunity while in Europe to perfect his collections on American history. He returned to New York in 1849, and began to prepare for the press the fourth and fifth volumes of his history, which appeared in 1852. The sixth appeared in 1854, the seventh in 1858, the eighth soon after, but the ninth did not appear until 1866. From 1867 to 1874 he was minister plenipotentiary at the court of Berlin. The tenth and last volume of his great work appeared in 1874. An additional section appeared first as a separate work in 1882: History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States, and the whole came out in six volumes in 1884-5. He also published many essays in the North American Review and other periodicals, a selection from which was published in 1855 under the title of Miscellanies.
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GEORGE BARRINGTON

George Barrington was an Irish pick-pocket and author. He was deported to Botany Bay. He was born in 1755 and died in 1840. He wrote the line 'we left our country for our country's good'.
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GEORGE BEAUMONT

Sir George Beaumont was an English painter. He was born of an ancient family in 1753 at Leicestershire and died in 1827. He possessed considerable skill as a landscape-painter, but was noted more especially as a munificent patron of the arts. The establishment of the National Gallery was mainly owing to his exertions.
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GEORGE BELL

George Joseph Bell was a Scottish lawyer. He was born in 1770 at Edinburgh and died in 1843. He was the author of several standard law-books, the most important of which is The Principles of the Law of Scotland, which went through several editions.
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GEORGE BENTHAM

George Bentham was an English botanist. The nephew of Jeremy Bentham he was born in 1800 and died 1884. He was privately educated, early attached himself to botany, and having resided in Southern France (where his father had an estate) in 1814 to 1826 he published in French a work on The Plants of the Pyrenees and Lower Languedoc.

Having returned to England he studied law, and on this subject, as well as logic, he developed original views. Finally, however, he devoted himself almost entirely to botany, was long connected with the Horticultural Society and the Linnaean Society, and from 1861 onwards was in almost daily attendance at Kew (except for a few weeks occasionally), working at descriptive botany from ten to four o'clock as a labour of love. Along with Sir J D Hooker he produced the great work of descriptive botany, Genera Plantarum; another great work of his was the Flora Australiensis published in seven volumes. His Handbook of the British Flora was formerly well known.
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GEORGE BERKELEY

Dr George Berkeley was an Irish philosopher and missionary. He was born in 1685 and died in 1753. He was educated and became a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1707. He went to England in 1713, and soon came to be on friendly terms with Steele, Addison, Arbuthnot, and Jonathan Swift.

In 1713 he went to the Continent as chaplain to Lord Peterborough, and travelled as far as Leghorn, but did not stay long. He went abroad again in 1716, this time as tutor to a young man, and his stay lasted four years, the greater part of the time being spent in Italy. In 1721 he was appointed chaplain to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Grafton. By a legacy from Miss Vanhomrigh (Jonathan Swift's Vanessa) in 1723 his fortune was considerably increased.

In 1724 he became Dean of Derry. Between 1721 and 1724 he held several offices in Dublin University, and in 1721 had been made DD. He now published his proposals for providing the American plantations with a better supply of religious teachers, and for the conversion of the American natives to Christianity by the establishment of a college in the Bermuda Islands; and subscriptions having been raised, he set sail for Rhode Island in 1728, proposing to wait there until a promised grant of 20,000 pounds had been obtained from the government. The scheme, which was not particularly promising, never got a start, however, and in 1732 he returned to London, where he stayed about two years.

In 1734 he obtained the bishopric of Cloyne, where he spent almost the whole of the remainder of his life. In 1752, giving up the cares of his bishopric, he went to England, and he died suddenly at Oxford in 1753.

George Berkeley holds an important place in the history of philosophy. His new theory of vision was his first remarkable contribution to the subject of philosophy or psychology. In it he maintains that sight gives us nothing beyond sensations that are quite incomplete in themselves, and must be supplemented by tactual sensations, or sensations derived from the sense of touch, and that sight by itself can tell us nothing of distance. By his idealistic metaphysical theory he maintains that the belief in the existence of an exterior material world is false and inconsistent with itself;
that those things which are called sensible material objects are not external but exist in the mind, and are merely impressions made on our minds by the immediate act of God, according to certain rules termed laws of nature, from which he never deviates; and that the steady adherence of the Supreme Spirit to these rules is what constitutes the reality of things to his creatures, and so effectually distinguishes the ideas perceived by sense from such as are the work of the mind itself or of dreams, that there is no more danger of confounding them together on this hypothesis than on that of the existence of matter.

Berkeley was admirable as a writer; as a man he was said by his friend Pope to be possessed of 'every virtue under heaven'. His most celebrated philosophical works are:
Essay towards a new Theory of Vision, 1709; a Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, 1710, in which his philosophical theory is fully set forth; Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, 1713; Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher, 1732; and Theory of Vision, vindicated and explained, 1733. Another publication of some note in its day was Siris, Philosophical Reflections and Inquiries concerning the Virtues of Tar-water, 1744. Tar-water, the use of which he had learned in America, he regarded as a sort of panacea, good for man and beast, at all times and in all circumstances and all ailments. Other works of his are of a mathematical and theological order. The only complete collection is that of Professor A. Campbell Fraser, first edition, three volumes, 1871, with a fourth volume containing Life and Letters; second edition, much improved, with new prefaces, annotations, and Life, 1901.
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GEORGE BERNARD SHAW

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George Bernard Shaw was an Irish writer. He was born in 1856 in Dublin and died in 1950. He become prominent by his socialist views and numerous writings. His novels include: The Irrational Knot; Love among the Artists; Cashel Byron's Profession; and An Unsocial Socialist. Among his plays, to which his later work has been almost entirely confined, and which have enjoyed a considerable vogue, are: Plays, Pleasant and Unpleasant (1898); Three Plays for Puritans (1900); Man and Super-man (1903); and Captain Brass-bound's Conversion (1905). He also wrote various socialist tracts, and contributed to several periodicals.
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GEORGE BINGHAM

George Charles Bingham, Earl of Lucan as a British soldier. He was born in 1800 and died in 1888. He entered the army in 1816 ; accompanied the Russian army as a volunteer in 1828; succeeded his father 1839; was elected an Irish representative peer in 1840; was commander of a cavalry division in the Crimea War, and wounded before Sebastopol. His name is conspicuously associated with the Balaklava charge of the Light Brigade. He was lieutenant-general in 1858; general in 1865; and field-marshal in 1887.
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GEORGE BIRKBECK

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George Birkbeck founded the mechanics' institutes. He was born in 1776 at Settle in Yorkshire and died in 1841 at London. He studied medicine at Edinburgh and was appointed to the chair of natural and experimental philosophy in the Andersonian Institute at Glasgow in 1799 where he successfully established a class for mechanics. In 1806 he settled as a physician in London and founded the London Mechanics' Institute in 1822, now known as the Birkbeck College.
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GEORGE BLACK

George Black was a British entertainment producer and manager. He was born in 1890 at Birmingham and died in 1945. He initiated the famous annual 'Crazy Gang' comedy revues.
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GEORGE BLAKE

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George Blake (born George Behar) was a Dutch-born British KGB spy. He was born in 1922 at Rotterdam. After serving with the Dutch resistance he joined the British Royal Navy and in 1944 joined the SIS. In 1949 he was posted to South Korea and upon the outbreak of the Korean War was interned by the invading North Korean forces. In 1951 he defected to the Russians, and volunteered to work as a Soviet Spy, being assigned the KGB codename Diomid. Information supplied by Blake to the Soviets enabled them to eliminate the entire Western intelligence force in East Germany between 1953 and 1955. Blake also informed the Russians about the American CIA intercept tunnel built from West to East Germany, and designed to intercept Soviet communications - a tunnel which the CIA believed to be a success until the truth was revealed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union some forty years later. Blake was identified following information provided by the Polish defector Michal Goleniewski in 1961. Sentenced to forty-two years in jail, Blake escaped from Wormwood Scrubs prison after serving five years and travelled to East Berlin and from there to Moscow.
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GEORGE BOKER

George Henry Boker was an American author. He was born in 1823 at Philadelphia and died in 1890. He studied law at Princeton, and graduated but didn't practice. He wrote several successful plays and many patriotic songs and poems. He was US Minister to Turkey from 1871 until 1875 and to Russia from 1875 until 1879.
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GEORGE BOOLE

George Boole was an English mathematician and logician. He was born in 1815 at Lincoln and died in 1864. Educated at Lincoln, he opened a school in his twentieth year, and by private study gained such proficiency in mathematics that in 1849 he was appointed to the mathematical chair in Queen's College, Cork, where the rest of his life was spent. In 1857 the universities of Dublin and Oxford conferred on him the degrees of LL.D. and D.C.L. respectively. In mathematics he wrote on Differential Equations; General Method in Analysis; The Comparison of Transcendents, etc. In logic he wrote An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, and The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, a profound and original work, in which a symbolic language and notation were employed in regard to logical processes.
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GEORGE BORROW

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George Borrow was an English writer. He was born in 1803 at Dumpling Green, Norfolk and died in 1881. He had a passion for foreign languages, stirring scenes, and feats of bodily prowess. He associated much with the gypsies, and acquired an exact knowledge of their language, manners, and customs. As agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society he travelled in France, Germany, Russia, and the East; spent five years in Spain, and published The Gypsies in Spain (1841), and The Bible in Spain (1842), the best known of his works. Other works are Lavengro, largely autobiographical (1850), The Romany Rye (1857), Wild Wales (1862), and Dictionary of the Gypsy Language (1874).
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GEORGE BOUGHTON

George Henry Boughton was an English artist. He was born in 1833 and died in 1905. His works are mainly subject pictures, and those dealing with life in Holland, New England and Brittany.
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GEORGE BOULANGER

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George Ernest Jean Marie Boulanger was a French general and agitator. He was born in 1837 at Rennes and died in 1891. He saw service in Algeria, Italy and Cochin-China and was at Metz with Francois Bazaine in 1870 but escaped capture by the Germans and took part in the defence of Paris. He was appointed brigadier-general in 1880 and commanded the army of occupation in Tunis in 1884 to 1885. In January 1886 he was appointed minister of war in the Charles de Freycinet cabinet.

In May 1887 he was removed from his post as war minister and was appointed to the command of the 13th army corps and shortly afterwards was arrested for attacking his successor, and in March 1888 was deprived of his command and placed on the retired list. In July 1888 he fought a duel with the prime minister, Floquet, whom he had insulted. In January 1889, he was elected deputy to the National Assembly by 81,000 majority, in consequence of which the Floquet ministry resigned. In August 1889, he was charged with embezzlement, treason, and conspiracy, and found guilty by the Senate; the elections in the 12 cantons were annulled, and he was sentenced to deportation. He committed suicide on September 30th 1891 in a cemetery near Brussels following the death of his mistress.
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GEORGE BROWN

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George Brown was a Canadian journalist and politician. He was born in 1818 at Edinburgh, Scotland and died in 1880 when he was shot by a sacked employee. Educated at the High School at Edinburgh, he emigrated to the United States with his father, and assisted in the management of a newspaper at New York; but in 1843 removed to Toronto, Canada, where he founded a newspaper, The Globe, which was very successful.

In 1852 he was returned to parliament, and rapidly rose to the first rank as a debater and advocate of reforms. In 1858 he was called to the office of premier, and formed an administration, which, however, owing to an adverse vote of the assembly, lasted only three days. In 1862, while on a visit to Scotland, he married Miss Annie Nelson, daughter of the well-known Edinburgh publisher. On his return to Canada he joined, in 1864, the coalition government as leader of the reform section, and took an active part in the conferences held at Charlottetown and Quebec on the subject of the federation of the North American colonies; but resigned his office as minister in December 1865. He was called to the senate in 1873, and the year after went to Washington along with Sir Edward Thornton to negotiate a commercial treaty with the United States.

George Brown, though perhaps wanting in some of the qualities which make a successful parliamentary leader, was a great personal force in Canadian politics, and contributed powerfully to the cause of reform.

George Douglas Brown was a Scottish author. He was born in 1869 at Ochiltree and died in 1902. After graduating at Oxford in 1895 he went to London and entered a literary and journalistic career working as literary advisor to the publisher Macqueen. In 1901 his novel 'The House With The Green Shutters' was published under the pen-name 'George Douglas'.

Sir George Brown was a distinguished British general. He was born in 1790 near Elgin and died in 1865. He served in the Peninsular War and in the American campaign of 1814. He was knighted in 1855.
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GEORGE BRUMMELL

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George Bryan Brummell (Beau Brummell) was an English playboy and expert on etiquette and fashion. He was born in 1778 at London and died in 1840. He was educated at Eton and at Oxford, and at the age of sixteen made the acquaintance of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV, who made him a cornet in his own regiment of the 10th Hussars, and secured his rapid promotion. The death of his father in 1794 brought him a fortune which he squandered on sumptuous living over a twenty-one year period. His creditors at length became clamorous, and in 1816 he took refuge in Calais, where he resided for many years, partly supported by the remains of his own fortune and partly by remittances from friends in England. Subsequently in 1830 he was appointed consul at Caen, but on the abolition of the post was reduced to absolute poverty, and died in a lunatic asylum at Caen in 1840.
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GEORGE BRYAN

George Bryan was an American politician. He was a governor of Pennsylvania during 1778.
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GEORGE BUCHANAN

George Buchanan was a Scottish reformer, historian, scholar, and Latin poet. He was born in 1506 at the parish of Killearn, Stirlingshire and died in 1582. An uncle sent him in 1520 to the University of Paris, but the death of his uncle compelled his return, and in 1523 he joined the French auxiliaries employed by the regent, Albany, serving as a private soldier in one campaign against the English. He was then sent to the University of St Andrews, where he took the Arts degree in October, 1525. Following his tutor, Mair or Major, to France, he became in 1526 a student in the Scots College of Paris; took his degrees; in 1529 was elected professor in the College of St Barbe; and in 1532 was engaged as friend and tutor of Gilbert Kennedy earl of Cassillis, with whom he resided for five years, and to whom he inscribed his first published work, a translation of Linacre's Rudiments of Latin Grammar, printed in 1533.

In 1536 Cassillis and George Buchanan returned to Scotland, where the latter published his Sonmium, a satire against the Franciscans. To shield him from the hostility of the Roman Catholic party, James V retained him as preceptor to his natural son James Stuart, encouraging him to write the Franciscanus, one of the most pungent satires to be found in any language. By the Catholic influence he was arrested in 1539, but escaped to London and thence to France, where he became professor of Latin at Bordeaux, wrote his tragedies Jephthes and Baptistes, and translated the Medea and Alcestis of Euripides.

Among his pupils was Montaigne, and he was on intimate terms with the elder Scaliger. From Bordeaux Buchanan removed to Paris, and thence to Portugal to take a chair in the University of Coimbra. Here he was sentenced by the Inquisition to be confined in a monastery, but at length received permission to depart, and was shortly afterwards appointed to a regency in the College of Boncourt at Paris, an office held by him until 1555, when he was engaged as tutor to the son of the Comte de Brissac. During this period a portion of his version of the Psalms in Latin verse was published.

About 1560 he returned to Scotland, and for some time acted as tutor to the young queen Mary, to whom he dedicated his version of the Psalms. He had now openly joined the leaders of the Reformation. In 1566 he was nominated principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews, and in the following year was chosen moderator of the General Assembly, the only instance of the chair being held by a layman. When Elizabeth called witnesses from Scotland to substantiate the charges against Mary, George Buchanan accompanied the Regent Moray into England, and his evidence against her was highly important.

In 1570 he was selected to superintend the education of King James, whom he made an excellent scholar. He was also appointed keeper of the privy-seal, a post which he held until 1578. In 1579 he published his De Jure Regni apud Scotos, a work in which he defended the rights of the people to judge of and control the conduct of their governors, and which subsequently had much influence on political thought. The dedication of his Rerum Scoticarum Historia (History of Scotland) to the king is dated August 29th, 1582, and on the 28th September following George Buchanan died.

As a Latinist both in prose and verse he was perhaps the best of his day, as evidenced by his History and his version of the Psalms. As regards its matter, the former is entirely uncritical, and is of value only for matters belonging to his own time.
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GEORGE BYNG

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George Byng (Viscount Torrington) was an English sailor. He was born in 1663 and died in 1733. He entered the navy in 1678 and saw considerable service before in 1684 he sailed to the East Indies where he distinguished himself in several actions against pirates. In 1688, as an agent of the Prince of Orange, he persuaded many of the senior captains of the fleet to the prince's cause.
He was made rear-admiral and in 1703commanded the naval operations at the capture of Gibraltar and took part in the Battle of Malaga in 1704. In 1708 he dispersed the Old Pretender's attempt to invade England. he was sent to the Mediterranean to prevent a Spanish invasion of Italy, and totally destroyed the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro on July the 30th 1718. returning to England in 1720 he became Viscount Torrington and was made first lord of the admiralty in 1727.
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GEORGE C. LUDLOW

George C Ludlow was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey from 1881 until 1884.
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GEORGE C. PARDEE

George C Pardee was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of California from 1903 until 1907.
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GEORGE C. PEERY

George C Peery was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Virginia from 1934 until 1938.
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GEORGE C. PERKINS

George C Perkins was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of California from 1880 until 1883.
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GEORGE C. WALLACE

George C Wallace was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Alabama from 1963 until 1967.
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GEORGE CABLE

George Washington Cable was an American writer. He was born in 1844 at New Orleans and died in 1925. He served in the Confederate army during the American Civil War, then took a commercial situation, but about 1879 devoted himself entirely to literature. His first important book was Old Creole Days published in 1879. Among others written since are the Grandissimes; Madame Delphine; The Creoles of Louisiana (a history); Dr. Sevier; The Silent South (a plea for the negro); The Negro Question;
Strange True Stories of Louisiana; John March; Strong Hearts; The Cavalier. For most readers the chief interest of his novels lies in their excellent descriptions of French Creole life in the southern states; and his pictures of negro life are no less effective.
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GEORGE CABOT

George Cabot was an American sailor and statesman. He was born in 1751 and died in 1823. He entered Harvard, but left to go to sea, becoming a master mariner while still very young. In 1776 he was chosen to the Massachusetts Provincial Congress and in 1788 was a member of the State convention that adopted the federal Constitution. He was a US Senator from Massachusetts from 1791 until 1796, and was President Adams' first choice for Secretary of the Navy when that department was organised in 1798. In 1814 he was chosen president of the Hartford Convention.
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GEORGE CADBURY

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George Cadbury was an English businessman, social reformer and philanthropist. He was born in 1839 and died in 1922. Together with his brother Michael Cadbury he established the model village of Bournville, near Birmingham, for the Cadbury work force.
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GEORGE CALVERT

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George Calvert (first Baron Baltimore, Lord Baltimore) was an English statesman and the founder of the colony of Maryland. He was born in 1580 at Kipling, Yorkshire and died in 1632. He entered parliament in 1609 and was secretary of state from 1619 until 1625 when he resigned on becoming a Roman Catholic and was raised to the peerage as the first Baron Baltimore, Baltimore being a fishing village in Cork, Ireland.
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GEORGE CAMPBELL

George Campbell was a Scottish divine. He was born in 1709 at Aberdeen and died in 1796. Educated at Marischal College, in 1759 he was appointed principal of this college. In 1763 he published a celebrated dissertation on miracles in answer to Hume, and in 1776 his Philosophy of Rhetoric, which established his reputation as a critic and thinker.
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GEORGE CANNING

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George Canning was an English orator and statesman. He was born in 1770 at London and died in 1827. Educated at Eton and at Oxford, he was first brought into parliament by Pitt in 1793, and in 1796 became under-secretary of state. In 1797 he projected, with some friends, the Anti-Jacobin, of which Gifford was appointed editor, and to which George Canning contributed the Knife-grinder and other poems and articles. In 1798 he supported Wilberforce's motion for the abolition of the slave-trade. In 1807 he was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs in the Portland administration, and was slightly wounded in a duel with Lord Castlereagh arising out of the dispute which occasioned the dissolution of the ministry.

In 1810 he opposed the reference of the Catholic claims to the committee of the whole House, on the ground that no security or engagement had been offered by the Catholics, but supported in 1812 and 1813 the motion which he had opposed in 1810. In 1814 he was appointed minister to Portugal, and remained abroad about two years. He refused to take any part in the proceedings against the queen, and in 1822, having been nominated Governor-general of India, he was on the point of embarking when the death of Castlereagh called him to the cabinet as foreign secretary. One of his earliest acts in this situation was to check the French influence in Spain. He continued to support the propositions in favour of Catholic emancipation, arranged the triple alliance for the preservation of Greece, but opposed parliamentary reform and the Test and Corporation Acts. April 12, 1827, his appointment to be prime-minister was announced, but his administration was terminated by his death on the 8th of August following. On all the leading political questions of his day, with two exceptions - the emancipation of the Catholics and the recognition of the South American republics- he took the high Tory side.
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GEORGE CARTIER

Sir George Etienne Cartier was a Canadian statesman. He was born in 1814 at St Antoine, Quebec and died in 1873. He was admitted to the bar in 1835, took part in the rebellion of 1837, and had for a time to leave Canada. In 1848 he entered the Canadian parliament, and in 1855 became provincial secretary. Next year he became attorney-general for Lower Canada, in which post he was active in behalf of legal reforms. In 1857 he was a member of the Macdonald ministry, and in 1858 he himself became premier, remaining in this position until 1862. He was active in bringing about the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, and held a post in the first Dominion cabinet. The following year he received a baronetcy.
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GEORGE CATHCART

Sir George Cathcart was an Enbglish soldier. He was born in 1794 and died in 1854. He entered the Life Guards in 1810, accompanied his father as attache to Russia, and subsequently acted as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo. He served in Nova Scotia and the West Indies, quelled the rebellion in Canada in 1837, and was appointed in 1852 governor at the Cape of Good Hope, where he showed ability in subduing the Kaffir insurrection. On the outbreak of the Crimean War great things were expected of him, but he fell as divisional commander at the Battle of Inkerman in 1854.
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GEORGE CATLIN

George Catlin was an American writer. He was born in 1796 at Pennsylvania and died in 1872. He studied law, and later became interested in the American Indians who he spent a long time living amongst and writing about their customs and ways, and painted 470 full-length portraits of native American Indians. In 1840 he came to Europe, and subsequently introduced three parties of American Indians to European courts. His finely-illustrated works are: Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians (1841); North American Portfolio (1844); Eight Years' Travel in Europe (1848); Last Rambles amongst the Indians, etc. (1868).
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GEORGE CATTERMOLE

George Cattermole was an English artist. He was born in 1800 at Norfolk and died in 1868. He was employed as a draughtsman on Britton's English Cathedrals when only sixteen, drew admirable illustrations for various works, and exhibited both at the Academy and the Water-Colour Society. He long painted chiefly in water-colours, but after 1857 took up oil-painting. He was intimate with many literary and other celebrities.
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GEORGE CAYLEY

Sir George Cayley was the Father of British Aeronautics. He was born in 1773 at Brompton, Yorkshire and died in 1857. Scientific and philosophical research attracted him in his teens and before he was twenty years old he had elaborated a scheme of arterial drainage which he put into use on his own estates. The invention, by Montgolfier in 1783, of the balloon excited his boyish imagination, and much of his energies were devoted all his life to the problem of aerial navigation, upon which he wrote many papers.

He began by investigating the properties of air and the power necessary for flight. He was the first to point out that it would always be impossible to fly unless a sufficiently light engine, which did not then exist, should be invented. He forecast the invention of the internal combustion engine.
In aeronautical science he was far ahead of his time. In 1810 he publicly stated that he could construct a balloon 'that should carry its passengers at twenty miles an hour', a statement he had the undoubted ability to carry out. So keen was his interest in aviation that he attempted in 1837 to form an aeronautical society, but without success.

George Cayley's first writings on mechanical flight appeared in 1809-1810, and his last in 1854. As early as 1804 he had designed the first model glider, but the greater part of his interest in aviation lay in consideration of the possibility of the dirigible. He was, by his grasp of the basic principles underlying the problem, the pioneer of the airship. He suggested the division of the airship into separate gas compartments and the necessary bracing of the structure to keep its shape. Cayley made careful calculations of the lift and motor power required, of the weight of the fabric which would be used, and the possible methods of propelling the airship. He was the first man to study the problem from a scientific and engineering point of view, and his notebooks are eloquent testimony of the soundness of many of his ideas. In them are diagrams and calculations of bird flight, notes of experiments in aerodynamics with a whirling arm to find the resistance and lift of a flat plate, the earliest known experiments of their kind, a study of streamline forms, notes of the first known attempts to investigate the problem of centre of pressure, and many other problems bearing on flight. In their authoritative work on the history of aeronautics, Dollfuss and Bouche wrote: 'La plus haute figure technique, dans le premier tiers du XIX siecle, est celle de Sir George Cayley, le veritable inventeur de 1'aeroplane'. No higher tribute could be paid.
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GEORGE CHALMERS

George Chalmers was a Scottish antiquary. He was born in 1742 and died in 1825. He studied law at Edinburgh, and removed to America, where he practised for upwards of ten years. On his return he was appointed in 1786 clerk to the Board of Trade, an office held by him until his death in 1825. He published various political and statistical works, but latterly turned his attention in a great measure from political science to literature. In 1790 he published his niography of Daniel Defoe, and in 1794 his biography of Thomas Ruddiman. In 1800 he edited the works of Allan Ramsay; and in 1806 the writings of Sir David Lindsay; but his chief work was his Caledonia, of which the first volume was published in 1807, a laborious historical and topographical account of North Britain from the most ancient to recent times. Three volumes were published during George Chalmers' lifetime, but he left the remainder of the work nearly ready for the press, and it was published around 1900.
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GEORGE CHAPMAN

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George Chapman was a British poet, dramatist and translator. He was born in 1557 and died in 1634. He translated Homer's 'Iliad' and 'Odyssey'. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1576 proceeded to London; but little is known of his personal history. His translation of the Iliad was published in three separate portions in 1598, 1600, and 1603. It has been highly commended by such poets as Pope, Keats, and Coleridge, as also by Lamb. Keats's sonnet, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer ('Then felt I like some watcher of the skies,' etc.), is well known. In 1614 appeared his translation of the Odyssey, followed in the same year by that of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice and the Homeric hymns. He also translated Hesiod's Works and Days and portions of various classic poets. He wrote numerous plays, almost all now forgotten, though containing some fine passages.
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GEORGE CHARLES BERKELEY

George Charles Grantley Pitzhardinge Berkeley was an English politician. He was born in 1800 and died in 1881. He was the sixth son of the fifth Earl of Berkeley, but the second son after the legally recognized marriage. From 1832 until 1852 he was Liberal member of parliament for West Gloucestershire. He became notorious in 1836 for his assault upon Eraser, the publisher (for which he had to pay damages), and his duel with Maginn for a hostile review in Fraser's Magazine of his first novel, Berkeley Castle. Besides other stories, poems, and works upon travel, sport, etc, he published in 1865 to 1866 his Life and Recollections in four volumes, and in 1867 a volume of reminiscences entitled Anecdotes of the Upper Ten Thousand. Both gave rise to a considerable amount of disapproval.
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GEORGE CHILDS

George William Childs was an American publisher. He was born in 1829 at Philadelphia and died in 1894. In 1864 he became proprietor of the 'Public Ledger' the wealth derived from which he liberally used for public purposes.
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GEORGE CLARENCE

George Clarence, Duke of Clarence, was an English noble. He was the son of Richard, duke of York, and brother of Edward IV, king of England. On his brother's accession, in 1461, he was created Duke of Clarence, and in 1462 Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, but afterwards joined the disaffected Warwick, and married his daughter. On the eve of battle he rejoined his brother, and was afterwards involved in a quarrel with his brother Richard, who had married Warwick's younger daughter, about the inheritance of their father-in-law. On the death of his wife George Clarence sought the hand of Mary of Burgundy, but Edward interposed and a serious breach ensued. A gentleman of the household of Clarence having at this time been condemned for using necromancy against the king, George Clarence interfered with the execution of the sentence. He was impeached by the king in person, condemned in 1478, and secretly murdered in the Tower of London. The tradition that he was drowned in a butt of malmsey wine is unsupported by evidence.
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GEORGE CLIFFORD

George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, was an English adventurer. He was born in 1558 and died in 1605. He was one of the most remarkable characters of his age, and at an early age displayed a taste for naval adventure. In 1586 he inflicted considerable damage on the Portuguese commerce, and two years later commanded a ship in the attack on the Spanish Armada, off Calais. He subsequently engaged in several marauding expeditions against the Spaniards, and in 1598 took Porto Rico. The earl, besides being renowned for his dashing exploits by sea, was an accomplished courtier and a great favourite of the queen, by whom he was made a Knight of the Garter, though his character was not altogether free from criticism.
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GEORGE CLINTON

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George Clinton was an American politician and soldier. He was born in 1739 at Little Britain, New York and died in 1812. He was a soldier in the French and Indian War and a member of the New York Assembly; in the first part of the Revolution he was for a short time member of the Continental Congress, and then served in the field. As a brigadier-general he defended unsuccessfully the Highland forts against the British in 1777. For the long period of 1777 until 1795 he was Governor of the State of New York, and threw his great influence against the ratification of the Federal Constitution. Thereafter he was an Anti-Federalist and Republican leader. He received a few votes for Vice-president in 1789, fifty votes for Vice-president in 1792 and several in 1796. He was again Governor in 1801 until 1804, and was elected Vice-president in 1804, serving as such, under Jefferson and Madison, until his death. In 1811 he gave the casting vote against the US Bank.
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GEORGE CLYMER

George Vlymer was an American statesman. He was born in 1739 at Pennsylvania and died in 1813. He was a signer of the American Declaration of Independence, but he was not present at its adoption. In 1775 he became continental treasurer, and was a member of Congress in 1776, 1777 and 1780. In 1778 he, with John Nixon, organized the Bank of North America. He was a member of the convention that framed the Federal Constitution, and elected to the first Congress held under its provisions.
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GEORGE COCKBURN

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Sir George Cockburn was a British admiral He was born in 1772 and died in 1853. As captain of the Minerva he assisted Nelson at the blockade of Leghorn in 1796 and shared in the capture of Martinique in 1809. He took part in the War of 1812, in 1813 expeditions from his squadron ravaged the coasts of the United States from Delaware to Georgia. In 1814 under Admiral Alexander Cochrane and in conjunction with General Ross he captured Washington, burning the Capitol and other public buildings, and unsuccessfully attempted to take Baltimore. He conveyed Napoleon to St Helena in 1815.
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GEORGE COLLIER

Sir George Collier was a British vice-admiral. He was born in 1738 at London and died in 1795. As captain of the Rainbow he captured the American frigate Hancock in 1777 off the coast of North America. Being appointed commodore and commander-in-chief he carried out the relief of Penobscot in 1779 and destroyed the enemy's squadron there. In 1781 he captured the Spanish frigate Leocadia. He became rear-admiral in 1793 and vice- admiral in 1794.
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GEORGE COLMAN

George Colman was an English dramatist. He was born in 1732 at Florence and died in 1794. His education was directed, after his father's death, by his uncle, William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, who sent him to Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but an intimacy with Garrick led him to write for the stage. He was very successful with the Jealous Wife, a comedy, produced at Drury Lane in 1761. The Clandestine Marriage, written in collaboration with Garrick, followed in 1766, and he afterwards wrote or adapted many other plays. He purchased Covent Garden Theatre in 1767, and ran it until 1774. He acquired the Haymarket Theatre in 1776, and managed it for thirteen years. He translated Terence, and Horace's Ars Poetica, and published miscellaneous essays.

George Colman was an English dramatist. He was born 1762 at London and died in 1836. Educated at Westminster School, Christ Church, Oxford, and King's College, Aberdeen, he was intended for the bar, but soon turned to literature and the theatre. He succeeded his father - George Colman - as manager of the Haymarket Theatre in 1789, and on his death became its patentee. Of his many dramas the most successful were: The Heir-at-Law (1797), Poor Gentleman (1802), John Bull (1803), Love Laughs at Locksmiths (1803). From 1824 until his death in 1836 he was examiner of plays. He lived an extravagant life, and was often engaged in literary feuds.
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GEORGE COMBE

George Combe was a Scottish jurist, educationist, phrenologist and social reformer. He was born in 1788 at Edinburgh and died in 1858. The brother of Andrew Combe, he was bred to the law, and in 1812 was admitted a member of the Society of Writers to the Signet. He was the first to introduce the doctrines of phrenology into Great Britain; and visited Germany and America lecturing on his favourite science. He was also a zealous promoter of the cause of popular education and social progress; and was among the first to advocate compulsory education and the establishment of a board of health. Besides the Constitution of Man, published in 1828, and which has had an enormous circulation, he is the author of A System of Phrenology (1825); Lectures on Popular Education (1833); Moral Philosophy (1840); The Life and Correspondence of his brother, Dr. Andrew Combe (1850); Principles of Criminal Legislation and Prison Discipline Investigated (1854); and the Relation between Science and Keligion (1857).
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GEORGE COULTON

George Gordon Coulton was an English scholar and historian. He was born in 1858 and died in 1947. He wrote the book five centuries of religion.
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GEORGE COX

Sir George William Cox was an English mythologist. He was born in 1827 at Benares and died in 1902. He was appointed vicar of Scrayingham in 1881 and remained until 1897. He was a literary adviser to Longmans and company from 1861 to 1885 and published Mythology of the Aryan Nations in 1870 and other works.
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GEORGE CRABBE

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George Crabbe was an English poet. He was born in 1754 at Aldeburgh, Suffolk and died in 1832. He was the self-educated son of a salt-master of Aldeburgh, Suffolk. After studying surgery for a time in London he became assistant to an Aldeburgh surgeon, but went to London to try literature. He was rescued from poverty by Edmund Burke who took him to his house and found a publisher (Dodsley) for his poem The Library and soon after he entered the Church. He was appointed domestic chaplain to the Duke of Rutland, and afterwards obtained ample preferment. In 1783 appeared The Village, which was followed two years afterwards by The Newspaper. The Parish Register appeared in 1807. The Borough appeared in 1810, and was followed in 1812 by Tales in Verse, and in 1819 by Tales of the Hall. The latter years of George Crabbe's life were spent in the peaceful discharge of his professional duties at Trowbridge in Wiltshire, a living which he had received in 1814. His poems are all characterized by homely truthfulness, simplicity, and pathos.
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GEORGE CRAIK

George Lillie Craik was a Scottish writer. He was born in 1799 at Fifeshire and died in 1866. He was an extensive contributor to the Penny Cyclopaedia in the departments of history and biography. His first independent work of any importance was his Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties published between 1830 and 1831. Other works were: Romance of the Peerage; Spenser and his Poetry; History of Literature and Learning in England, afterwards recast into History of English Literature and the English Language; History of British Commerce; English of Shakspeare; Bacon, his Writings and Philosophy; etc. In 1849 he was appointed professor of English literature in Queen's College, Belfast, an appointment which he held until his death.
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GEORGE CROGHAN

George Croghan was an American soldier. He was born in 1791 and died in 1849. Serving as aide, colonel and lieutenant-colonel in the War of 1812 he distinguished himself at Fort Meigs and at Port Stephenson. In 1835 he was made inspector-general of the US army.
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GEORGE CROLY

The reverend George Croly was a British author. He was born in 1780 at Dublin and died in 1860. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he was appointed to a small curacy in Ireland, but resigned it and became a prominent figure in London journalism and letters and for twenty-five years he lived in London devoting himself to literature until in 1835 he became rector of Saint Stephen's at Walbrook where he gained a reputation for his eloquence. His separate literary works comprise: Paris in 1815, a poem; the Angel of the World, tale; Catiline, a tragedy; Pride shall have a Fall, comedy, 1824; Salathiel, a romance; etc. He is also the author of a Personal History of George IV; the Political Life of Burke; an edition of Pope and of Jeremy Taylor; a Treatise on the Apocalypse; Divine Providence, or the Three Cycles of Revelation; and numerous sermons.
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GEORGE CROOK

George Crook was an American soldier. He was born in 1828 and died in 1890. He commanded the Pitt River expedition in 1857, and during service in the American Civil War was brevetted lieutenant-colonel and commanded the second cavalry division at Chickamauga. He had charge of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac from March 36, 1865, until the surrender at Appomattox, and from 1866 on was chiefly occupied in quelling Indian disturbances. In 1888 he was appointed a major-general of the US army.
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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK

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George Cruikshank was an English artist. He was born in 1792 at London and died in 1878. He is remembered for his caricatures and book illustrations. His father, Isaac Cruikshank, was an engraver of theatrical portraits, prints for cheap books, and caricatures in the manner of Rowlandson and Gillray. From early childhood George Cruikshank was trained to assist in preparing his father's plates. The earliest of his drawings known is dated 1799, when he was only seven years of age, and when fifteen he was comparatively distinguished. His first occupation was designing illustrations for children's books and popular songs. He began early also as a political satirist, contributing plates regularly in 1811 to the Scourge, in 1814 illustrating Dr. Syntax's Life of Napoleon, and doing much work of the kind for Hone, the publisher. His best productions of this period are his drawings of the Cato Street Conspiracy and of the trial of Queen Caroline, the Political Showman, and the Political House that Jack Built.

In 1821 and the succeeding years appeared his illustrations of such popular books as Pierce Egan's Tom and Jerry; Maxwell's History of the Irish Rebellion, Grimm's Fairy Tales, Peter Schlemihl, Baron Munchhausen, Defoe's History of the Plague, Scott's Demonology and Witchcraft, the Ingoldsby Legends, etc, the artist showing especial excellence in ghostly and fairy subjects.

In 1837 he commenced in Bentley's Miscellany his famous series of etchings on steel illustrative of Dickens' Oliver Twist, followed two years later by those for Ainsworth's Jack Sheppard, and then by those for Windsor Castle and the Tower of London. Having connected himself with the temperance movement he produced the Bottle, a powerful and popular series of designs, but marking clearly the limits of his art. His temperance connection and his absurd claims to having suggested the idea of Dickens' Oliver Twist, undermined his artistic reputation.

Poorly paid for work by which others profited, he was latterly obliged to part with the vast collection of his works, and in 1866 50 pounds sterling a year was settled on him from the Royal Academy's Turner Annuities, He latterly turned his attention to oil-painting, his most noteworthy pictures being Tam o'Shanter, Disturbing a Congregation, and The Worship of Bacchus.
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GEORGE CULLUM

George Cullum was an American soldier. He was born in 1809. He was a graduate, instructor and, from 1864 until 1866 superintendent of the US Military Academy. From 1838 until 1874 he was engaged largely in Government engineering and during the Civil War was brevetted major-general.
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GEORGE CURRY

George Curry was an American publisher and politician. He was born in 1820 and died in 1878. In 1846 he established the 'Oregon Spectator' the first paper published on the Pacific coast, and in 1848 founded the 'Oregon Free Press'. He was Governor of Oregon from 1854 to 1859.
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GEORGE CURTIS

George Ticknor Curtis was an American lawyer. He was born in 1812 and died in 1894. A Boston lawyer from 1836 to 1862, when he removed to New York, he was largely engaged in professional and historical investigations, and published many valuable works, among them being 'Commentaries on the Jurisprudence, Practice and Peculiar Jurisdiction of the Courts of the United States' and a 'History of the Origin, Formation and Adoption of the Constitution of the United States', and the first volume of a 'Constitutional History of the United States'.
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GEORGE CURZON

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George Nathaniel Curzon (Baron Cuzon of of Kedleston) was an English statesman. He was born in 1859 and died in 1925. The son of Baron Scarsdale, he was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. He became assistant private secretary to the Marquis of Salisbury in 1885, from 1886 until 1898 he was MP for the Southport division of Lancashire; was under-secretary for India and for foreign affairs; and from 1898 to 1905 was viceroy of India, a post which he occupied with high distinction, and for which he was partly prepared through his extensive travels in Asia. On being appointed viceroy he was created a member of the Irish peerage, a rank which does not exclude the holder from the House of Commons. His resignation of the viceroyship was partly brought about by his views conflicting with those of Lord Horatio Kitchener, the head of the Indian army. He was Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 1904 to 1905, during his temporary absence from India. Later he was foreign secretary from 1919 until 1924. Hewrote Russia in Central Asia and the Anglo-Russian Question; Persia and the Persian Question; Problems of the Far East: Japan - Korea - China.
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GEORGE CUSTER

George Armstrong Custer was an American soldier. He was born in 1839 at Ohio and died in 1876. He served throughout the American Civil War and distinguished himself at Gettysburg as commander of the Michigan brigade, also winning fame at Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Waynesboro, Five Forks and Dinwiddie Court House. In 1876, being then a general in the regular army, he was overpowered by the Sioux Indians at the Little Big Horn River, and his entire command was slain.
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GEORGE CZERNY

George Czerny (real name George Petrovitch) was hospodar of Serbia. He was born about 1770 at the neighbourhood of Belgrade about 1770 and died in 1817 when he was beheaded by the Turks. His real name was George Petrovitch, but he was called Czerny or Kara George, i.e. Black George. In 1801 he organized an insurrection of his countrymen against the Turks, took Belgrade, and forced the Porte to recognize him as hospodar of Serbia. In 1813, however, he had to retire before a superior force, and took refuge in Austria. Returning to his country in 1817 he was taken and put to death.
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GEORGE D. AIKEN

George D Aiken was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Vermont from 1937 until 1941.
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GEORGE D. BUSBEE

George D Busbee was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Georgia from 1975 until 1983.
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GEORGE D. CLYDE

George D Clyde was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Utah from 1957 until 1965.
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GEORGE D. ROBINSON

George D Robinson was an American politician. He was born in 1834 and died in 1896. He represented Massachusetts in the US Congress as a Republican from 1877 to 1883. He was Governor of Massachusetts from 1883 to 1886.
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GEORGE DALGARNO

George Dalgarno was a Scottish educationalist. He was born in 1627 at Aberdeen and died in 1687. He took up his residence at Oxford, where he taught at a private grammar-school for about thirty years, and where he died on August the 28th 1687. He was a man of great originality and acquirement, and left behind him two remarkable works, Ars Signorum, an essay on a universal or philosophical language, and Didascalocophus, or 'the Deaf and Dumb Man's Tutor'.
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GEORGE DALLAS

George Mifflin Dallas was an American politician. He was born in 1792 and died in 1864. He was Vice-President of the United States, had a training in diplomacy and law, was mayor of Philadelphia, and district attorney. From 1831 to 1833 he was US Senator from Pennsylvania, and was Attorney-General of the State in the two succeeding years. From 1837 until 1939 he was US Minister to Russia. When Polk was nominated by the Democrats in 1844, Dallas received the second honour, as a kind of protectionist gift to hold Pennsylvania. They were elected, and Dallas served as Vice-President from 1845 until 1849. In spite of his supposed protectionist leanings Dallas gave the casting vote in the Senate in favour of the Walker Tariff of 1846. His last public office was that of Minister to England from 1856 until 1861.
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GEORGE DANTON

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George Jacques Danton was one of the leaders of the French revolution. He was born in 1759 and died in 1794. His colossal stature, athletic frame, and powerful voice contributed not a little, together with his intellectual gifts and audacity, to win him a prominent position amongst the revolutionaries. He founded the club of the Cordeliers, was foremost in organizing and conducting the attack on the Tuileries, on August the 10th, 1792, and as a reward for such services was made minister of justice and a member of the provisional executive council. When the advance of the Prussian army spread consternation amongst the members of the government George Danton alone preserved his courage, and in a celebrated speech summoned all Frenchmen capable of bearing arms to march against the enemy.

He voted for the capital punishment of all returning aristocrats, but undertook the defence of religious worship, and along with Robespierre brought Jacques Hebert and the worshippers of the goddess Reason to the scaffold. But the rivalry of the two great leaders had now reached a point when one must succumb, and the crafty Robespierre succeeded in having George Danton denounced and thrown into prison, on the 31st of March, 1794. Five days afterwards he was condemned by the revolutionary tribunal as an accomplice in a conspiracy for the restoration of monarchy, and executed the same day.
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GEORGE DE LACY EVANS

Sir George de Lacy Evans was a British soldier. He was born in 1787 at Moig in Ireland and died in 1870. After some years of service in India he joined the army of Wellington in the Peninsula in 1812, where he served with distinction. In 1814 he was sent to America, where he led the British soldiers who destroyed the public buildings in Washington, America in 1814, and served at Bladensburg, Baltimore and New Orleans. He returned to Europe in time to take part in the Battle of Waterloo. In 1830 and 1831 he was elected member for Rye, and in 1833 for Westminster. In 1835 he was appointed to the command of 10,000 troops raised in Britain on behalf of the Queen of Spain. Under the training of Evans this force became an excellent army, and several times defeated the Carlists. During the Crimean War he distinguished himself as commander of the second division of the English army, and received the thanks of the House and other honours.
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GEORGE DEUKMEJIAN

George Deukmejian was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of California from 1983 until 1991.
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GEORGE DEWEY

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George Dewey was an American admiral. He was born in 1837 and died in 1917. He fought under David Farragut in the American Civil War. He commanded the Asiatic squadron in the Spanish-American War, and engaged and destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila in 1898 without loss to his own side.
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GEORGE DIXON

George Dixon was an English educational reformer. He was born in 1820 at Gomersal near Bradford and died in 1898. He was instrumental in the founding of the National Education League in 1868.
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GEORGE DOCKING

George Docking was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Kansas from 1957 until 1961.
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GEORGE DOO

George Thomas Doo was an English engraver. He was born in 1800 and died in 1886. He became early known as an excellent artist, and was appointed historical engraver to William IV and subsequently to Queen Victoria. He was elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1856, and next year Academician. Among his important plates were Knox preaching before the Lords of the Covenant (Wilkie), Mercy appealing for the Vanquished (Etty), Lord Eldon and other portraits (Lawrence), Pilgrims in Sight of Rome (Eastlake), The Messiah (Raphael), Ecce Homo (Correggio), Raising of Lazarus (Del Piombo), etc. He also painted portraits in oil.
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GEORGE DOWNIE

George Downie was a British naval officer., He was born in Ireland and died in 1814. In 1812 he commanded the Canadian squadron, and was killed at the Battle of Plattsburg, fighting against Commodore Macdonough.
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GEORGE DOWNING

Sir George Downing was an American politician. He was bown in 1623 and died in 1684. Educated at Harvard College, he went to England in 1645, and was envoy of Cromwell and of Charles II to the Netherlands, from 1657 until 1663 and in 1671. He is said to have instigated the conquest of New Netherland.
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GEORGE DRUCE

George Claridge Druce was a British botanist. He was born in 1840 at Potterspury and died in 1932. He was mayor of Oxford and helped to found the Ashmolean Natural History Society of Oxford in 1880. He published The Flora of Oxfordshire in 1886.
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GEORGE DRUMMOND

Sir George Gordon Drummond was a British soldier. He was born in 1771 and died in 1854. He served in Canada from 1808 to 1811 and again from 1813 to 1816. He stormed Niagara captured Oswego, commanded at Lundy's Lane, and from 1814 to 1816 administered the government of Canada.
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GEORGE DU MAURIER

George Louis Palmella Busson Du Maurier was an English artist and writer. He was born in 1834 at Paris and died in 1896. The son of an English mother and a French man who had been naturalized as a British subject. He studied chemistry in London, but soon adopted art as a profession. After studying in Belgium and France he returned to London, and soon began to contribute drawings to Punch, Once a Week, Cornhill Magazine, etc. He succeeded Leech on Punch, and became famous chiefly through his drawings for that publication. He also illustrated various books, and wrote Trilby and two Other tales.
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GEORGE E. CHAMBERLAIN

George E Chamberlain was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Oregon from 1903 until 1909.
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GEORGE EASTMAN

George Eastman was an American inventor. He was born in 1854 and died in 1932. In 1880 he developed a process for making dry photographic plates and subsequently pioneered the use of transparent photographic film. He established the Kodak camera company, marketing the first Kodak camera in 1888, and providing a developing and printing service.
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GEORGE ELIOT

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George Eliot was the published name of Mary Ann Evans (Marian Evans), an English writer. She was born in 1819 at Griff near Nuneaton and died in 1880. She was the daughter of a Warwickshire land-agent and surveyor, and received an excellent education at Coventry, comprising the classical and modern languages, and shortly after her twenty-first birthday she became a convert to Rationalism.

Her first literary undertaking was the completion of Mrs. Hennell's translation of Strauss's Life of Jesus (1846). After spending two years abroad she boarded at the house of John Chapman, editor of the Westminster Review, of which she became sub-editor. It was not, however, until January, 1857, that she came prominently into public notice, when the first of a series of tales entitled Scenes from Clerical Life appeared in Blackwood's Magazine. These were written anonymously, and when it was assumed to have been written by a man she adopted her nom de plume. The series came to an end in November, 1857, and in the following year the publication of Adam Bede placed her in the first rank of writers of fiction. It was succeeded by the Mill on the Floss published in 1860, Silas Marner published in 1861, Eomola (1863), Felix Holt (1866), Middlemarch (1872), and Daniel Deronda (1876). In addition to those prose works she published three volumes of poems, The Spanish Gypsy (1818), Agatha (1869), and the Legend of Jubal (1874). Her last work published during her life was the series of essays entitled The Impressions of Theophrastus Such (1879), but a volume of mixed essays was issued posthumously. For many years she was happily associated both in life and work with George Henry Lewes, though marriage was impossible during the lifetime of Mrs. Lewes. In May, 1880, after Mr. Lewes' death, she married Mr. John Cross, but did not survive the marriage many months, dying rather suddenly at Chelsea on the 22nd of December of that year.
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GEORGE ELKINGTON

George Elkington was an English silver-plater. He was born in 1801 and died in 1865. In 1840 he took over John Wright's invention of an electro-plating process and founded the English electro-plating industry.
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GEORGE ELLIOT

Augustus Elliot (Baron Heathfield) was a British soldier. He was born in 1718 at Roxburghshire and died in 1790. He studied at the University of Leyden, and at the French military school at La Fere, and served for some time in the Prussian army. He entered the British army in 1735, was wounded at Dettingen in 1743, and in 1762 took part in the capture of Havannah. In 1775 he became commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, and soon after governor of Gibraltar.

Spain and France having sided with America against Britain, Gibraltar was besieged by the two former powers, and successfully defended by George Elliot from 1779 to 1783, the siege and defence being among the most memorable in history. The king sent George Elliot the order of the Bath, and shortly after he returned to England, and was created Baron Heathfield in 1787.
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GEORGE ELLIS

George Ellis was an English man of letters. He was born in 1753 and died in 1815. Educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was one of the junta of wits concerned in the well-known political satire, The Rolliad, contributed to the Anti-Jacobin, wrote a preface, notes, and appendix to Way's translation of Le Grand's Fabliaux, and published Specimens of the Early English Poets, with an Historical Sketch (1790), and Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances (1805). He was an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott.
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GEORGE ENGLEHEART

George Engleheart was an English miniature painter. He was born in 1752 and died in 1839. He painted numerous portraits of George III and copied in miniature form the paintings of Sir Joshua Reynolds.
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GEORGE ETHEREGE

Sir George Etherege was an English comedy writer. He was born about 1636 and died about 1688. He studied at Cambridge, travelled afterwards on the Continent, and then returned to enter himself at one of the Inns of Court. But he devoted himself less to legal studies than to literature and society. In l664 he had his first comedy represented, The Comical Revenge, or, Love in a Tub, which was well received. Four years later his She Would if She Could, appeared, a brilliant play though frivolous and immoral. Eight years afterwards in 1676 he produced his best comedy, The Man of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter. Etherege's plays are witty and sparkling, and the characters, genuine portraits of the men and women he saw, are vividly if lightly drawn.
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GEORGE EVANS

George Evans was an American politician. He was born in 1797 at Portland, Maine and died in 1867. He was a member of the State Legislature from 1825 until 1828. He represented Maine in the House of Representatives from 1829 until 1841, and was elected to the Senate, serving from 1841 to 1847. He was chairman of the Committee on Finance, and was an authority on questions of the tariff and finance.
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GEORGE EVEREST

Sir George Everest was a British military engineer. He was born in 1790 at Gwernvale and died in 1866. He went to India in 1806 where he improved the outlets of the Ganges. From 1813 to 1815 he surveyed Java. He gave his name to mount Everest in the Himalayas.
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GEORGE F. DREW

George F Drew was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Florida from 1877 until 1881.
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GEORGE F. FORT

George F Fort was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey from 1851 until 1854.
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GEORGE F. SHAFER

George F Shafer was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of New Dakota from 1929 until 1933.
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GEORGE FABER

George Stanley Faber was an English theological writer. He was born in 1773 near Bradford in Yorkshire and died in 1854. He was educated at Oxford, and became a fellow of Lincoln College. He was appointed Bampton Lecturer in 1801; became a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral in 1831, and master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham, in 1832. Amongst his principal writings are Horse Mosaicas, The Doctrine of Regeneration, A Dissertation on the Prophecies.
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GEORGE FARQUHAR

George Farquhar was an Irish comic writer. He was born in 1678 at Londonderry and died in 1707. He tried the stage as an actor at Dublin, but soon left it to write plays for the London theatres. His first production was Love in a Bottle, performed at Drury Lane with great success in 1698. The Constant Couple, Sir Harry Wildair, The Inconstant, The Recruiting Officer, The Beaux' Stratagem (reckoned his masterpiece) followed during the next six years. Farquhar's wit is genuine, and his characters drawn from nature; and his plays have the licentious aspect of the time.
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GEORGE FENN

George Manville Fenn was a British novelist. He was born in 1831 and died in 1909. He became a teacher and later turned to literature. He contributed short sketches to All the Year Round, Chambers's Journal, and Once a Week (of which he became proprietor), and also to the Star newspaper. In 1867 he published Hollowdell Grange, a story for boys, which was followed by a long series of tales and novels, many of them boys' stories. They include Bent, not Broken (1867); The Parson o' Dumford; Eli's Children; The New Mistress; Double Cunning; The Master of the Ceremonies; The Man with a Shadow; A Double Knot; The Mynns Mystery; King of the Castle; In an Alpine Valley; Bluejackets; High Play. A number of his tales were specially written for Christmas. His boys' books include: In the King's Name, Nat the Naturalist, Bunyip Land, Menhardoc, Patience Wins, Brownsmith's Boy, Commodore Junk, The Crystal Hunters, The Grand Chaco, Bluejackets, Fire Island, etc. George Fenn also produced, either alone or in collaboration, several works for the stage.
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GEORGE FINLAY

George Finlay was an English historian. He was born in 1799 at Faversham, Kent and died in 1875. Moved by the Hellenic struggle for independence, he visited Greece in 1823 and entered the cause. After independence in 1829 he settled near Athens and devoted his time to agricultural and fiscal reforms. Failing to regenerate modern Greece, he sought consolation in writing the history of the country. This was published in stages from 1844 to his death, and then reissued at Oxford in 1877 becoming the standard English work on the subject.
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GEORGE FOX

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George Fox was the founder of the Society Of Friends. He was born in 1624 and died in 1691. A man of poor education, but deep moral earnestness he had passed through very deep spiritual experiences in his search for God, and believed that, when no help had come to him from people. Books or churches, that at last God had spoken directly to him as He had the ancient prophets. George Fox preached widely, gathering together followers as 'Children of the Light, and were widely persecuted by the orthodox church who viewed his teachings as subversive.
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GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL

George Friderick Handel (properly Haendel) was a German composer. He was born in 1685 at Halle and died in 1759.

The strong passion which he showed early in life for the art of music overcame his father's opposition to training him as a musician, and at the age of seven he was placed under the tuition of Zachau, organist of Halle Cathedral, and was soon so far advanced in the practical part of the science as to be able to officiate occasionally as deputy to his instructor.

In 1696 he was sent to Berlin, where he heard the music of Bononcini and Ariosti, then at the head of the Berlin Opera House. He returned to Halle, was appointed organist of the cathedral in 1702, but soon left to visit Hanover and Hamburg, where Steffani and Reinhard Keiser, the latter the greatest German operatic composer of his day, resided. At Hamburg he played second violin in the orchestra, and in 1794 brought out his first work, an oratorio on the Passion, and his first opera, Almira, followed in February by his Nero, and subsequently by his Florinda and Daphne.


In 1706 he went to Italy, visiting Florence, Venice, Naples, and Rome. On his return to Germany he entered the service of the Elector of Hanover, afterwards George I of England, as musical director.

He visited England twice, and ultimately, having received a pension from Queen Anne, settled down there. For some years his popularity was very great. He
was placed at the head of the newly-founded Royal Academy of Music, and accumulated a large fortune in spite of the heavy losses which he incurred by setting up an opera company in 1735 in opposition to that supported by the leading nobility and the principal Italian singers.

Amongst the operas which he had composed up to this date are: Radamisto, Ottone, Giulio Cesare, Flavio, Tamerlano, Scipio, Ricardo I, Orlando, Ariadne, etc. His last opera was performed in 1740. By this time he had begun to devote himself chiefly to music of a serious nature, especially the oratorio. The approval which his first works of this kind (Esther, 1731; Deborah, 1732; Athalia, 1733) had met with encouraged him to new efforts; and he produced in succession Israel in Egypt, L'Allegro and Il Penseroso, Saul, and The Messiah. The last-mentioned, which is his chief work, was brought out in 1741, for the benefit of the Foundling Hospital. It was not much appreciated at the first representation, but increased in reputation every year.

In 1742 the Samson appeared, in 1746 the Judas Maccabseus, in 1748 the Solomon, and in 1752 the Jephthah. In 1752 he became blind, but did not lose his spirits, continuing to perform in public and even to compose.

After his death he was buried in Westminster Abbey. Handel was of large and ungainly person. His manners were rough and his temper violent, but his disposition was humane and liberal. As a musician his characteristics are boldness and strength of style and combination of vigour, spirit, and invention in his instrumental compositions.
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GEORGE GALLOWAY

George Galloway is a Scottish politician. He was born in 1954. Under the Blair government, he opposed the invasion of Iraq and move away from traditional socialist policies by the Labour party was subsequently expelled from the Labour party, was a founder member of the socialist Respect party and successfully rebuffed a campaign of libel and slander mounted against him in an attempt to discredit him.
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GEORGE GASCOIGNE

George Gascoigne was an English poet. He was born in 1535 and died in 1577. Educated at Cambridge, he was admitted to Gray's Inn in 1555. Being disinherited by his father, he served with distinction in Holland and was made a prisoner by the Spaniards, but returned safely to England, and died at Stamford in 1577. He is chiefly remembered for his blank-verse satire, The Steele Glas published in 1576, and the Complaynt of Philomene, a rhyming elegy published also in 1576, but he also wrote two or three comedies and tragedies.
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GEORGE GERMAINE

Lord George Germaine was an English statesman. He was born in 1716 and died in 1785. He was appointed colonial secretary by George III of England in 1775, and superintended the conduct of the British forces during the American War of Independence. He advocated vigorous measures against the colonies, enlisted the services of the Six Nations, and was influential in the bribery of Benedict Arnold. He resigned in 1782.
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GEORGE GERSHWIN

George Gershwin was an American composer. He was born in 1898 at New York and died in 1937. He produced Porgy and Bess which was the first American folk opera.
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GEORGE GILFILLAN

George Gilfillan was a Scottish writer. He was born in 1813 and died in 1878. He studied at Glasgow University and in 1835 he became a licentiate of the Secession (Presbyterian) Church, and in 1836 was ordained to the School Wynd Church, Dundee. His numerous writings, among which may be mentioned A Gallery of Literary Portraits, and The Bards of the Bible, possess a vigorous style and great powers of fancy.
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GEORGE GOETHALS

George Washington Goethals was an American army engineer. He was born in 1858 and died in 1928. He gained world-wide distinction as constructor of the Panama Canal. He entered the engineering branch of the US army in 1880, subsequently becoming an instructor in civil and military engineering at West Point.

He commanded engineers in a volunteer force during the Spanish American War, and afterwards served as a member of Board of Fortifications, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1907. He was appointed by President Taft chief engineer of the Panama Canal in 1907, which he carried to successful completion in April 1914, and subsequently from 1914 to 1917 was first civil governor of the Canal zone, being promoted major-general in 1915.

In 1917 he was recalled to take charge of a programme of marine construction, designed to supply quickly several thousand small wooden vessels, as a means of coping with the submarine menace, and his efficient mobilization of the nation's ship building resources helped greatly in countering the German U-Boat campaign during the Great War.
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GEORGE GOLDIE

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Sir George Dashwood Taubman Goldie was a British administrator. He was Born in 1846 at the Isle of Man, and died in 1925. The son of Colonel Goldie-Taubman, Speaker of the House of Keys, he was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and obtained a commission in the Royal Engineers. A pioneer in the development of Nigeria, and governor of the territory of
the Royal Niger Company from 1895-1899, when it was taken over by the imperial government, he attended the Berlin Conference as an authority on Niger affairs in 1884, directed the Niger-Sudan campaign, and in 1897 accompanied the Kabba, Bida, and Ilorin expeditions. In 1887 he resumed his paternal name of Goldie only, and was made KCMG. He was sworn of the privy council in 1898. He served upon several royal commissions, and became president of the Royal Geographical Society and of the National Defence Association.
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GEORGE GORDON

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George Hamilton Gordon, earl of Aberdeen, was a British statesman. He was born in 1784 and died in 1860. He began his diplomatic life in 1801 as attache to Lord Cornwallis' embassy to France, which resulted in the signing of the treaty of Amiens. In 1806 he entered parliament as a Scottish representative peer, and in 1813 was intrusted with a successful mission to Austria for the purpose of inducing the emperor to join the coalition of sovereigns against Napoleon Bonaparte.


In 1814 he was created a British peer, and in 1828 he became foreign secretary under the Duke of Wellington's administration. During the short premiership of Sir Robert Peel in 1834-1835 he acted as colonial secretary, and when Sir Robert Peel again became premier in 1841 he took office as secretary for foreign affairs. Quitting office with his chief in 1846, he came, on the death of Peel in 1850, to be regarded as the leader of the Conservative free-trade party. On the Derby ministry failing to maintain its place Lord Aberdeen returned to office in the end of 1852 as head of a coalition ministry. The principal event which marked his administration was the Crimean war; but the bad management of this irritated the country, and the ministry resigned in 1855. This event marks the close of Lord Aberdeen's public career. From his travels and his acquaintance with Greece and its antiquities he was called by Lord Byron 'the travelled thane, Athenian Aberdeen.'
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GEORGE GOSCHEN

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George Joachim Goschen was an English politician and financier. He was born in 1831 at London and died in 1907. Of German extraction, he was educated at Rugby and Oxford. He entered parliament in 1863. In 1865 he was sworn of the privy-council on becoming a member of the Russell ministry. In 1868 he became president of the poor law board, and subsequently first lord of the Admiralty. On several occasions he found himself unable to move with the Liberal party; and when in 1886 Gladstone launched his Home Rule scheme for Ireland, George Goschen became one of the leaders of the Liberal-Unionists. The same year he succeeded Lord Churchill as chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Salisbury, and in 1895 he again took office under the same leader as first lord of the admiralty. In 1900 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Goschen. He was author of a well-known work on the Theory of Foreign Exchanges.
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GEORGE GRAHAM

George Graham was an English mechanic and watchmaker. He was born in 1675 at Cumberland. He succeeded Tompion the watchmaker in business in London, and invented several important astronomical instruments. He invented the dead-beat escapement and a compensation pendulum for clocks.

George Graham was an American politician. He was born in 1772 and died in 1830. He commanded in the War of 1812, was acting Secretary of War from 1815 to 1817, and was US Land Commissioner from 1833 to 1830.
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GEORGE GRANT

George Munro Grant was a Canadian author and educationalist. He was born in 1835 at Nova Scotia and died in 1902. He was educated at Pictou Academy, and at West River Seminary of the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia, gaining there a bursary which entitled him to continue his studies at Glasgow University. Here he studied with distinction both in arts and theology, and took the degree of MA. Returning to Canada he was for some time a missionary, then pastor of St Matthew's Church, Halifax. In 1877 he was appointed principal of Queen's University, .Kingston, Ontario, a position which he filled with great ability. He wrote Ocean to Ocean, being the account of a tour across the Dominion; edited Picturesque Canada, and contributed to various periodicals.
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GEORGE GRANVILLE

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George Leveson-Gowes Granville, 2nd Earl of Granville, was an English statesman. He was was born in 1815 at London and died in 1891. Educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford he entered parliament in 1836 as a Liberal member for Morpeth, afterwards for Lichfield. In 1840 he became under-secretary for foreign affairs, in 1846 succeeded to the peerage, in 1848 was appointed vice-president of the Board of Trade, and in 1851 succeeded Palmerston as foreign secretary. In 1855 he became chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, president of the council, and ministerial leader of the House of Lords (a position he held from 1855 until 1858), and in 1856 represented the British crown at the coronation of the Czar Alexander. From 1859 to 1866 he was again president of the council. In 1868 he was colonial secretary under William Gladstone, and on the death of Clarendon in 1870 succeeded to the secretaryship for foreign affairs, which he held until 1874. During this period he negotiated the Treaty of 1870, guaranteeing the independence of Belgium, and 'protested' against the Russian repudiation of the Black Sea clause of the Treaty of Paris. On the return of William Gladstone to office in 1880 Lord Granville again became foreign secretary, until Lord Salisbury came into power in 1885. The close of the struggle with the Boers, the protest against the French occupation of Tunis, the revolt of Arabi Pasha in Egypt, the appearance of the Mahdi, the occupation of Egypt, the Gordon mission, and Wolseley expedition belong to this period. In the short William Gladstone ministry of 1886 he was colonial secretary.
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GEORGE GRENVILLE

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George Grenville was an English statesman. He was born in 1712 and died in 1770. He became a member of the English Parliament in 1741, was a lord of the Admiralty in 1744, a lord of the Treasury in 1747, treasurer of the navy and privy councillor in 1754, leader of the House of Commons in 1761, secretary of state and first lord of the Admiralty in 1762, and was first lord of the Treasury (Prime Minister) and chancellor of the exchequer, from 1763 to 1765. In 1765 he secured the passage of the act imposing stamp duties on America, and strenuously opposed the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766. He was an able statesman, but possessed a very imperious nature.
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GEORGE GREY

Sir George Grey was a British statesman, colonial governor and explorer. He was born in 1812 at Lisbon, Portugal and died in 1898, was for ten years in the army, carried on explorations in Australia in 1837-39, and in 1841 was appointed governor of South Australia, becoming governor of New Zealand in 1846, where he had Maori and other troubles to deal with.

Between 1854 and 1861 he was governor of Cape Colony, a post in which he was highly successful, his prompt despatch of all available troops to aid in quelling the Indian mutiny being a noteworthy incident. From 1861 to 1867 he was again governor of New Zealand; had hostilities with the Maoris, gave offence to the home government, and was recalled. Subsequently between 1877 and 1880 he was premier of New Zealand. Later he lived in England, and died in London in 1898. Besides publishing an account of his Australian explorations he published Poems, Traditions, and Chants of the Maories; Polynesian Mythology, and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race, etc.
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GEORGE GROTE

George Grote was an English historian and politician. He was born in 1794 and died in 1871. His grandfather, descended from German ancestors, was one of the original partners of the London banking-house of Prescott, Grote, and Co. Having been educated at Sevenoaks and at the Charterhouse, in 1810 he entered as a clerk in his father's banking establishment. As early as 1823 he began to collect materials for his History of Greece. In 1832 he was elected a member of parliament for the city of London, and his subsequent parliamentary career, until his retirement in 1811, was principally devoted to the advocacy of vote by ballot. He was also a leader of the 'Philosophic Radicals.' In 1846 appeared the first two volumes of his History of Greece The remaining ten volumes followed in rapid succession, the final volume being published in 1856. The work terminates with the death of Alexander the Great, and as a whole is a monument of erudition. In 1865 he published Plato and the Other Companions of Sokrates, and was engaged at the time of his death on an elaborate treatise on Aristotle and the Peripatetics. In the latter part of his life he was concerned in the management of University College, the London University, and the British Museum.
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GEORGE GROVE

Sir George Grove was an English writer. He was born in 1820 and died in 1900. He was trained as a civil engineer, in which capacity he was connected with the Britannia Tubular Bridge and other important works. For a long while he was secretary to the Crystal Palace Company, and did much for the popularizing of classical music in connection with its concerts. For some years he edited Macmillan's Magazine, and he was editor of, and a contributor to, the great Dictionary of Music, published in 1878-1889. He was also an extensive contributor to Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. He was knighted in 1883.
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GEORGE GUESS

George Guess (Sequoyah Guess) was an American linguist. He was born in 1770 and died in 1843. Half Indian and half White, he devised the alphabet used by the Cherokees. It consists of eighty-five characters, mostly borrowed from the English, each representing a single sound.
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GEORGE H THOMAS

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George Henry Thomas was an American soldier. He was born in 1816 at Virginia and died in 1870. Educated at West Point, he fought against the Seminoles and served in the Mexican War being distinguished at Monterey and Buena Vista, and on the outbreak of the American Civil War, though a Southerner by birth, adhered to the Union, and was given command of a brigade. In the summer of 1861 he had charge of a brigade in Virginia, and later in the year was promoted to the command of a division in the Western army. His first success was the victory of Mill Springs in 1862. In 1865 he commanded a corps in the campaign of Middle Tennessee, and by his stand at Chickamauga neutralised the Confederate success. He succeeded Rosecrans in command of the Army of the Cumberland. In 1864 he defeated Hood at Nashville.
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GEORGE H. DERN

George H Dern was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Utah from 1925 until 1933.
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GEORGE H. EARLE

George H Earle was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Pennsylvania from 1935 until 1939.
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GEORGE H. PROUTY

George H Prouty was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Vermont from 1908 until 1910.
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GEORGE H. UTTER

George H Utter was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Rhode Island from 1905 until 1907.
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GEORGE HANDLEY

George Handley was an American politician. He was a governor of Georgia from 1788 until 1789.
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GEORGE HARTSHORN HODGES

George Hartshorn Hodges was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Kansas from 1913 until 1915.
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GEORGE HARVEY

Sir George Harvey was a Scottish painter. He was born in 1806 at St Ninians, near Stirling and died in 1876. At the age of eighteen he entered the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh. In 1826 he became an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, and in 1829 an Academician. He was highly successful in depicting scenes connected with the religious history of Scotland, such as The Covenanters Preaching, The Battle of Drumclog, Quitting the Manse, etc. He also excelled in depicting mountain scenery. In 1864 he was elected president of the Royal Scottish Academy, and he was knighted in 1867.
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GEORGE HEAD

Sir George Head was a British soldier and travel writer. He was born in 1782 and died in 1855. He held various posts in the army, and was present at most of the great battles of the Peninsula. In 1814 he proceeded to Canada to be chief of the commissariat of a proposed navy on the Canadian lakes, and subsequently published his experiences in forest Scenes and Incidents in the Wilds of North America. He was knighted in 1831. He also wrote Rome, A Tour of Many Days, translations of Pacca's Memoirs, and of Apuleius, with other works.
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GEORGE HENTY

George Alfred Henty was a writer of novels, boys' stories, etc. He was born in 1832 and died in 1902. He was for a time connected with the army, and was a war correspondent in several campaigns, but was most widely known as the author of a large number of stimulating stories of adventure, many of them based on famous historical events, and calculated to interest boys in history, while giving in an attractive form information of some value from an educational point of view.
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GEORGE HERBERT

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George Herbert was a British poet and divine. He was born in 1593 and died in 1633. The brother of Edward Herbert (Lord Herbert of Cherbury), he was educated at Westminster and at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow in 1615. From 1619 until 1627 he was university orator. The death of James I in 1625 put an end to his prospects of civil promotion, and in the same year he took orders, and became a prebendary in the diocese of Lincoln. In 1630 he took priest's orders, and was presented to the rectory of Bemerton, near Salisbury, in Wiltshire.

His collection of religious poems, The Temple, was published in 1631, and the Jacula Prudentum, a collection of proverbs, in 1640. His poems bear the marks of an exceptionally fine nature, if not of genius, but they are marred by conceits and mannerisms. His chief prose work was The Country Parson published in 1652.
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GEORGE HERBERT SCOTT

Major George Herbert Scott was a British airship pilot. He was born in 1888 and died in 1930. He was educated at the Royal Naval Engineering College, Keyham and in 1914 he joined the Royal Naval Air Service and specialized in airship work. In 1915 he was appointed to the command of the Parseval P4, and in 1917 became captain of the first British rigid airship, B9. He was in command of the R34 when it made the first double crossing of the Atlantic by air, for which Scott received the CBE.

In 1920 Scott was appointed to the technical staff at the Royal Airship works, Cardington, and carried out work on mooring-mast systems which made it possible for airships to moor out in the open. In 1924 he became officer in charge of Flying and Training in the Airship Directorate, and in January, 1930, Assistant Director (Flying). He carried out the trials of R 100 and R 101, and was the officer in charge when R 100 flew to Canada and back in 1930.

A Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society, he was awarded the R38 Memorial Prize in 1923, and read a number of papers on airship subjects before the Society, which became standard papers.
G H Scott was a great airship pioneer with extremely wide experience and ability. He was killed in the disaster of the R 101 in October, 1930.
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GEORGE HERIOT

George Heriot was a jeweller and philanthropist. He was born in 1563 and died in 1624. He followed his father's profession, and was admitted a member of the Incorporation of Goldsmiths in 1588. In 1597 he was appointed goldsmith to the queen by James VI, and on the accession of the latter to the English crown followed the court to England. From his settlement in London little is known of his history. He left nearly the whole of his fortune to found an hospital in Edinburgh for the maintenance and education of poor fatherless boys, freemen's sons, of the town.
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GEORGE HEWES

George R T Hewes was an American patriot. He was born in 1751 and died in 1840. He was one of the foremost among the patriots that took part in the 'Boston Tea Party' protest in 1773. He afterwards joined the army and was stationed at West Point.
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GEORGE HICKES

George Hickes was an English divine, philologist, and antiquary. He was was born in 1642 and died in 1715. He became dean of Worcester in 1683, but of this he was deprived in 1690 for refusing to take the oaths to William III. after the Revolution. He followed the fortunes of James II, and was consecrated suffragan Bishop of Thetford in 1694 by the non-juring Archbishop Bancroft. Of his numerous works the most important are Institutiones Grammaticse Anglo-Saxonicae et Moeso-Gothicae, etc. (Oxon. 1689), and Linguarum veterum septentrionalium Thesaurus Grammatico-Criticus et Archaeologicus (Oxon. 1705).
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GEORGE HOADLY

George Hoadly was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Ohio from 1884 until 1886.
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GEORGE HOLLINS

George N Hollins was an American sailor. He was born in 1799 and died in 1878. He served in the Algerian War in 1815. By his unauthorized bombardment of Nicaragua in 1855 he nearly involved the United States in difficulties with Great Britain. A Confederate naval officer during the American Civil War, he commanded the naval forces below New Orleans which Farragut defeated in April, 1863.
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GEORGE HOWARD

George Howard was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Maryland from 1831 until 1833.
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GEORGE HUNT PENDLETON

George Hunt Pendleton was an American politician. He was born in 1835 and died in 1889. He was a member of the Ohio Senate, and from 1857 to 1865 was a Democratic Congressman and sat in important committees. When McClellan was nominated for President in 1864, George Hunt Pendleton received the second place on the ticket. In 1869 he was defeated for Governor of Ohio. While US Senator from 1879 to 1885, he was chairman of the Committee on Civil Service Reform, and his name is attached to an act in furtherance of that measure. President Cleveland in 1885 appointed Senator George Hunt Pendleton Minister to Germany, where he remained until 1889.
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GEORGE I

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George I (George Louis) was King of Great Britain and Ireland and elector of Hanover. He was born in 1660 and died in 1727. He reigned from 1714 until his death in 1727. As Sophia, Electress of Hanover, had died two months before Queen Anne, Sophia's eldest son George, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne under the Act of Settlement despite their being some fifty Roman Catholic relatives with stronger claims. His claim to the throne was challenged by James Stuart, the Roman Catholic son of James II, who landed in Scotland in 1715, following a rising of Scottish clans on his behalf; this was unsuccessful and he soon withdrew. George I spoke German and French and a little English; he regularly visited Hanover to fulfil his duties there. Family tensions, including the imprisonment of his wife in 1694, and political intrigue led to differences and intense dislike between George I and his son, George. In 1719 and 1720, and during most of the King' s absences in Hanover, power was delegated to a Regency Council and not to his son the Prince of Wales. Unfamiliar with the customs of the country and lacking fluent English, George I was dependent on his ministers - the Whigs dominated Parliament during his reign. After 1717, George rarely attended Cabinet meetings and this allowed the Cabinet to act collectively and formulate policies, which, provided they were backed by a majority in the Commons, the king was usually powerless to resist. After the South Sea Bubble crisis of 1720, Robert Walpole took over.

George I, (King of the Hellenes) was king of Greece. He was born in 1845 at Copenhagen and died in 1913 when he was assassinated at Salonika. The second son of the king of Denmark - Kristian IX, in 1863 he was elected king by the Greek National Assembly. In 1867 he married the Princess Olga, a niece of the Russian czar. His conduct as a constitutional monarch was always correct and regular, and he won the popular sympathies by the efforts he has made on behalf of the expansion of Greek nationality.
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GEORGE II

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George II (nicknamed Prince Titi) was King of Great Britain and Ireland. He was born in 1683 and died in 1760. He was a soldier more than a politician, at the age of 60, he was the last British sovereign to fight alongside his soldiers, at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 in Germany, against the French. Like his father, for much of his reign George's political options were limited by the strength of the Jacobite cause (James Stuart the Old Pretender, and then his son, Charles Edward Stuart), with which many of the Tories were linked. George's reign was threatened in 1745 when Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, landed in Scotland. After some initial success (which led to the national anthem in its current form becoming popular among the Hanoverian loyalists), Charles was defeated at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 and the Jacobite threat was over.
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GEORGE III

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George III was King of Great Britain and Ireland. He was born in 1738 and died in 1820. The son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, he succeeded to the throne of England in 1760 and regained for the throne much of its former power, taking that power away from the powerful Whig aristocracy. George was a conscientious King and a devoted father and husband; his interest in botany and farming earned him the nickname 'Farmer George'. In 1788 he became mentally deranged, although this may have been due to porphyria, a hereditary physical disorder. George recovered by 1789, but then relapsed, becoming permanently deranged in 1810.
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GEORGE IV

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George IV (George Frederick Augustus, nicknamed The First Gentleman of Europe) was King of Great Britain and Ireland. He was born in 1762 and died in 1830. George IV was 48 when he became Regent in 1811. He had secretly and illegally married a Roman Catholic, Mrs Fitzherbert. In 1795 he officially married Princess Caroline of Brunswick, but the marriage was a failure and he tried unsuccessfully to divorce her after his accession in 1820. Their only child Princess Charlotte died giving birth to a stillborn child. An outstanding, if extravagant, collector and builder, George IV acquired many important works of art, built the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, and transformed Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. George's fondness for pageantry helped to develop the ceremonial side of monarchy.

After his father's long illness, George resumed royal visits; he visited Hanover in 1821 which had not been visited by its ruler since the 1750s, and Ireland and Scotland over the next couple of years. Beset by debts, George was in a weak position in relation to his Cabinet of ministers. His concern for royal prerogative was sporadic; when the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool fell ill in 1827, George at one stage suggested that ministers should choose Liverpool's successor. In 1829, George IV was forced by his ministers, much against his will and his interpretation of his coronation oath, to agree to Catholic Emancipation. By reducing religious discrimination, this emancipation enabled the monarchy to play a more national role. George's profligacy and marriage difficulties meant that he never regained much popularity, and he spent his final years in seclusion at Windsor, dying at the age of 67.
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GEORGE IZARD

George Izard was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1777 and died in 1828. He was commissioned major-general in 1814 for services in the War of 1812. He was Governor of Arkansas Territory from 1825 to 1828.
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GEORGE JAMES

George Payne Rainsford James was an English writer. He was born in 1801 at London and died in 1860. While still very young he manifested a considerable turn for literary composition, and in 1822 produced, a biography of Edward the Black Prince. Some years afterwards he composed his first novel, Richelieu, which was shown in manuscript to Sir Walter Scott, and published in 1829. Its success determined him towards fiction, and a series of novels, above sixty in number, followed from his pen in rapid succession, besides several historical and other works. Among them may be mentioned Darnley, De L'Orme, Philip Augustus, Henry Masterton, Mary of Burgundy, The Gipsy, History of Chivalry, Life of Charlemagne, etc. Latterly he accepted the office of British consul, first at Richmond, Virginia and afterwards at Venice.
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GEORGE JAMESONE

George Jamesone was a Scottish painter. He was born in 1586 at Aberdeen and died in 1644. He was called by Walpole the Scottish Vandyck. The son of an architect at Aberdeen, he studied under Rubens at Antwerp, where he had Antony Vandyck as a fellow-pupil. Returning to his native country in 1628, he became the most famous portrait-painter that Scotland had ever possessed. He also painted historical pieces and landscapes. His excellence consists in delicacy and softness of shading, and a clear and beautiful colouring.
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GEORGE JEFFREYS

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George Jeffreys (Baron Jeffreys, also known as Judge Jeffreys) was an English lawyer. He was born in 1648 at Acton, Denbighshire and died in 1689. Educated at St Paul's and Westminster schools and at Trinity College, Cambridge he was called to the bar in 1668 and in 1678 became recorder of the city of London, and he was appointed, successively, a Welsh judge and chief-justice of Chester. He was created a baronet in 1680, and latterly appointed chief-justice of the King's Bench whence he was the leading figure in the persecution of the figures involved in the 'Popish Plot', the trials of the 'Rye House' plotters and of Titus Oates. For his sanguinary and inhuman proceedings against the adherents of Monmouth on the 'bloody western circuit' he was rewarded with the post of lord high-chancellor in 1685. Following the revolution of 1688 he was captured while trying to flee the country disguised as a seaman and after being tried was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
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GEORGE K. NASH

George K Nash was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Ohio from 1900 until 1904.
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GEORGE KEMP

George Meikle Kemp was a Scottish architect. He was born in 1795 and died in 1844 by drowning in an Edinburgh Canal on a foggy night. Beginning as a shepherd, he subsequently became a carpenter and mill-wright, and latterly a designer in Edinburgh. His fame rests upon his design for the Scott monument in Edinburgh, which was accepted in 1838, but was not completed at his death.
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GEORGE KLAPKA

George Klapka was a Hungarian soldier and revolutionary. He was born in 1820 and died in 1892. Educated in the artillery school in Vienna he was appointed to a command in 1847. In the Hungarian rebellion of 1848 George Klapka joined the revolt as chief of the staff, and in 1849 he took command of an army corps. For the ability which he displayed be was made minister of war by Louis Kossuth. When the Hungarians were defeated, George Klapka refused to capitulate, and shut himself up in the fortress of Komorn, where he made a brilliant defence. Ultimately he surrendered under honourable conditions. He was compelled to leave the country, and so passed many of his years in exile. He wrote Memoirs of the War of Independence (published in 1850) and The National War in Hungary and Transylvania.
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GEORGE L. SHELDON

George L Sheldon was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Nebraska from 1907 until 1909.
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GEORGE L. SHOUP

George L Shoup was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Idaho during 1890.
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GEORGE L. WOODS

George L Woods was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Oregon from 1866 until 1870.
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GEORGE LANSBURY

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George Lansbury was a British politician and leader of the Parliamentary Labour Party from 1931 until 1935. He was born in 1859 and died in 1940.
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GEORGE LECLERC

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George Louis Leclerc, the Count de Buffon, was a French naturalist. He was born in 1707 at Montbard, in Burgundy and died in 1788. Being the son of a rich man he was able to travel, and he visited Italy and England. In 1739 he was appointed superintendent of the Royal Garden at Paris (now the Jardin des Plantes), and devoted himself to the great work on Natural History, which occupied the most of his life. It is now obsolete and of small scientific value, but it for long had an extraordinary popularity, and was the means of diffusing a taste for the study of nature throughout Europe. After an assiduous labour of ten years the three first volumes were published, and between 1749 and 1767 twelve others, which comprehend the theory of the earth, the nature of animals, and the history of man and the mammalia. In these Buffon was assisted by Daubenton in the purely anatomical portions. The nine following volumes, which appeared from 1770 to 1783, contain the history of birds, from which Daubenton withdrew his assistance, the author being now aided by Gueneau de Montbelliard, and afterwards by the Abbe Bexon.

Buffon published alone the five volumes on minerals, from 1783 to 1788. Of the seven supplementary volumes, of which the last did not appear until after his death in 1789, the fifth formed an independent whole, the most celebrated of all his works. It contains his Epochs of Nature, in which the author gives a second theory of the earth, very different from that which he had traced in the first volumes, though he assumes at the commencement the air of merely defending and developing the former. Buffon was raised to the rank of count by Louis XV, whose favour, as also that of Louis XVI he enjoyed. His works were translated into almost every European language.
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GEORGE LEWES

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George Henry Lewes was an English writer. He was born in 1817 at London and died in 1878. He was a clerk before studying medicine, and then philosophy in germany but soon abandoned his studies literature. His early writings were chiefly letters to periodicals, the most important were those on drama which were republished as 'Actors and the Art of Acting' in 1875. His first important work was his Biographical History of Philosophy from Thales to Oomte, originally published in 1845, and subsequently much extended and altered - a work written more or less from a Positivist point of view, and sufficiently proving his ability as a thinker and writer. From 1849 to 1854 he was editor of the 'Leader' and founded the ' Fortnightly Review' in 1865. In 1854 he commenced a relationship with George Eliot, which only ended with his death.
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GEORGE LEWIS

Sir George Cornewall Bart Lewis was an English statesman and historian. He was born in 1806 and died in 1863. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, and was called to the bar at the Middle Temple, but never practised.

In 1839 he succeeded his father as poor-law commissioner, holding that office until 1847, when he became secretary to the board of control. In 1844 he married a sister of the Earl of Clarendon, and in 1847 was elected member of parliament for Herefordshire, for which he sat until 1852. From 1852 to 1855 he was the editor of the Edinburgh Review.

In 1855 he succeeded his, father in the representation of Radnorshire, and was immediately appointed chancellor of the exchequer by Lord Palmerston. In 1859 he became secretary of state for the home department, and secretary of state for war in 1861.

His chief works were: Remarks on the Use and Abuse of Some Political Terms (1832); Essay on the Origin and Formation of the Romance Languages (1835); Essay on the Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion (1850); Inquiry into the Credibility of Early Roman History (1855); Astronomy of the Ancients (1861); and A Treatise on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics.
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GEORGE LILLO

George Lillo was an English dramatic writer. He was born in 1693at London and died in 1739. Although carrying on the trade of a jeweller, he found time to write a number of well-received pieces for the stage, distinguished by great knowledge of human nature and morality. The most successful was his domestic drama entitled The London Merchant, or the History of George Barnwell, 1731.
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GEORGE LONG

George Long was an English scholar. He was born in 1800 and died in 1879. He was educated at Cambridge, became professor of ancient languages in the University of Virginia in 1824; professor of Greek in the University of London in 1828, but resigned in 1831; professor of Latin at University College in 1842 until 1846; classical lecturer at Brighton College 1849 to 1871. He was one of the founders of the Royal Geographical Society, and did much work in connection with the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, including the editing of the Penny Cyclopaedia. He contributed largely to Smith's Dictionaries of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Biography, and Geography. Amongst his works are a translation of Select Lives from Plutarch (1844), a Classical Atlas (1854), The Decline of the Roman Republic (1864-74). He was also general editor of the Bibliotheca Classica, to which he contributed a valuable edition of Cicero's Orations.
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GEORGE LUNT

George Lunt was an American jurist and writer. He was born in 1803 and died in 1885. He served several terms in the Massachusetts Legislature. He was a US District Attorney from 1849 to 1853. While editor of the Boston Daily Courier from 1857 to 1865 he exerted a powerful influence on the Democratic politics of the period. He wrote Three Eras of New England and Origin of the Late War.
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GEORGE LYTTELTON

Lord George Lyttelton was an English poet and historian. He was born in 1709 and died in 1773. The eldest son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, baronet, he entered parliament in 1730, and joined the opposition led by Pitt and Pulteney. In 1756 he was raised to the peerage. He was on terms of intimacy with Pope, and the patron of yielding and Thomson. His Miscellanies in prose and verse had once a reputation, but are now forgotten. In his latter years he wrote his Dialogues of the Dead and a History of Henry II.
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GEORGE M. BIBB

George M. Bibb was an American politician. He was born in 1772 and died in 1859. Three times chosen as Chief Justice of Kentucky, he was a member of the US Senate from 1811 until 1814 and again from 1829 until 1835. He was Secretary of the Treasury under President John Tyler.
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GEORGE M. LEADER

George M Leader was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Pennsylvania from 1955 until 1959.
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GEORGE M. TROUP

George M Troup was an American politician. He was a Jeffersonian-Republican governor of Georgia from 1823 until 1827.
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GEORGE MACCLELLAN

George MacClellan was an American soldier. He was born in 1826 at Philadelphia and died in 1885. He was trained at the West Point Military School; served in the Mexican war; joined the Red River expedition as an engineer; and in 1855 was appointed to the commission which reported on the condition of European armies, and watched the military operations during- the Crimean War. At the outbreak of the American Civil War he superseded MacDowell after the first battle of Bull's Run; and became commander-in-chief on the 1st of November, 1861. In this capacity he organized the raw levies of the North and advanced against Richmond the following spring, but was relieved from his supreme command by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862, and thenceforth led the army of the Potomac in a series of engagements which terminated in the Seven Days' Battle, when he had to retire from his lines in front of Richmond. Afterwards, when Lee advanced into Maryland, MacClellan fought the battle of South Mountain and the Battle of Antietam (September 14th to 17th, 1862), and compelled the Confederate forces to retire. The political authorities being dissatisfied with his apparent slackness in following up this victory, MacClellan was relieved from his command and retired from the army. In 1864 he was nominated for the presidency, but was overwhelmingly defeated by Abraham Lincoln.
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GEORGE MACDONALD

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George MacDonald was a Scottish novelist and poet. He was born in 1824 at Huntley and died in 1905. Educated at King's College, Aberdeen he became an Independent minister, but soon retired from this position and adopted literature as a profession. Among his numerous novels are David Elginbrod, Alec Forbes, Annals of a Quiet Neighbourhood, Robert Falconer, Malcolm, The Marquis of Lossie, Castle Warlock, etc. He also published a good deal of poetry, stories for the young, Unspoken Sermons, etc.
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GEORGE MACKENZIE

Sir George Mackenzie was a Scottish lawyer. He was born in 1636 and died in 1691. He became king's advocate in 1677, in which capacity his persistent severity towards the covenanters acquired for him the title of 'the Bloody Mackenzie.' The revolution terminated his political career. Besides his Vindication of the Government of Charles II, he wrote Institutions of the Law of Scotland (1684), Laws and Customs in Matters Criminal (1674), and in his Memoirs he gives an interesting account of Scotland before the revolution. Sir George Mackenzie was founder of the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh in 1682.
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GEORGE MADARREN

Sir George Alexander Madarren was an English composer. He was born in 1813 at London and died in 1887. He was educated at the Royal Academy of Music; became a member of the Board of the Academy, and ultimately chairman and principal; was elected professor of music, Cambridge University (1875); and was knighted by the queen in 1883. His chief operas are The Devil's Opera (1838), Don Quixote (1846), Robin Hood (1860). He also essayed the cantata in Lenore (1852), and The Lady of the Lake (1870); while his oratorios are St. John the Baptist (1873), The Resurrection (1876), Joseph (1877), and King David (1883). He also wrote several musical treatises.
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GEORGE MADISON

George Madison was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Kentucky from 1816 until 1819.
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GEORGE MANBY

George William Manby was an English sailor. He was born in 1765 at Denver, Norfolk and died in 1854. He invented life-saving apparatus for use in shipwrecks, and apparatus for lifeboats and for saving lives in fires and ice accidents.
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GEORGE MARSH

George Perkins Marsh was an American philologist and diplomat. He was born in 1801 at Woodstock, Vermont and died in 1882. In 1842 he was elected to Congress, and represented Vermont as a Whig from 1843 to 1849 and in 1849 became US minister at Constantinople, and in 1861 in Italy. He translated Rask's Icelandic Grammar in 1838 and published ' Lectures on the English Language' in 1861.
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GEORGE MASON

George Mason was an American Revolutionary leader. He was born in 1725 and died in 1792. In1769 he drafted the 'nonimportation' resolutions in the Virginia Assembly, and was one of the chief members of that body. In 1776 he drafted the Bill of Rights and the new State Constitution. He had an active part in the debates of the Federal Convention of 1787, but refused to sign the Constitution, and went home to throw the weight of his great influence on the Anti-Federalist side in the ratifying Convention of 1788.
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GEORGE MATHEWS

George Mathews was an American politician. He was a governor of Georgia from 1787 until 1788.
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GEORGE MCDUFFIE

George McDuffie was an American politician. He was born in 1788 and died in 1851. He represented South Carolina as a Democrat in the US. House of Representatives from 1821 to 1834. While chairman of the Ways and Means Committee he favoured the maintenance of a US bank. He drafted the address of South Carolina to the people of the United States in 1832. He was Governor of South Carolina from 1834 to 1836, and was a US Senator from 1842 to 1846.
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GEORGE MEADE

George Gordon Meade was an American general. He was born in 1815 and died in 1872. A Federal general in the American Civil War, he graduated from West Point in 1835, fought in the Mexican War and against the Seminoles, and was busy in the surveying department. Soon after the Rebellion had commenced, he was assigned to a brigade in the Army of the Potomac, was wounded in the Seven Days' battles, and fought at the second battle of Bull Run. At the Battle of Antietam and Fredericksburg he commanded a division, and at Chancellorsville a corps. At the end of June, 1863, Mcade was appointed to supersede Hooker in command of the Army of the, Potomac; Lee's great invasion of the North was in progress, and George Meade was near Frederick. Almost immediately afterwards occurred the Battle of Gettysburg. The chief credit for this decisive Union victory is variously claimed for the commander-in-chief, for Hancock, Howard, Reynolds and other corps commanders; George Meade arrived on the battlefield about noon of the second day. He was made brigadier-general in the regular army, and the next year major-general. Under Grant in 1864-1865 he was in immediate charge of the Army of the Potomac, and after the war held command of different departments.
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GEORGE MEREDITH

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George Meredith was an English novelist. He was born in 1828 at Portsmouth and died in 1909. Educated in Germany, he studied for the law, but essayed a literary career with a volume of poems in 1851. This was followed by the Shaving of Shagpat (1855); Farina, a Legend of Cologne (1857);The Ordeal of Richard Feverel(1859); Evan Harrington (1861); Modern Love: Poems and Ballads (1862); Emilia in England (1864); Pihoda Fleming (1865); Vittoria (1866); The Adventures of Harry Richmond (1871); The Egoist (1879); The Tragic Comedians (1881); Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth(1883);Diana of the Cross-ways (1885); Ballads and Poems of Tragic Life (1887); The Amazing Marriage (1895).
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GEORGE MONCK

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George Monck (George Monk) was an English soldier, politician and the first Duke of Albermarle. He was born in 1608 at Great Potheridge, Devon and died in 1670. His early life was served in campaigns in France and Spain, before around 1630 he went to the Netherlands where he made his reputation as a soldier. During the English civil war he fought with the Royalists until captured by Fairfax and imprisoned for two years in the Tower of London. Released from prison in 1646 to become a soldier of Parliament, he was a governor of Ulster and served under Oliver Cromwell and was instrumental in bringing about the restoration of Charles II.
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GEORGE MONK

George Monk (Duke of Albemarle) was an English soldier. He was born in 1608 and died in 1670. At the age of seventeen he volunteered as a private soldier in the expedition to Cadiz. In 1628 he served at the island of Rhe, and from 1629 until 1638 in the Netherlands, where his soldierly qualities gained him a captaincy. As lieutenant-colonel he next took part in the expedition against the Hoots in 1639, and when the rebellion broke out in Ireland in 1641 he was sent thither as colonel of Lord Leicester's troops.

During the English Civil War George Monk at first joined the royalists; but in January 1644 he was taken prisoner at the siege of Nantwich, and after a short delay he was committed to the Tower. After the capture of the king George Monk took the Covenant and regained his liberty, in 1646. Under the parliament he served in Ireland, and subsequently with Oliver Cromwell in Scotland, and in 1650 he reduced that country to obedience within a few weeks. In 1653 he assisted Admiral Dean in inflicting two
severe naval defeats on the Dutch under Van Tromp the elder. Next year he was placed at the head of the English army in Scotland, and he was still in this position at the death of the Protector and at the resignation of his son in 1659.

George Monk had always been regarded with hope by the royalist party, and he seems to have decided at once upon the restoration, although he used all his unusually great powers of dissimulation, and even of deceit, to avoid committing himself either one way or the other until he was tolerably sure of success. The coming over of Charles II. was arranged with George Monk, and the king rewarded his restorer with the dukedom of Albemarle, the order of the Garter, and with a pension of 7000 pounds a year. George Monk now fell into comparative obscurity. In 1666, however, he once more served against the Dutch at sea, defeating Van Tromp the younger and De Euyter. He died in 1670, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
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GEORGE MOORE

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George Moore was an Irish poet and novelist. He was born in 1852 and died in 1933. Educated at London and Paris, his first published work of verse was entitled 'Flowers of Passion', published in 1877. In addition to poems, George Moore also wrote several plays and was an art critic, in 1893 writing 'Modern Painting'.
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GEORGE MORLAND

George Morland was an English painter of rural life. He was born in 1763 and died in 1804. He lived a very dissipated life, many of his best pictures being painted while he was an inmate of debtors' prison. His work deals with rustic and homely life, and the best of it is now highly prized by connoisseurs. He had extraordinary popularity during his lifetime, and about 250 of his pictures are said to have been engraved. The Interior of a Stable now in the National Gallery is perhaps his masterpiece.
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GEORGE MOURT

George Mourt was an English sailor. He was born in 1585 and died about 1628. He took emigrants and supplies from England to the Pilgrims in 1623. He edited in England in 1622 'Mourt's Relation of the Beginning and Proceeding of the English Plantation at Plymouth', an important original source.
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GEORGE MULLER

George Muller was a German preacher, and founder of the Orphan Homes at Bristol. He was was born 1805 at Prussia and died in 1898. He studied for the ministry, but indulged in profligate habits, and was even arrested for fraud and imprisoned. In 1826 he decided to turn to religious work. He came to London in 1829, and studied Hebrew and Chaldee, with the idea of converting the Jews, but gave this up, and in 1830 became minister of a chapel at Teignmouth. In 1832 he migrated to Bristol, and there founded the orphanages with which his name is principally associated. These grew rapidly, and at the start of the 20th century over 2000 orphans were cared for at the same time. The whole cost of the houses (115,000 pounds), as well as the annual expenditure was raised by voluntary subscription.
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GEORGE N. BRIGGS

George N Briggs was an American politician. He was born in 1796 and died in 1861 He represented Massachusetts in the US Congress from 1831 until 1843 and was a Whig governor of Massachusetts from 1843 until 1851. He was a Judge of the Massachusetts Court of Common Pleas from 1851 until 1856 and a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1853.
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GEORGE N. CRAIG

George N Craig was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Indiana from 1953 until 1957.
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GEORGE NARES

Sir George Strong Nares was an English sailor. He was born in 1831 and died in 1915. He Entered the navy and took part in the Arctic expedition of 1852-1854. From 1872 to 1874 he commanded the Challenger during her scientific expedition, and in 1875 was first in command of the North Polar expedition. He afterwards was engaged in a survey of the south Pacific. He was the author of Seamanship, Reports on Ocean Soundings, Voyage to the Polar Sea, etc. He was made Vice-admiral in 1892.
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GEORGE NIGH

George Nigh was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Oklahoma from 1979 until 1987.
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GEORGE ORWELL

George Orwell was an English writer. He was born in 1905 in India and died in 1950. He wrote Nineteen Eighty Four and Animal Farm (the book, not the video).
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GEORGE P MORRIS

George P Morris was an American journalist and lyricist. He was born in 1802 and died in 1864. He was best known as a song-writer, composing 'Woodman, Spare That Tree', 'My Mother's Bible' and 'Long Time Ago'. He published 'Prose and Poetry of Europe and America'.
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GEORGE P. WETMORE

George P Wetmore was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Rhode Island from 1885 until 1887.
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GEORGE PAISH

Sir George Paish was a British economist. He was born in 1867. He was assistant editor of the 'Statist' from 1894 to 1900. He wrote 'Railways in Great Britain' published in 1904.
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GEORGE PEABODY

George Peabody was an American banker and philanthropist. He was born in 1795 at Danvers, Massachusetts and died in 1869. From 1814 to 1837 he was in mercantile business in Baltimore. In 1838 he established the famous banking firm of George Peabody and Company in London. He founded the Peabody Institute at Baltimore in 1857 with $1,000,000, gave $2,500,000 for constructing lodging-houses for the poor in London, and $3,500,000 for the promotion of education in the South. His public charities exceeded $10,000,000. In 1866 he received the freedom of the city of London, and was offered a baronetcy by the queen, which he declined.
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GEORGE PEELE

George Peele was abn English poet. He was born in about 1558 at Devon and died in 1598. He was educated at Oxford, where he made a great reputation. Ultimately he settled at London as a theatrical writer, and was the associate of Nash, Marlowe, and Greene. Of the many dramas of which he was reputed to be the author only a few are certainly known to be his, among these few being The Chronicle History of Edward I.
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GEORGE PERCY

George Percy was an English colonial governor and writer. He was born in 1586 and died in 1632. He went to Virginia from England about 1607 and succeeded Lord Delaware as Governor, temporarily, in 1611. He wrote 'A Discourse of the Plantations of the Southerne Colonie in Virginia'.
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GEORGE PINWELL

George John Pinwell was an English artist. He was born in 1842 at London and died in 1875. In 1868 he began drawing on wood for the brothers Dalziel and others, and illustrated several works, including The Vicar of Wakefield. He was also employed on several periodicals. He began water-colour painting, in which he was very successful, in 1865, his pictures including two subjects from Browning's 'Pied Piper of Hamelin' (1869), The Elixir of Love (1870), Away from Town (1871), Gilbert a Becket's Troth (1872), The Great Lady (1873), and We fell out, my Wife and I (1875). He was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-colours in 1869, full member in 1870.
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GEORGE PLATER

George Plater was an American politician. He was born in 1736 and died in 1792. He represented Maryland in the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1781. He was president of the Maryland Convention that ratified the Federal Constitution, and was Governor of Maryland in 1792.
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GEORGE PODIEBRAD

George Podiebrad was a King of Bohemia. He was born in 1420 and died in 1471. When a mere youth he entered into the Hussite movement. In the war against Albert V of Austria he rendered eminent services, and secured the highest esteem of the Calixtines or Utraquists. In 1444 he was chosen head of the party, became one of the two governors of Bohemia during the minority of Ladislas, Albert's posthumous son, now king of the country, and, after overcoming the Catholic opposition, sole regent in 1451.

Ladislas died in 1457, and Podiebrad was elected to the throne in the following year, and crowned by the Catholic bishops in 1459. He inaugurated his reign by the introduction of various beneficent laws, wise administration, and a policy of conciliation towards the Catholics; but he was not allowed to carry out his reforms in peace. The pope, Paul II, publicly denounced him as an heretic in 1463, excommunicated him, and his legate soon produced a rising among the Catholics.

A German crusade was formed against Bohemia in 1466, but the invaders were defeated in several places. Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary and son-in-law of Podiebrad, at the instigation of the pope and the Emperor Frederick invaded Moravia; but Podiebrad's generalship was again successful, and in 1469 he hemmed in the Hungarian army at Willemow. In order to secure the aid of the Poles, in 1469 he assembled a diet at Prague, and declared the successor to the throne of Poland to be his own successor, while his sons should only inherit the family estates. The Poles were thus immediately drawn to his side; the Emperor Frederick also declared in his favour; and his Catholic subjects became reconciled to him.

Shortly after he destroyed the infantry of the Hungarians, which had again taken the field, and Matthias Corvinus hastily fled with his cavalry. He thus saw himself at last completely secured in his kingdom; but no sooner was this accomplished than he died; being succeeded by Ladislas, eldest son of Casimir IV, king of Poland, who thus united the two crowns.
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GEORGE POINDEXTER

George Poindexter was an American politician. He was born in 1779 and died in 1853. He represented Mississippi in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1807 to 1813. He served on General Jackson's staff in the War of 1812, was again a delegate in Congress from 1817 to 1819, and was Governor of Mississippi from 1819 to 1821. He prepared a revised code of the laws of Mississippi in 1822. He was a US Senator from 1830 to 1835.
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GEORGE POPHAM

George Popham was an English colonist. He was born in 1550 and died in 1608. He went to America from England in 1607 with two ships and 100 men, and founded the first New England settlement at Fort George, Maine, known as the Popham Colony.
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GEORGE PREBLE

George H Preble was an American sailor. He was born in 1816 and died in 1885. He served in the Mexican War. He commanded the Macedonian against Chinese pirates in 1854. He commanded the Katahdin and the St Louis during the Rebellion.
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GEORGE PSALMANAZAR

George Psalmanazar was the assumed name of a French literary impostor. He was born in 1bout 1769 of Catholic parents in the south of France and died in 1763. He studied among the Dominicans, acted as a private tutor; became a common vagrant, and at length assumed the character of a Japanese convert to Christianity, a character which he changed to that of a converted heathen native of the island of Formosa. At this time he became acquainted with a clergyman named Innes, who took him to London as a convert to the Church of England. Under the patronage of Bishop Compton he translated the Church Catechism into a language which he invented and called Formosan, while he also published a so-called authentic History of Formosa. Various scholars had doubts of his pretensions, and at last he confessed his imposture. For many years after he resided in London, and employed his pen in writing for the booksellers. His Autobiography, published after his death, expresses great penitance for his deceptions.
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GEORGE PULLMAN

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George Mortimer Pullman was an American inventor. He was born in 1831 at Chautauqua County, New York and died in 1897. He began in business as a cabinet maker before becoming a building contractor. In 1859 he began designs for a new type of railway coach, and in 1863 built the first Pullman-car sleeping-car. He carried out further improvements in railway carriages, and in 1887 invented the corridor train and introduced dining cars. He made a large fortune from his inventions and founded the model town of Pullman near Chicago which was later incorporated within Chicago.
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GEORGE PUTTENHAM

George Puttenham was an English writer. He was posssibly born about 1530. He is regarded as the author of The Art of Poesie, a work of ability, which appeared anonymously in 1589. If he was its author, he became a scholar of Oxford. In 1579 he presented a series of poems called Partheniades to Queen Elizabeth I. The Art is a review of ancient as well as modern poetry, and was written for the court and to instruct in versification. The book is also attributed to Richard Puttenham, the brother of George Puttenham.
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GEORGE R. GILMER

George R Gilmer was an American politician. He was a governor of Georgia from 1829 until 1831.
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GEORGE RAPP

George Rapp was a German-born American socialist. He was born in 1770 and died in 1847. He founded the Harmonists, a socialist religious sect. They emigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany in 1803. During the 19th century their community was prosperous, and noted for its morality and the promotion of education.
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GEORGE RAWLINSON

George Rawlinson was an English academic and theologian. He was born in 1812 and died in 1902. Educated at Trinity College, Oxford he became a fellow and tutor of Exeter College. He delivered the Bampton Lectures in 1859 and was elected Camden professor of ancient history in 1861, and made a canon of Canterbury in 1872. With the assistance of his brother, Sir Henry and Sir Gardner Wilkinson he published a translation of Herodotus with a commentary (1858-60); also The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (1862-67), followed by the Sixth (1873), and the Seventh Oriental Monarchy (1876); History of Ancient Egypt (1881); Phoenicia (1889); Parthia (1893); etc.
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GEORGE READ

George Read was an American politician. He was born in 1733 and died in 1798. He was a signer of the American Declaration of Independence, but before the war was an Attorney-General of Delaware and member of the Legislature. He wrote the noted address to George III, and was a leading member of Congress. He was a delegate to the Annapolis Convention of 1786, and to the Federal Constitutional Convention of the following year. From 1789 to 1793 he was US Senator from Delaware, and Chief Justice of the State from 1793 until his death.
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GEORGE RENNIE

George Rennie was an English civil engineer. He was born in 1791 at Surrey and died in 1866. The eldest son of John Rennie, he was educated at St Paul's School, London, and at Edinburgh University. In 1811 he became associated with his father in business, and on his father's death he formed a partnership with his brother John, and afterwards with his two sons. He constructed many of the great naval works at Sebastopol, Nicolaiev, Odessa, Cronstadt, and in the principal ports of England, and executed several English and continental railways.
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GEORGE RIPLEY

George Ripley was an American author. He was born in 1802 and died in 1880. Educated at Harvard College and Cambridge Divinity School, he became a Unitarian minister in Boston, lived some years in Europe, was one of the founders of the transcendental magazine, The Dial (on which he had Emerson and Margaret Fuller as coadjutors), and the originator and conductor of the communistic experiment at Brook Farm. He became literary editor of the New York Tribune in 1849, and was joint editor with C A Dana of the American Cyclopaedia (published between 1858 and 1863 in 16 volumes and also of the second edition).
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GEORGE ROBERTSON

George Robertson was an American politician. He was born in 1790 and died in 1874. He represented Kentucky in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1817 to 1821. He was Speaker of the Kentucky Legislature from 1823 to 1827, and Chief Justice of Kentucky from 1829 to 1843.
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GEORGE RODNEY

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George Brydges Rodney (first earl of Rodney) was an English admiral.. He was born in 1719 at London and died in 1792. Entering the navy when he was fourteen, George Rodney achieved the rank of captain in 1742. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Ushant in 1747 and subsequently served on the North American station. In 1759 he was promoted to flag rank and bombarded Havre. In 1761 he captured Martinique, Santa Lucia, Grenada and St Vincent. He was made a baronet in 1764. Retiring from the navy he was made governor of Greenwich Hospital, but handicapped by the poverty of retirement was reappointed to the navy and defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent in 1780.
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GEORGE ROGERS CLARK

George Rogers Clark was an American soldier. He was born in 1752 and died in 1818. He went from Virginia to Kentucky in 1775, where he became the leader against the hostile Indians and British, and did more than any other to secure the Northwest to the Republic. Among his more important enterprises were the defence of Harrodsburg, the capture of Kaskaskia and Vincennes by a famous expedition in 1778, the relief of Cahokia, the invasion of the Shawnee country and the defeat of the Miamis.
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GEORGE ROMANES

George John Romanes (G J Romanes) was a Canadian-born British scientist. He was bom in 1848 at Kingston Canada and died in 1894. In 1848, his parents moved to London and in 1867 he entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, whence he graduated in 1870, afterwards devoting himself to the study of physiology, and becoming a friend and follower of Charels Darwin. In 1891 he founded the Romanes lectureship at Oxford, where he had migrated from London owing to ill-health. George Romanes was an ardent supporter of Charles Darwin and the evolutionists, and in various works sought to extend evolutionary principles to mind both in the lower animals and in man. His works include: Animal Intelligence (1881); Scientific Evidences of Organic Evolution (Nature Series, 1882); Mental Evolution in Animals (1883); Mental Evolution in Man (1888); Darwin and after Darwin (1892-1895); Examination of Weismannism (1893); Mind and Motion, an Essay on Monism (1895); Thoughts on Religion (1895). In 1896 appeared a volume of Essays, and also his Life and Letters, the latter edited by his wife.
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GEORGE ROMNEY

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George Romney was an English portrait painter. He was born in 1734 near Dalton, Lancashire and died in 1802. He was the son of a carpenter, and at first worked at his father's trade, but he afterwards was apprenticed to an itinerant artist named Steele, and at the age of twenty-three began the career of a painter. After a certain amount of local success he went to London in 1762, and next year won a prize offered by the Society of Art for a historical composition. He steadily rose in popularity, and was finally recognized as inferior only to Reynolds and Gainsborough as a portrait-painter; some critics even placed him higher than either. His residence in London was interrupted by occasional visits to the Continent for purposes of study, and his most prosperous period dates from 1775, after his return from a visit of eighteen months to Rome.

Many distinguished Englishmen and many ladies'of rank sat to him for their portraits; but perhaps the most beautiful of his sitters was Emma Hart, afterwards Lady Hamilton, whom he depicted in very numerous characters. He did not neglect historical or imaginative compositions, and he contributed several pictures to Boydell's famous Shakespeare gallery, founded in 1786. His health began to fail in 1797, and in 1799 he rejoined his wife (whom he had married in 1756), who throughout his whole London career had remained at Kendal.

George Romney displays a want of carefulness, and defective knowledge of anatomy in his historical compositions; but he atones for these faults by fine colour, a subtle sense of beauty, and by his originality. Fine examples of his work command high prices.
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GEORGE ROOKE

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Sir George Rooke was a British admiral. He was born in 1650 near Canterbury and died in 1709. He entered the navy at an early age and rose to be vice-admiral in 1692. For his gallantry in a night-attack upon the French fleet off Cape La Hogue he was knighted in 1692. His later services include the command of the expedition against Cadiz in 1702, the destruction of the French and Spanish fleets in Vigo Bay in 1702, and a share in the capture of Gibraltar in July 1704. In the following August he fought a French fleet of much superior force, under the Comte de Toulouse, off Malaga. The result was undecisive, and this fact was used against George Rooke by his political opponents. Sir George quit the service in disgust in 1705. He served in several parliaments as member for Portsmouth.
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GEORGE ROOT

George Frederick Root was an American professor of music. He was born in 1820 at Sheffield, Massachusetts and died in 1895. From 1838 to 1843 he taught music at New Reading and from 1845 to 1855 at New York. From 1860 he was a member of a Chicago music firm. He wrote a number of cantatas, among them 'The Flower Queen', 'Daniel' and 'The Hay-makers'; and popular songs including 'The Hazel Dell', 'Rosalie the Prairie Flower', and 'The Battle Cry of Freedom'.
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GEORGE ROUTLEDGE

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George Routledge was an English publisher. He was born in 1812 at Brampton and died in 1888. He commenced business as a retail bookseller in London in 1836, and started publishing in 1834, achieving a reputation for cheap literature. In 1854 he formed an American branch of his business at New York.
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GEORGE S. BOUTWELL

George S Boutwell was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Massachusetts from 1851 until 1853.
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GEORGE S. MICKELSON

George S Mickelson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of South Dakota from 1987 until 1993.
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GEORGE S. SILZER

George S Silzer was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey from 1923 until 1926.
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GEORGE SAINTSBURY

George Edward Bateman Saintsbury was an English literary critic and historian. He was born in 1845 at Southampton and died in 1933. He was educated at King's College School, London, and Merton College, Oxford. From 1868 to 1874 he was senior classical master in Elizabeth College, Guernsey, after which he became head-master of the Elgin Educational Institute. From 1876 to 1895 he was engaged in journalistic and literary work in London, and in the latter year was appointed to the chair of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University. His numerous publications, chiefly on English and French literature, include: Primer of French Literature (1880); Short History of French Literature (1882); Specimens of English Prose Style from Malory to Macaulay (1885); History of Elizabethan Literature (1887); Essays in English Literature, 1780-1860 (1891); Essays on French Novelists (1891); Corrected Impressions (1895); Nineteenth Century Literature (1896); The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory (1897); A Short History of English Literature (1898); A History of Criticism (1900-1904); The Earlier Renaissance (1901); Minor Caroline Poets (1905); History of English Prosody (1906). He also edited Political Pamphlets; A Calendar of Verse; Tales of Mystery; various classics; etc.
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GEORGE SALA

George Augustus Sala was an English journalist and author. He was born in 1828 at London and died in 1895. His father was an Italian, and his mother an actress and singer of West Indian extraction. He studied for art, but early embraced literature. Under Charles Dickens he became a contributor to Household Words. Subsequently he assisted in founding Temple Bar, of which he was editor, and he was a voluminous contributor to the newspaper press, often as special correspondent. The Seven Sons of Mammon, and Captain Dangerous, are novels that appeared in Temple Bar. He travelled over great part of the world, knew the great capital cities by heart, and was an eye-witness of some of the most important public ceremonials during the last quarter of the 19th century. The experiences of his travels, and the sights seen, he described in a style peculiarly his own. His last work was his own Life and Adventures. Much of his work was contributed to the (London) Daily Telegraph, but All the Year Round, the Cornhill Magazine, and the Illustrated London News ('Echoes of the Week') contained many sparkling productions from his pen.
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GEORGE SALE

George Sale was an English Orientalist. He was born in 1697, probably in London, and died in 1736. He was employed by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge to correct their Arabic translation of the New Testament, and he continued to render the society services until after the publication of his translation of the Koran in 1734. He also wrote the Oriental biographies for the English translation of 'Bayle's General Dictionary' published in 1734.
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GEORGE SALMON

George Salmon was an Irish theologian and mathematician. He was born in 1819 at Dublin and died in 1904. He was educated at Cork and at Trinity College, Dublin where he graduated as senior moderator in mathematics in 1839. In 1841 he was elected a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, and took orders in 1844 and became regius professor of divinity in 1866 and provost of Trinity College in 1888.
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GEORGE SAND

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George Sand was the nom de plume of Armandine Lucile Aurore Dudevant, a French writer. She was born in 1804 in Paris and died in 1876. She was the daughter of Maurice Dupin, an officer of the republican army, who was descended from a natural daughter of Marshal Saxe. Until the age of fourteen she was brought up at the Chateau of Nohant, near La Chatre (department of Indre), mostly under the care of her grandmother, afterwards spending nearly three years in an Augustinian convent in Paris.

In 1822 she married Baron Dudevant, to whom she bore a son and a daughter; but in 1831 separated from him, and took up her residence in Paris. In conjunction with Jules Sandeau, a young lawyer, she wrote Rose et Blanche, which was published in 1831, with the pseudonym Jules Sand. The reception it met with afforded her an opportunity of publishing a novel solely by herself - Indiana, under the name of George Sand, which she ever after retained. Indiana had a brilliant success, but excited much criticism by its extreme views on social questions. This was also the case with many others of her works. Valentine, Lelia, Jacques, Andre, Leone Leoni, Simon, Mauprat, La Derniere Aldini, Lavinia, Metella, and others, appeared within the first few years after her debut.

She visited Italy with Alfred de Musset; and lived eight years with Frederic-Francois Chopin, the composer. These relations also influenced or occasioned some of her works (as Elle et Lui, 1858). In 1836 she obtained a judicial separation from her husband, with the care of her children. She took an active interest in the revolution of 1848, and contributed considerably to newspaper and other political literature. In 1854 she published Histoire de Ma Vie, a psychological autobiography.

Among her later novels are: La Mare au Diable; Francois le Champi; La Petite Fadette; Jean; Teverino; La Filleule; Lea Maltres Sonneurs; L'Homme de Neige; Pierre qui Roule; Monsieur de Sylvestre. Her published works consist of upwards of sixty separate novels, a large number of plays, and numerous articles in literary journals.
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GEORGE SANDYS

George Sandys was a British colonist. He was born in 1577 and died in 1644. A son of Edwin Sandys, he was treasurer of Virginia from 1621 to 1624. He built the first water-mill, the first iron-works and the first ship in Virginia, and his translation of Ovid was English America's first literary production.
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GEORGE SANTAYANA

George Santayana was an American philosopher. He was born in 1863 in Madrid and died in 1952.
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GEORGE SAVILLE

George Saville (Marquis of Halifax) was an English statesman and writer. He was born in 1630 and died in 1695, Having exerted himself for the return of Charles II he was created Viscount Halifax in 1667, in 1669 Earl, and in 1682 Marquis of Halifax, being also keeper of the privy seal and president of the council. He supported James II, but lost his favour by opposing the repeal of the Test and Habeas Corpus Acts. He was chosen speaker of the House of Lords in the Convention Parliament, and largely contributed to the elevation of William III to the throne. He wrote Advice to a Daughter, various political tracts, such as the Character of a Trimmer, Maxims of State, etc. He himself was a specimen of the trimmer, his conduct, however, being guided more by patriotic than personal reasons.
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GEORGE SCOTT

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Sir George Gilbert Scott was an English architect. He was born in 1811 at Gawcott, Buckinghamshire and died in 1878. A grandson of Thomas Scott, the biblical commentator, his tastes drew him mainly to the study of Gothic architecture, and to him is due in a great measure its revival in Great Britain. He became the foremost representative of the Gothic school. He was very largely employed in the erection of new churches, colleges, and secular public buildings, among which may be mentioned the church of St. Nicholas at Hamburg, the first important specimen of the Gothic revival erected in Germany, and the spire of which was 478 feet high; the Foreign Office, the India Office, and the Home and Colonial Offices, London; Glasgow University; the Memorial to the Prince Consort, London (Albert Memorial); and St. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. But he found his life-work as an architectural restorer. His first restoration was Chesterfield church.. Ely was the first cathedral he restored, and other cathedrals he restored were Lichfield, Hereford, Ripon, Gloucester, Chester, St. David's, St Asaph, Bangor, Salisbury, and St Albans. In this connection he wrote a Plea for the Faithful Restoration of our Ancient Churches (1850); Conservation of Ancient Architectural Monuments (1864), etc. He was elected ARA in 1852, and RA in 1860, he was knighted in 1872.
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GEORGE SELWYN

George Augustus Selwyn was a bishop of New Zealand. He was born in 1809 at Hampstead and died in 1878. He was educated at Eton and at St. John's College, Cambridge. He was ordained deacon in 1833, and became curate at Windsor. In 1841 he was appointed the first bishop of New Zealand. He taught himself Maori on the voyage out, and on his arrival in his diocese he set about his labours with characteristic energy; but the Maori War tended to undermine his position and to shake the confidence he had inspired in the natives. In 1854 he returned for a short time to England, and took back with him a number of new missionaries, among them John Coleridge Patteson, afterwards bishop of Melanesia. In 1867 he once more visited England, and accepted the bishopric of Lichfield, where he worked indefatigably until his death in 1878.
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GEORGE SHARSWOOD

George Sharswood was an American jurist. He was born in 1810 and died in 1883. He was President-Judge of a district court from 1851 to 1867 and a Judge of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court from 1867 to 1882. He published many valuable legal works.
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GEORGE SHILLIBEER

George Shillibeer was born in 1797 and died in 1866. He introduced omnibuses in London in 1829.
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GEORGE SIMS

George Robert Sims was an English journalist and dramatic writer. He was born in 1847. He became a contributor to Fun under the pen name of 'Dagouet,' and wrote much on the London slums. His most successful dramas were The Lights o' London, The Romany Rye, and in collaboration The Harbour Lights, In the Ranks, and London Day by Day. He also wrote novels, etc.
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GEORGE SMALLEY

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George Washburn Smalley was an American journalist. He was born in 1833 at Franklin, Massachusetts and died in 1916. Educated at Yale and Harvard law school, he was admitted to the bar at Boston in 1856. During the American Civil War he distinguished himself as was correspondent for the New York Tribune. While serving as an aide-de-camp to general Hooker at the Battle of Antietam he organised the European correspondence of The Tribune, and was American correspondent of The Times from 1895 until 1906.
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GEORGE SMART

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Sir George Thomas Smart was an English musician. He was born in 1776 at London and died in 1867. He became a member of the Chapel Royal choir, and in 1791 a church organist at Hampstead Road. He played in a number of orchestras and in 1811 conducted a successful series of concerts in Dublin, where he was knighted by the lord-lieutenant. An original member of the Philharmonic Society, he conducted many of its concerts between 1813 and 1844, as well as musical festivals held all over the country, and taught music, among his pupils being Jenny Lind.
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GEORGE SMITH

George Murray Smith was an English publisher. He was born in 1824 at London and died in 1901. He joined the publishing and book selling business, George Smith Elder and Company his father had started with a partner some years earlier, and became head of the business in 1846. In 1859 he founded 'The Cornhill Magazine' and in 1865 'The Pall Mall Gazette'.
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GEORGE SMITH 2

George Smith was an English Assyriologist. He was born in 1840 at London and died in 1876. An engraver, while studying some cuneiform plates entrusted to him he became curious and led him to study the British Museum inscriptions. Observed by Rawlinson he became museum assistant in 1867 and collaborated in his Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia'. George Smith deciphered the Cypriotescript and wrote 'A History of Assurbanipal' published in 1871. His discovery and translation in 1872 of the Chaldean account of the deluge occasioned his Nineveh expeditions for The Daily Telegraph in 1873 and the British Museum in 1874. the results of the Nineveh expeditions were published in 'Assyrian Discoveries' in 1875, and 'The Chaldeon Account of Genesis' in 1876. George Smith died while on another expedition at Aleppo.
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GEORGE SMITH HOUSTON

George Smith Houston was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Alabama from 1874 until 1878.
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GEORGE SPENCER

George John Spencer (Earl of Spencer) was an English politician. He was was born in 1758 and died in 1834. He was educated at Harrow, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. When he had completed his education he travelled, and on his return was elected member of parliament for the county of Northampton. In 1789, by his father's death (the first Earl Spencer), he became the second Earl Spencer. In the House of Lords he voted with the Whigs until the period of the French Revolution, when he joined the party of William Pitt, and was for some time a member of the Pitt administration. Earl Spencer was president of the Roxburghe Club at its origination, and possessed the largest and richest private library in the world. This collection, known as the Althorp Library was sold in 1892 to a Mrs Rylands of Manchester and formed part of the Rylands Library in Manchester which was opened in 1899.
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GEORGE STANNARD

George Jstannard was an American soldier. He was born in 1820 and died in 1886. He fought at Bull Run and Harper's Ferry. He led a brigade at Gettysburg in 1863. He led the advance on Petersburg and Richmond, and captured Fort Harrison in 1864.
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GEORGE STEEVENS

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George Steevens was an English Shakespearian critic. He was born in 1736 at Stepney and died in 1800. He was educated at King's College, Cambridge, and in 1766 he published Twenty of the Plays of Shakspere in four volumes. After this he was associated with Dr. Johnson in an edition of Shakespeare published in 1773. He then prepared a corrected text of the dramatist's works in fifteen volumes, which remained for a long time the standard edition.
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GEORGE STEEVENS 2

George Warrington Steevens was an English journalist. He was born in 1869 at Sydenham, Surrey and died in 1900. Educated at the City of London School and Balliol College, Oxford he became a fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. Editor of The Cambridge Observer and a contributor to the Pall Mall Gazette and Blackwood's Magazine he joined the staff of The Daily Mail in 1896. He was a foreign correspondent for the Pall Mall Gazette and Daily Mail and died of typhoid fever while reporting on the Boer War.
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GEORGE STEPHEN

Sir George Stephen was an English jurist and abolishinist. He was born in 1794 and died in 1879. After studying medicine he became an attorney, and latterly a barrister. He distinguished himself as an advocate for the abolition of slavery, and in bringing about reforms in connection with the police force and pauper relief; and was knighted in 1837.
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GEORGE STEPHENSON

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George Stephenson was an English engineer. He was born in 1781 at Wylam and died in 1848. The son of Robert Stephenson, a colliery fireman, he became assistant to his father when he was 14, learning to read and write at night school. In 1808 he contracted with two others to work the engines of Killingworth pit, where he dismantled the engine every week until he was a thorough master of its construction. In 1812 he was appointed engine-wright to the colliery, and in 1815 he invented a safety lamp for the use of the miners.

The rapid progress of the steam engine caught his attention and in 1814, having received financial assistance, he built his first locomotive. In 1815 he made a number of improvements to his locomotive, including the use of the steam blast. The failure of steam locomotives to work on any real gradient on the roads caused George Stephenson to turn his attention to the construction of railroads, and in 1819 he superintended the laying of a short line at Hetton Collieries, and in 1823 a line between Stockton and Darlington.

His first locomotive to use this line achieved a speed of 16 mph and weighed eight tons. In 1826 he began construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and in 1829, with the assistance of his son, Robert Stephenson, the locomotive called The Rocket for which he is best known. In 1847 he became president of the Mechanical Engineers and was appointed chief engineer to a number of railways and provided consultation on almost every important railway constructed during the 1830's and 1840's.
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GEORGE STOKES

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Sir George Gabriel Stokes was an Irish mathematician and physicist. He was born in 1819 at Skreen and died in 1903. He was educated at Bristol and at Cambridge, taking his degree in 1841 as senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman. In 1849 he was appointed Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. He became a member of the Royal Society in 1851, was awarded the Rumford medal for his investigations on light, and was president of the Royal Society from 1885 to 1890. He was president of the British Association in 1869. In 1889 he was created a baronet. In 1887-1892 he was member of parliament for Cambridge University. His Mathematical and Physical Papers were collected in 1883-84 in three volumes, and his Burnett lectures on light were published in 1887. It is to Sir George Stokes that the modern theory of viscous fluids and the discovery that rays beyond the violet end of the spectrum produce fluorescence in certain substances is due.
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GEORGE STONEMAN

George Stoneman was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1822 and died in 1894. He was educated at the US Military Academy. He refused to surrender Fort Brown to the Secessionists in 1861 by order of his superior officer, General David Twiggs. He commanded the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac from 1861 to 1862. He led a division at the second Battle of Bull Run, and a corps at Fredericksburg. He commanded a cavalry raid toward Richmond in 18635 was engaged in the Atlanta campaign in 1864; and fought at Salisbury and Asheville. He was Governor of California from 1883 to 1887.
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GEORGE STREET

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George Edmund Street was an English architect. He was born in 1824 at Woodford, Essex and died in 1881. He became an assistant in the office of Sir George Scott and by 1855 was widely recognised as a leading authority on the Gothic style. He was elected ARA in 1866 and RA in 1871. In 1868 he was nominated sole architect of the royal courts of justice in London. Among his other works are the nave of Bristol cathedral.
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GEORGE STUBBS

George Stubbs was an English painter. He was born in 1724 at Liverpool and died in 1806. He specialised in the study of anatomy in connection with art, and in 1786 published a monumental work on 'The Anatomy of the Horse', illustrated with plates drawn and engraved by himself. George Stubbs was elected ARA in 1780.
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GEORGE SYKES

George Sykes was an American soldier. He was born in 1822 and died in 1880. He served with distinction during the American Civil War. He commanded a battalion at Bull Run. He had charge of the infantry in the defence of Washington from 1861 to 1862. He led a division at Games' Mills and a corps at Fredericksburg and Gettysburg. He commanded a corps in the Army of the Potomac until 1864, when he was sent to Kansas.
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GEORGE SYMONS

George James Symons was an English meteorologist. He was born in 1838 at London and died in 1900. Appointed meteorological reporter to the registrar-general in 1857, in 1860 he began to issue annual volumes of weather statistics gathered from weather stations all over the United Kingdom. In 1866 he started 'The Monthly Meteorological Magazine'.
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GEORGE T. ANTHONY

George T Anthony was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Kansas from 1877 until 1879.
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GEORGE T. MICKELSON

George T Mickelson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of South Dakota from 1947 until 1951.
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GEORGE T. WERTS

George T Werts was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Jersey from 1893 until 1896.
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GEORGE T. WOOD

George T Wood was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Texas from 1847 until 1849.
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GEORGE TAYLOR

George Taylor was an American politician. He was born in 1716 and died in 1781. He went to America from Ireland in 1736. He served in the Pennsylvania Legislature from 1764 to 1769. He represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1777, and signed the American Declaration of Independence.
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GEORGE THE BEARDED

George the Bearded was duke of Saxony. He was born in 1471 and died in 1539. He was the son of Albert the Brave, the founder of the Albertine line of Saxony, and succeeded in 1500 to the hereditary dominions of the Albertine house. Later on he became involved in the turmoils of the Reformation period. He was not at first wholly hostile to reform, but thought that it could be better effected by means of Papal edicts than by the revolt of Martin Luther. Accordingly he became embittered by the uncompromisingtone of Martin Luther's later writings, and endeavoured to suppress the Reformation in his dominions by violent measures. These, however, were unsuccessful, and in 1539, on the accession of his brother Henry, who was a Protestant, the Reformation was introduced into the dominions of the Albertine house of Saxony.
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GEORGE THOMPSON

George Thompson was an English abolitionist. He was born in 1804 at Liverpool and died in 1878. He was active in the anti-slavery agitations respecting the British colonies, and went to the USA in 1834 at the request of William Lloyd Garrison and others, to speak in behalf of abolition. He spoke in different parts of the country and his efforts led to the formation of 150 anti-slavery societies. He was finally threatened by mobs in Boston and returned to England in 1835. He aided greatly in preventing the recognition of the Southern Confederacy by the British Government.
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GEORGE TICKNOR

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George Ticknor was an American literary historian. He was born in 1791 at Boston, Massachusetts and died in 1871. Educated at Dartmouth, in 1815 he went to Europe where he visited most of the capitals and studied at Gottingen. From 1819 until 1835 he was professor of Belles-Lettres and of French and Spanish at Harvard. The following three years he spent in Europe, and in 1849 he published his magnum opus, The History of Spanish Literature. Further visits to Europe followed, and in 1864 he brought out his Life of Prescott. His later years were devoted to the Boston Public Library which he helped to establish in 1852, and was one of the trustees from 1852 until 1866, and was president of the Boston Library in 1965. On his death, Thomas Tickell bequeathed his collection of books to the Boston Public Library.
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GEORGE TIERNEY

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George Tierney was a British politician. He was born in 1761 at Gibraltar and died in 1830. Of Irish parentage, he was educated at Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge, and was afterwards called to the bar. In 1789 he entered parliament as member for Colchester, and with a short interval he remained a member of parliament until his death. A prominent Whig, George Tierney stayed in the house after 1798 when Charles Fox and other Whigs withdrew, but in 1803 he became treasurer of the navy, thus breaking for a time with his party. In 1806 he became president of the board of control for a few months. In 1827 he was master of the mint under Canning, and later under Goderich. He was leader of the Whig opposition from 1817 until 1827. George Tierney is best known, however, for his duel fought with William Pitt on Putney Heath in 1798.
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GEORGE TINWORTH

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George Tinworth was an English artist. He was born in 1843 at Walworth, London and died in 1913. After studying art at Lambeth and the RA schools, in 1866 he became a designer in the Doulton works where he became skilled in working with terra-cotta and produced a number of terra-cotta reliefs. His works include panels in the cathedrals of York and Wells, and the Fawcett memorial in Victoria Park, London.
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GEORGE TREVELYAN

Sir George Otto Bartholemhew Trevalyan was an English statesman. He was born in 1838. The only son of Sir Charles Trevelyan, and nephew of Lord Macaulay, he was educated at Harrow, graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and entered the Indian civil service by competition. He was a member of parliament from 1865 to 1897, and except for a short interval always followed William Gladstone's lead. He held the following official appointments: lord of the admiralty (1868-1870), secretary to admiralty (1880-1882), chief secretary for Ireland (1882-1884), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1884), secretary for Scotland (1886 and 1892-1895). He was the author of the Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay (1876), The Early History of Charles James Fox, etc.
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GEORGE TRUITT

George Truitt was an American politician. He was a Federalist governor of Delaware from 1808 until 1811.
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GEORGE TRYON

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Sir George Tryon was a British admiral. He was born in 1832 and died in 1893. Entering the navy at the age of sixteen he saw action in the Crimean War before commanding the Warrior, Britain's fuirst ironclad, from 1861 until 1864. In 1867 he served as director of transport in the Abyssinian campaign, and from 1874 until 1881 held commands in India. He commanded the Mediterranean fleet in 1891. His mistaken orders led to the sinking of the Victoria with himself and 358 officers and men on board off Tripoli.
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GEORGE TUCKER

George Tucker was an American politician and historian. He was born in 1775 at bermuda and died in 1861. He went to Virginia from Bermuda about 1787. He represented Virginia in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1819 to 1825. He wrote 'Political History of the United States', extending from 1789 to 1841.
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GEORGE TURBERVILLE

George Turberville was an English poet and writer. He was born in 1540 at Whitchurch, Dorset and died in 1610. Educated at Winchester and at New College, Oxford, he became secretary to Queen Elizabeth I's minister, Sir Thomas Randolph, whom he accompanied on his mission to Ivan IV in 1568. He influenced the popularity of Italian poetical models and was a pioneer of English blank verse.
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GEORGE TURNER

Sir George Turner was an English bacteriologist. He was born in 1836 and died in 1915. Educated at Cambridge and at Guy's Hospital, London, he entered the South African civil service as a medical officer of health in 1895, devoting particular attention to the rinderpest cattle plague, for which he developed a successful serum. He later studied leprosy in Pretoria.
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GEORGE TYRRELL

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George Tyrrell was an Irish theologian. He was born in 1861 at Dublin and died in 1909. Educated at Rathmines, he was much influenced by Father Dolling and in 1879 he joined the Roman Catholic communion. After being admitted to the Society of Jesus, and attracting notice as a fervent Thomist, he acted for a time as school master at Malta, was ordained priest in 1891, and for two years engaged in mission work, which he left for literary work. Then began a period of controversy, aroused by a paper on Hell which George Tyrrell contributed to The Weekly Register on December the 16th 1899. George Tyrrell left the Society of Jesus in 1906/
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GEORGE V

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George V was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1910 to 1936. George V's reign began amid the continuing constitutional crisis over the House of Lords, which refused to pass a Parliament Bill limiting its powers. After the Liberal government obtained the King's promise to create sufficient peers to overcome Conservative opposition in the Lords the Parliament Bill was passed by the Lords in 1911 without a mass creation of peers.

George V visited India in 1911, the only British monarch to have visited India until then, and was proclaimed Emperor of India during his visit. During the Great War the King made over 450 visits to troops on the French front and over 300 visits to hospitals visiting wounded servicemen, he pressed for proper treatment of German prisoners-of-war and he pressed also for more humane treatment of conscientious objectors. In 1917 anti-German feeling led him to adopt the family name of Windsor (after the Castle of the same name).

George V, having become ill, and passed into a coma, the king's physician judged that it should be better for the king to die in the morning so that news of his death could be published in the quality morning press, rather than in the evening press which the doctor considered tabloid, and so he took it upon himself to deliberately administer a lethal injection of morphia and cocaine to the king, killing him instantly. The doctor then publicly announced that king had passed away peacefully. Details of the unlawful killing were discovered when the physician's diary was discovered and published some fifty years later.
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GEORGE VANCOUVER

George Vancouver was an English navigator. He was born in 1757 and died in 1798. He entered the navy at the age of 13 and sailed with Cook on his second and third voyages of discovery.
In 1791 he was appointed by the British Government to survey the northwest coast of North America from 30 degrees north latitude, northward. He returned to England in 1795. A report of his careful survey was published entitled 'Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World. England's claim to Oregon was mainly founded on it.
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GEORGE VERTUE

George Vertue was an English engraver. He was born in 1684 at Westminster and died in 1756. He enjoyed the patronage of Sir Godfrey Kneller, and became engraver to the Society of Antiquaries in 1717. His best-known works include twelve Portraits of Poets and ten Portraits of Charles I and his Friends.
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GEORGE VI

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George VI was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1936 until his death in 1952. George VI was a conscientious and dedicated man, who worked hard to adapt to the royal role into which he was suddenly thrown by the abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. The King paid a State Visit to France in 1938, and to Canada and the United States in 1939, being the first British monarch to enter the USA. His dedication to duty, particularly during the Second World War, when he remained for most of the time at Buckingham Palace, and when he and his wife visited severely bombed areas in the East End of London and elsewhere in the country, gained him great popularity. The King developed a close working relationship with his wartime Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, as most of Europe fell to Nazi Germany. Recognising the total nature of modern warfare, in 1940 the King instituted the George Cross and George Medal, to be awarded for acts of bravery by citizens.

Having served in the Navy during the Great War, including at the Battle of Jutland, the King was anxious to visit his troops whenever possible. He went to France in 1939 to inspect the British Expeditionary Force, and to North Africa in 1943 after the victory of El Alamein. In June 1944, the King visited his Army on the Normandy beaches ten days after D-Day, and later that year he visited troops in Italy and the Low Countries. In 1947, the King undertook a major tour of South Africa, accompanied by the Queen and their daughters, Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret - the first time a sovereign had undertaken a tour with his family. When India and Pakistan became independent in 1947, George ceased to be Emperor of India. Changes in the Commonwealth meant that its tie was no longer based on common allegiance to the Crown, but upon recognition of the Sovereign as Head of the Commonwealth.
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GEORGE VILLIERS

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George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, was an English courtier. He was born in 1592 and died in 1628 being stabbed to death by John Felton. He was the son of George Villiers, a knight. At eighteen he was sent to France, where he resided three years, and on his return made so great an impression on James I that in two years he was made a knight, a gentleman of the bed-chamber, baron, viscount. Marquis of Buckingham, lord high-admiral, etc, and at last dispenser of all the honours and offices of the three kingdoms.

In 1623, when the Earl of Bristol was negotiating a marriage for Prince Charles with the Infanta of Spain, the Marquis of Buckingham went with the prince incognito to Madrid to carry on the suit in person in the hope of securing the Palatinate as dowry. The result, however, was the breaking off of the marriage, and the declaration of war with Spain. During his absence the Marquis of Buckingham was created duke.

After the death of James I in 1625 he was sent to France as proxy for Charles I to marry the Princess Henrietta Maria. In 1626, after the failure of the Cadiz expedition, he was impeached, but saved by the favour of the king. Despite the difficulty in obtaining supplies the Duke of Buckingham took upon himself the conduct of a war with France, but his expedition in aid of the Rochellese proved an entire failure. In the meantime the spirit of revolt was becoming more formidable; the Petition of Right was carried despite the duke's exertions; and he was again protected from impeachment only by the king's prorogation of parliament. He then went to Portsmouth to lead another expedition to Rochelle, but was stabbed on August the 24th, 1628, by John Felton, an ex-lieutenant who had been disappointed of promotion.

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham was an English soldier. He was born in 1627 at Westminster, London and died in 1688. The son of George Villiers he studied at Trinity College, Cambridge and served in the royal army under Rupert and then went abroad. In 1648 he returned to England, was with Charles II in Scotland and at the battle of Worcester, and afterwards served as a volunteer in the French army in Flanders.

He then returned to England, and in 1657 married the daughter of Lord Fairfax. At the Restoration he became master of the horse and one of the king's confidential cabal from 1667 until 1673. In 1666 he engaged in a conspiracy, and in 1676 was committed to the Tower for a contempt by order of the House of Lords; but on each occasion he recovered the king's favour. On the death of Charles II he retired to his seat in Yorkshire. Among his literary compositions the comedy of the Rehearsal (1671) takes the first place.

George William Frederick Villiers, Earl of Clarendon was an English diplomat. He was the eldest son of the Honourable George Villiers and was through his mother indirectly related to the Hydes, the family of the great Earl of Clarendon. He was educated at Cambridge, entered the civil service at an early age, and in 1820 was attached to the embassy at St Petersburg. In 1823 he was appointed to a commissionership of the excise in Dublin. In 1831 he was sent to France to negotiate a commercial treaty, and in 1833, as minister plenipotentiary at Madrid, was instrumental in negotiating the Quadruple Alliance, signed in 1834.

Having succeeded to his uncle's title in 1838 he returned home in the following year, and in January 1840 was appointed lord privy-seal, and in October chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. He supported the repeal of the corn-laws and the reduction of duties, and in 1846 was appointed president of the Board of Trade in Lord J. Russell's ministry, and in the following year Lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He resigned with his party in 1852, when the Earl of Derby took office, but soon after the formation of the Aberdeen ministry he was appointed to the foreign secretaryship, which he held until January 1855. After a few weeks' interval he returned to the post under Lord Palmerston, and retained it until 1858, being one of the signatories of the Treaty of Paris.

In 1861 he was sent as ambassador-extraordinary to the coronation of the King of Prussia, and in 1864 was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In the following administration, under Russell, he resumed the direction of the foreign office. He was sent in 1868 on a special mission to the pope and the King of Italy, and again occupied the post of foreign secretary in the Gladstone ministry until his death, in June, 1870.
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GEORGE VOGLER

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George Joseph Vogler was a German organist, composer and teacher. He was born in 1749 and died in 1814. He established music schools at Mannheim, Stockholm and Darmstadt.
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GEORGE W GREENE

George W Greene was an American statesman. He was born in 1811 and died in 1883. he was US Consul at Rome in 1837, served in the Rhode Island Legislature from 1867 to 1869 and wrote a history of the American War of Independence and a life of General Nathanael Greene.
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GEORGE W MCCRARY

George W McCrary was an American politician. He was born in 1835 and died in 1890. He represented Iowa in the US Congress as a Republican from 1869 to 1877. He was Secretary of War in Hayes' Cabinet from 1877 to 1879. He was a US Circuit Judge from 1879 to 1884.
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GEORGE W. ATKINSON

George W Atkinson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of West Virginia from 1897 until 1901.
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GEORGE W. BUSH

George W Bush is an American Republican politician. He was born in 1946 at New Haven, Connecticut. George W Bush was Governor of Texas before becoming the 43rd President of the USA through a rigged election in 2001. The election was illegal, the Republicans having had 50,000 eligible voters (almost all Democrat supporters) removed from the right to vote in the state of Florida (he won the election by a majority of a little over 500, and yet 40,000 counter votes were disallowed).
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GEORGE W. CAMPBELL

George W. Campbell was an American politician. He was born in 1768 at Tennessee and died in 1848. Educated at Princeton he was a Representative in Congress from 1803 until 1809, and was chairman of Ways and Means in his last term. He was a US Senator from 1811 until 1814, when he became Secretary of the Treasury; was again elected to the Senate in 1815. In 1818 he was appointed Minister to Russia. He returned to the USA in 1820.
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GEORGE W. CLARKE

George W Clarke was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Iowa from 1913 until 1917.
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GEORGE W. CRAWFORD

George W Crawford was an American politician. He was a Whig governor of Georgia from 1843 until 1847.
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GEORGE W. GLICK

George W Glick was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Kansas from 1883 until 1885.
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GEORGE W. HENDEE

George W Hendee was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Vermont during 1870.
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GEORGE W. P. HUNT

George W P Hunt was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arizona from 1912 until 1917.
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GEORGE W. PECK

George W Peck was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Wisconsin from 1891 until 1895.
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GEORGE W. ROMNEY

George W Romney was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Michigan from 1963 until 1969.
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GEORGE W. TOWNS

George W Towns was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Georgia from 1847 until 1851.
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GEORGE WADE

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George Wade was a British general. He was born in 1673 and died in 1748. He put down the 1715 rebellion and made military roads in the Scottish Highlands. He was field-marshal commanding the forces in Flanders against the French in 1743. However, he failed in the Jacobite rising of 1745.
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GEORGE WALKER

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George Walker was a defender at the Siege of Londonderry. He was born in 1618 and died in 1690 at the Battle of the Boyne. He entered the Church, but when the Revolution broke out he gathered an army for the defence of Londonderry and throughout the siege of 1689 upheld the resistance of the inhabitants. He became Bishop of Londonderry and wrote a book about his experiences entitled 'A True Account of the Siege'.
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GEORGE WALPOLE

George Henry Somerset Walpole was Bishop of Edinburgh and the author of several books on theological subjects.
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GEORGE WALTON

George Walton was an American politician. He was born in 1740 and died in 1804. He was prominent in the pre-Revolutionary movements in Georgia. He represented Georgia in the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1781, and signed the American Declaration of Independence. He commanded a battalion at Savannah in 1778. He was Governor of Georgia. in 1779 and 1789. He represented Georgia in the US Senate from 1795 to 1796.
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GEORGE WASHINGTON

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George Washington was an American soldier, statesman and the first president of the USA. He was born in 1732 at Briges Creek, Virginia and died in 1799. Some of the familiar anecdotes of his early life rest on the more than doubtful authority of Weems, one of his first chroniclers.
On the death of his father in 1743, the family properly was divided among his children: to George were left the lands and mansion occupied by his father at his decease.

George Washington was educated at a common school and at the age of sixteen he was compelled to leave school. The last two years of his attendance had been devoted to the study of geometry, trigonometry, and surveying. He never commenced the study of the classical languages, and he appears not to have had time even to learn French. When a boy his principal attention was given to surveying, in which he distinguished himself so much that when he was just 17 he received a commission as public surveyor.

The next three years were devoted without intermission, except in the winter months, to his profession. A considerable portion of those these years was spent among the Alleghany Mountains. At the time he attained his 19th year the frontiers of Virginia were threatened with Indian depredations and French encroachments. To meet this danger the province was divided into military districts, to each of which an adjutant-general with the rank of major was appointed. George Washington was commissioned to one of these districts, with a salary of 150 pounds per annum. He now studied military exercises and tactics, and entered with alacrity and zeal into the duties of his office. These pursuits were varied by a voyage to Barbados, and a residence of some months there. After his return to his regular duties the number of military divisions was reduced to four the northern division being allotted to Washington.

His appointment as adjutant-general and major at the early age of nineteen was preparatory to his selection for the first striking public event of his life, his service as messenger from the Virginian to the French Governor in 1753-1754. In the autumn of 1755 he was appointed to reorganise the troops of Virginia. The following summer at the Battle of Great Meadows fought by his small force ushered in the long French and Indian War. George Washington was obliged to surrender Fort Necessity. He resigned, but the next year served on Braddock's staff at the defeat of the Monongahela, and had a miraculous escape. George Washington continued in the army as a colonel until 1759 when he resigned his commission, and retired into private life.

On January the 6th, 1759, Washington married Mrs. Martha Custis, of Virginia, a young widow, with two children. Mr. Custis had left valuable estates, and a large sum in money. One-third of this property she held in her own right, the other two-thirds being equally divided between her two children. Washington had a considerable fortune of his own at the time of his marriage - the estate at Mount Vernon, on the Potomac, and large tracts of excellent land, which he had selected during his surveying expeditions, and obtained grants of at different times. He now devoted himself chiefly to the management of this extensive property. He had been elected a member of the House of Burgesses before he resigned his commission; and though there were commonly two and sometimes three sessions in every year, he was punctual in his attendance from the beginning to the end of each.

On March the 4th, 1773, Lord Dunmore prorogued the House of Burgesses of Virginia. Washington had expressed his disapprobation of the stamp-act in unqualified terms. The non-importation agreement, drawn up by George Mason, of Virginia, in 1769, was presented to the members of the dissolved House of Burgesses by Washington. In 1773 he supported the resolutions instituting a committee of correspondence, and recommending the legislatures of the other colonies to do the same. He represented Fairfax County in the Convention which met at Williamsburg, in August 1774, and was appointed by it one of the six Virginian delegates to the first general Congress. On his return from Congress he was virtually placed in command of the Virginia Independent Companies. In the spring of 1775 he devised a plan for the more complete military organisation of Virginia; and on June the 15th of that year he was elected commander-in-chief of the army by Congress. A few days after his appointment he left Philadelphia to join the army at Cambridge, in Massachusetts. He readied it on the 2nd of July. His first enterprise succeeded; Boston was evacuated by the British, on March the 17th, 1776, and the army was transferred to New York.

After the Declaration of Independence, a disheartening series of reverses marked the half year: the battle of Brooklyn, the withdrawal from New York, White Plains, the fall of Fort Washington, and the melancholy retreat of the diminishing army across New Jersey. The morale of the troops and of the country was suddenly raised by George Washington's brilliant surprise of Trenton and victory of Princeton. In the autumn of 1777 his army, though defeated at Brandywine and German-town, kept a large British force occupied, and so contributed to the denouement of the year, at Saratoga. Then came the gloomy winter at Valley Forge, and the cabal of Conway and Gates.

The Battle of Monmouth was won in the summer, but thereafter George Washington's part was for some years in other phases of the war than in battles, and active hostilities drifted away principally to the south. The treason of Benedict Arnold in 1780 was a severe blow. In the following summer George Washington showed the qualities of a great general by his secret and rapid march from the Hudson to Chesapake Bay, a march which resulted in the fall of Yorktown.

On December the 4th 1783 Washington took a solemn farewell of the officers of the army, and on December the 23rd he resigned his commission to Congress.

In 1787 the legislature of Virginia elected Washington their delegate to the Convention which met at Philadelphia. The Convention unanimously chose him for their president, and he assisted in framing the American constitution. On the 30th of April, 1789, he took the oath of office as the first President of the United States. Jefferson was appointed secretary of state; Hamilton, secretary of the treasury; and Knox, secretary of war. Randolph had the post of attorney-general. The appointments to the supreme court cost him much anxious scrutiny. Jay was made chief-justice. After making these appointments he undertook a tour through the eastern states, and returned to be present at the opening of Congress, in January, 1790.

The session of 1791 produced the laws for apportioning the representatives, establishing a uniform militia system, and increasing the army. It now became apparent that two great parties were in the process of formation. Jefferson was the head of the democratic party, Hamilton of what was afterwards called the Federalist party. Washington, though leaning himself towards the Federalist party, endeavoured to reconcile these ardent spirits. Meantime, his own term of office drawing to a close, he yielded to the solicitations of all parties, and consented to be re-elected. He took the new oaths on March the 4th, 1793.

The first question that came before the cabinet after the re-election rendered more decided the differences which already existed. The European parties, of which the court of St James's and the French Republic were the representatives, were eager to draw the United States into the vortex of their struggle. The president and his cabinet were unanimous in their determination to preserve peace; and they succeeded. The proclamation of neutrality was published on April the 22nd, 1793.

This wise act was bitterly assailed by the partisans of France. Washington avowed his disapproval of the violent proceedings of the Jacobins in France, and his wish for a peaceable settlement of the differences with Great Britain; and not-withstanding the opposition of the democratic party, Mr. Jay was sent on a mission to London, and the treaty negotiated by him was ratified on April the 8th, 1795.

Washington was succeeded as President of the United States by John Adams on March the 4th, 1797. Except when summoned in May, 1798, to take the command of the provincial army on the prospect of a war with France, he did not again engage in public business. Washington died on December the 14th 1799, and was buried at Mount Vernon. George Washington has been universally deemed the greatest of Americans, and one of the noblest public characters of all time.
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GEORGE WASHINGTON DONAGHEY

George Washington Donaghey was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arkansas from 1909 until 1913.
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GEORGE WASHINGTON HAYS

George Washington Hays was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arkansas from 1913 until 1917.
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GEORGE WATTS

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George Frederic Watts was an English painter and sculptor. He was born in 1817 in London and died in 1904. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1837. In 1843 and 1847 he secured prizes of 300 and 500 pounds from the Commissioners for the Decoration of the Houses of Parliament for his Caractacus, and Alfred Inciting the Saxons to attack the Danes at Sea; afterwards painting St. George and the Dragon for the Parliament Houses, and the School of Legislation for Lincoln's Inn. Among his more important pictures are: Life's Illusion (1849), Sir Galahad (1862), Ariadne (1863), Esau (1865), Love and Death (1877), Time, Death, and Judgment(1878), HappyWarrior (1884), Hope (1886), Judgment of Paris (1887), The Angel of Death (1888), and Court of Death (1902). He was a great idealist, and a subtle and powerful portrait-painter, among his work in this line being portraits of Tennyson, Millais, Sir F. Leighton, Cardinal Manning, Browning, etc. He became RA in 1868 and retired in 1896. He presented many of his works to the nation.
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GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE

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George Westinghouse was an American inventor and the founder of the Westinghouse Corporation. He was born in 1846 at Central Bridge, New York and died in 1914. He patented a powerful air brake for trains in 1869, which allowed trains to run more safely with greater loads at higher speeds. In the 1880s he turned his attention to the generation of electricity.

Unlike Thomas Edison, Westinghouse introduced alternating current (AC) into his power stations. Westinghouse helped to standardize railway components, including the development of a completely new signalling system. He also developed a system of gas mains. In the 1880s Westinghouse got his engineers to design equipment suitable for a new high-tension AC system. He also secured the services of the Croatian physicist Nikola Tesla. In 1895 the Westinghouse Electric Company harnessed Niagra Falls to generate electricity for the lights and trams of the nearby town of Buffalo. Resentful that AC current was chosen as the standard for domestic electricity supply, Edison, who supported DC current transmission, coined the term 'Westinghoused' to describe the fate of someone who had been executed by electric chair.
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GEORGE WHITE

George White was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Ohio from 1931 until 1935.
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GEORGE WHITEFIELD

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George Whitefield was an English preacher. He was born in 1714 at Gloucester and died in 1770.
He was influenced by Charles Wesley to join the Methodists, and in 1738 made his first voyage to America. He returned to England after a few months to obtain funds for building an orphanage in Savannah, Georgia. The orthodox churches were closed to him., and he addressed vast assemblages in the open air. His eloquence and graceful delivery exerted a powerful influence over his hearers. A considerable sum was collected for his project. In 1740 he made a tour through the colonies. He made seven visits to America, and had immense revivalist success, leading a group called the Calvinistic Methodists.
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GEORGE WHYTE-MELVILLE

George John Whyte-Melville was a Scottish writer. He was born in 1821 at Fifeshire and died in 1878 while hunting. He entered the army, and fought in the Crimean War. He first made himself known as a novelist in 1853, when he published Digby Grand. This was followed by General Bounce, Kate Coventry, Market Harborough, The Gladiators, Sarchedon, Satanella, Holmby House, Bones and I, etc.
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GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS

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George William Curtis was an American journalist and politician. He was born in 1824 and died in 1892. He was in early life a member of the famous Brook Farm community, a European travelling correspondent of the New York Tribune, and an editor of Putnam's Monthly. His later reputation rests on four forms of achievement: as an eloquent and cultured lyceum lecturer and platform orator; as the author of several books, including 'Nile Notes', 'Lotus Eating', 'Prue and I', 'Trumps', 'Potiphar Papers', etc.; as an editor of Harpers Weekly and the writer of 'Easy Chair' of Harper's Magazine, and as a politician. He was a noted delegate in the Republican National Conventions of 1860, 1880 and 1884. He was identified with civil service reform from the start, and was by President Grant appointed in 1871 a commissioner for the purpose of drawing up rules. The National Civil Service Reform League was largely his work.
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GEORGE WILLIAM SMITH

George William Smith was an American politician. He was a Democratic- Republican governor of Virginia during 1811.
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GEORGE WISHART

George Wishart was one of the first martyrs to the Protestant religion in Scotland. He was born in Kincardineshire early in the 16th century and died in 1546. He was educated at Aberdeen; travelled in France and Germany, where he accepted the Reformed doctrines; returned to Scotland and began to teach, but was prosecuted for heresy. He fled to England in 1538, and remained in Cambridge for six years before returning to Scotland in 1543, where he preached in the chief towns, for which offence, at the order of Cardinal Beaton, he was arrested in the house of Cockburn of Ormiston, tried by a clerical assembly in St Andrews, and burned at the stake there in 1546.
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GEORGE WITHER

George Wither was an English poet. He was was born in 1588 at Hampshire and died in 1667. He was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford and afterwards entered himself a student of Lincoln's Inn; and in 1613 published his satires entitled Abuses Stript and Whipt, the severity of which led to his confinement in the Marshalsea. Having been released he took an active part on the side of parliament when the civil war broke out, and sold an estate to raise a troop of horse. Under the Long Parliament he enjoyed various lucrative employments, which were lost to him at the Restoration. He was afterwards imprisoned for publishing a piece called Vox Vulgi. His more important works are: The Shepherd's Hunting (1615), Britain's Remembrancer (1627), A Collection of Emblems and Hallelujah (1643).
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GEORGE WOLF

George Wolf was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Pennsylvania from 1829 until 1835.
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GEORGE WYTHE

George Wythe was an american jurist. He was born in 1726 and died in 1806. He became a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758 and served until the beginning of the American Revolution. He drafted a remonstrance to Parliament against the Stamp Act in 1764. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1776 and signed the American Declaration of Independence. He became Judge of the High Court of Chancery in 1777, and was sole chancellor of that court from 1786 to 1806. He was an ardent supporter of the Federal Constitution in the Virginia Convention of 1788, and was of great note as a lawyer.
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GEORGE YEARDLEY

Sir George Yeardley was an English colonial governor. He was born in 1580 and died in 1627. He was an early immigrant to Virginia from England, and was appointed Deputy-Governor in 1616. He was displaced by Samuel Argall, but was appointed Governor in 1619, and convened the first representative assembly in the Western Hemisphere. He was succeeded by Sir Francis Wyatt in 1621, but again held office from 1626 until his death.
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GEORGE ZIPF

George Kingsley Zipf was professor of linguistics at Harvard university. He was born in 1902 and died in 1950. He developed Zipf's Law, which became the basis of almost all computer data compression systems.
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GEORGES BIZET

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Georges Bizet (real name Alexandre Cesar Leopold Bizet) was a French composer. He was born in 1838 near Paris and died in 1875. He studied with brilliant success at the Paris Conservatoire, and gained the Grand Prix de Rome in 1857. He had several operas put on the stage, with indifferent success, but his chief work, Carmen, brought out shortly before his death was vety successful.
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GEORGES CLEMENCEAU

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Georges Clemenceau was a French republican and statesman. He was born in 1841 at Mouilleron-en-Pareds and died in 1929. He was Prime Minister of France in 1906 and inaugurated a scheme of social reform.
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GEORGES COUTHON

Georges Couthon was a French revolutionist. He was born in 1756 and died in 1794. He trained as a lawyer and some time after the revolution he was chosen a member of the national assembly, and allying himself with Robespierre aided and abetted the latter in all his atrocities. On the downfall of Robespierre's party Georges Couthon shared, along with him and St Just, in the decree of arrest, and was guillotined on July the 28th, 1794.
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GEORGES CUVIER

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Baron Georges Leopold Chretien Frederic Dagobert Cuvier was a German naturalist. He was born in 1769, at Montbeliard, then belonging to the duchy of Wurtemberg and died in 1832. After studying at Stuttgart he became a private tutor in the family of Count D'Herley, in Normandy, where he was at liberty to devote his leisure to natural science, and in particular to zoology. A natural classification of the Vermes or worms was his first labour. The ability and knowledge shown in this work procured him the friendship of the greatest naturalists of France. He was invited to Paris, established at the Central School there, and received by the Institute as a member of the first class. His lectures on natural history, distinguished not less for the elegance of their style than for profound knowledge and elevated speculation, were attended by all the accomplished society of Paris. In January 1800 he was appointed to the College de France. Under Napoleon, who fully recognized his merits, Cuvier held important offices in the department of public instruction. In 1819 he was received amongst the forty members of the French Academy. Amongst the numerous works by which he greatly extended the study of natural history we may mention Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles; Discours sur les Eevolntions de ]a Surface du Globe; Lecons d'Anatomie Comparee; Histoire Naturelle des Poissons; Le Regne Animal, a general view of the animal kingdom, in which all animals were divided into the four great classes: Vertebrata, Mollusca, Articulata and Radiata.
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GEORGES GUYNEMER

Georges Guynemer was one of the most successful fighter pilots of the Great War who relied upon his shooting and audacity to bring success. He was show down eight times, and after winning fifty-three victories he failed to return from a patrol in September, 1917.
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GEORGES LECLANCHE

Georges Leclanche was a French engineer. He was born in 1839 and died in 1882. In 1866 he invented a primary electrical cell (the Leclanche Cell) which still forms the basis for most dry batteries.
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GEORGES OHNET

Georges Ohnet was a French novelist and dramatist. He was born in 1848 at Paris. He entered the legal profession, but soon abandoned it for journalism. In 1875 his play, Regina Sarpi, was produced with great success in Paris, and shortly afterwards he began his series of social novels entitled Les Batailles de la Vie (The Battles of Life). He also wrote others, and successfully dramatized several of his novels. George Ohnet achieved immense popularity in France, and in 1885 he was decorated with the Legion of Honour. His novels give a generally faithful picture of the tastes, feelings, and general mode of life of the French bourgeoisie, and they are in some measure representative of a revolt against naturalism. Several have been translated into English, such as Dr. Rameau (1890), The Ironmaster (1890), Last Love (1890), Lady in Grey (1895), Will (1896), etc.
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GEORGE PICKETT

George E Pickett was an American soldier. He was born in 1825 and died in 1875. He served with distinction during the Mexican War at Vera Cruz, Contreras and Chapultepec. He joined the Confederates and in 1862 commanded a brigade under General Johnston. He was active at Richmond and Gaines' Mills, and commanded a division at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and Petersburg. His command was routed at Five Forks, and he surrendered with General Lee. He was famous for a cavalry charge at Gettysburg.
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GEORGI ZHUKOV

Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov was a Soviet marshal. He was born in 1896 and died in 1974. Becoming chief of the army general staff in 1941, he planned or commanded almost every major Soviet military operation during the Second World War, including the Soviet occupation force in Germany. Under Khrushchev he became defence minister and then a member of the presidium of the Communist Party.
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GERADUS MERCATOR

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Geradus Mercator was a Flemish geographer and cartographer. He was born in 1512 at Rupelmonde and died in 1594. He studied at Louvain and became a lecturer on geography and astronomy and entered into the service of Charles V for whom he made a celestial and a terrestrial globe and in 1559 he retired to Duisburg as cosmographer to the Duke of Juliers. He devised a new method of projecting the surface of the earth on a map which made navigation much simpler.
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GERALD L. BALILES

Gerald L Baliles was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Virginia from 1986 until 1990.
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GERALD MASSEY

Gerald Massey was an English poet. He was born in 1828 at Tring and died in 1907. Of poor parents, for some time he worked as an errand-boy in London. He subsequently edited the Spirit of Freedom, a Radical paper, and in 1854 published his Ballad of Babe Christabel, and other poems. The volume attracted the notice of Landor, and the poems issued in succession to it were popular. For some years Gerald Massey wrote poetical criticisms for the Athenseum. One of the best of his prose works is the ingenious Secret Drama of Shakespeare's Sonnets, first published in 1864-1872, and since republished. Other works are A Tale of Eternity and other Poems (1869), Concerning Spiritualism (1872), A Book of the Beginning's (1882), and the Natural Genesis (1884). He also had considerable popularity at home and in the colonies as a lecturer on Spiritualism and social subjects.
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GERARD AUDRAN

Gerard Audran was a French engraver. He was born in 1640 and died in 1703. He studied at Rome, and was appointed engraver to Louis XIV. He engraved Le Brim's Battles of Alexander, two of Raphael's cartoons, Poussin's Coriolanus, etc, and takes a first place among historical engravers.
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GERARD C. BRANDON

Gerard C Brandon was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Mississippi from 1826 until 1832.
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GERARD DE NERVAL

Gerard Nerval (real name Gerard Labrunie) was a French writer. He was born in 1808 at Paris and died in 1855, committing suicide. His earlier productions were poetic, Elegies nationales and Poesies diverges. As an adherent of the Romantic school he set himself to translate Johann Goethe's Faust, and performed it in a manner which the old poet himself pronounced a marvel of style. Amongst his best works are his short tales and sketches, Voyage en Orient, Contes et Faceties, La Boheme Galante, etc.
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GERARD DOW

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Gerard Dow (Gerard Douw, properly Gerard Dou), was a Dutch painter. He was born in 1613 at Leyden and died in 1675. The son of a glazier, he studied under Rembrandt, and united his master's manner in chiaroscuro with the most minute finish and delicacy. His pictures are generally of small size and mostly scenes of family life.
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GERARD LAKE

Viscount Gerard Lake was a British general. He was born in 1744 and died in 1808. He entered the army in 1758, and served in the Seven Years' War, in America in 1781, and in Holland from 1793 to 1794. He attained the rank of general, and was commander-in-chief in Ireland during the troubles of 1797 to 1798, and in India during the Mahratta war of 1803, which he brought to a brilliant conclusion. He defeated Holkar in 1805, returned to England in 1807, was made viscount, and appointed governor of Plymouth, where he died.
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GERARD TERBURG

Gerard Terburg (Gerard Terborch) was a Dutch painter. He was born in 1617 at Zwolle and died in 1681. His father, a historical painter, gave him his first lessons in painting. He continued his studies at Haarlem, and afterwards visited Germany, Italy, Spain, England, and France. On the meeting of the peace congress at Miinster in 1646 he painted the assembled plenipotentiaries, which is now in the National Gallery, London. He subsequently visited Madrid, London, and Paris, whence he returned to Overyssel, married, and became burgomaster of Deventer. His portraits and pictures of social life are remarkable for alegance. He excelled in. painting textile fabrics, particularly satin and velvet.
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GERARDO MACHADO Y MORALES

Gerardo Machado y Morales was a Cuban dictator. He was born in 1875 and died in 1939. He was the fifth president of the Republic of Cuba from 1925 until 1933 when he was overthrown.
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GERHARD VON SCHARNHORST

Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst was a Prussian soldier. He was born in 1755 at Bordenau, in Hanover and died in 1813. He served in the Hanoverian army for a number of years, and then in 1801 transferred his services to Prussia, where he rapidly rose in army rank, and was ennobled in 1804. Wounded at Auerstadt in 1806, he was taken prisoner at Lubeck soon afterwards, but was exchanged in time to be present at the battle of Eyiau in 1807. After the humiliating Peace of Tilsit he was appointed president of the committee for the reorganization of the army, and it was by his system of short service that Prussia was so well prepared to declare war with France in 1813. In this campaign Scharnhorst accompanied Blucher as lieutenant-general and chief of the staff. He died of the effects of a wound in 1813.
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GERHARD VOSSIUS

Gerhard Johann Vossius was a Dutch classical scholar. He was born in 1577 and died in 1649. He studied at Dordrecht and at Leyden. In 1614 he undertook the direction of the theological college at Leyden, and subsequently became professor of rhetoric and chronology. Favouring the Remonstrants, he became obnoxious to the prevailing party in the church, and was deprived of his office. Archbishop Laud then conferred on him a prebendary stall at Canterbury, with permission to continue his residence in the Netherlands. In 1633 he was invited to Amsterdam, to occupy the chair of history, and continued there until his death in 1649. Several of his sons, especially Isaac, also distinguished themselves as scholars.
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GERMAN CATHOLICS

The German Catholics were a religious sect which sprung up in Germany about the close of the year 1844. The immediate cause of its formation was the exhibition by Arnoldi, bishop of Treves, of the holy coat preserved in the cathedral of that city, accompanied by a promise of plenary indulgence to whoever should make a pilgrimage to Treves to worship it. The announcement caused a general feeling of astonishment in Germany, and two priests, Johannes Ronge of Silesia and Johann Czerski of Posen, whose independent views had already caused the deposition of the one and the secession of the other, led a secession movement, appealing to the lower grades of clergy to unite in founding a national German church independent of the pope.

A number of congregations were formed, especially in Leipzig, under the celebrated Robert Blum, and in Magdeburg under the teacher Kote. Two creeds were drawn up for the new church, the Confession of Schneidemuhl, by Czerski, which, though substantially Roman Catholic, rejected indulgences, purgatory, auricular confession, etc, and the Confession of Breslau, drawn up by Ronge. The latter, which was much less orthodox, was substantially adopted by the Council which met at Leipzig on March the 22nd, 1845.

The organization was almost the same as that of the Presbyterian Dissenting churches of Scotland. Each congregation was to choose its own pastor and elders. For a time the new church had a great success. Many Protestants joined the body, which, by the end of 1845, numbered nearly 300 congregations. Difficulties soon arose, however. The majority of the German governments began to use repressive measures. More fatal were internal dissensions, one party, headed by Czerski, clinging to the traditions and doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, the other, headed by Ronge, tending to mix up democratic and socialistic principles with their creed. The result, in spite of several attempts to re-establish unity, was disintegration and decay. The congregations rapidly dwindled, many being readmitted, to the state church, and, especially after the rise of Old Catholicism, the movement lost all importance.
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GERONIMO

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Geronimo was a celebrated chief of the Chiricahuas of the Apache tribe of Indians. He was captured by General Miles in 1886 for making depredations, and was placed under surveillance at Fort Perkins, Florida.
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GERONIMO CARDAN

Geronimo Cardan also known as Geronimo Cardano, was an Italian philosopher, physician, and mathematician. He was born in 1501 at Pavia and died about 1576. He held successively the chairs of mathematics or medicine at Pavia, Milan, and Bologna, and ultimately went to Rome. Here he was received into the medical college, and was allowed a pension by the pope. He acquired extraordinary reputation as a physician, and was invited to Scotland to attend Archbishop Hamilton of St Andrews, who had been sick for ten years, and who was restored to health by his prescriptions. He made some important discoveries in algebra, studied astrology, claimed to have the gift of prophecy, and wrote a large number of books. His chief works are De Vita Propria, an account of himself; Ars Magna, a treatise on Algebra; De Rerum Varietate; De Rerum Subtilitate; etc.
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GERRIT ACHTERBERG

Gerrit Achterberg was a Dutch poet. He was born in 1905 at Larigbroek and died in 1962. He had already published two collections of poetry whose major theme had been his desire to be united with a beloved in death, when in 1937 he shot and killed his landlady and shot at her young daughter, who survived the incident. He then spent six years in a psychiatric hospital. His poetry opposes a close observance of traditional form to an extreme, and deliberately psychotic, violence of content. His most famous poem is De ballade van de gasfitter written in 1953, a series of fourteen strict sonnets about a confused gas worker whose job is to fill holes.
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GERRIT SMITH

Gerrit Smith was an American politician. He was born in 1797 and died in 1874. He was prominent for his philanthropy in every good cause. He represented New York in the US Congress as an Ultra-Abolitionist from 1853 to 1854. He identified himself with the anti-slavery party, and did all in his power for emancipation. He contributed liberally to the national cause during the Rebellion. He signed the bail-bond of Jefferson Davis with Horace Greeley.
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GERRY ANDERSON

Gerry Anderson is a highly innovative creator of children's science fiction adventure television programmes. His creations of Thunderbirds, Joe-90, and Stingray are legendary. More recently he created 'Space Precinct' probably one of the most expensive television serials yet produced costing over one million pounds each episode to produce.
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GERRY ELBRIDGE

Gerry Elbridge was an American politician. He was born in 1744 and died in 1814. He became a member of the Continental Congress of 1776, and during the four years in which he served was a vigorous advocate of the declaration of Independence. He signed the Declaration of Independence and aided in framing the Constitution, but refused to sign it, believing that too great powers were delegated to the National Government. In 1789 he was elected as a republican to the first National Congress. When governor of Massachusetts in 1810, he so redistributed the electoral districts of the state that it became safe for his own party; whence the term 'gerrymandering' through the term 'salamander', which the electoral map of the state was said to resemble. He was vice-president of the United States from 1813 until his death.
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GERTIE GITANA

Gertie Gitana was a British music hall singer. She was born in 1888 and died in 1957. She was responsible for the song 'Nellie Dean'.
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GERVAISE

Gervaise, or Gervase was a monk of Canterbury. He was born in 1150 and died about 1200. Amongst his writings is an important chronicle, Chronica de tempore regum Angliae, Stephani, Henrici II. et Ricardi I. It is reprinted in Twysden's collection.
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GERVAISE OF TILBURY

Gervaise of Tilbury was an English chronicler of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. He was born at Tilbury in Essex about the middle of the twelfth century. He appears to have spent most of his life on the Continent, living in France, Sicily, Italy, and elsewhere. He taught law at Bologna for a time, and was in the service of the Emperor Otto IV, by whom he was appointed to the post of Marshal of the Kingdom of Aries. He died, according to some, in 1218. His chief and only extant work is entitled Otia Imperialia. Its contents are of a very varied character, including facts pertaining to geography, natural history, superstitions, etc, besides an account of the history of Britain and of the English kings down to his own time.
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GERVASE ELWES

Gervase Elwes was an English tenor. He was born in 1866 at Billing, Northants and died in 1921 in an accident in 1921 at Boston, Massachusetts. Elwes excelled in his interpretation of the works of contemporary English composers.
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GETAE

The Getae (Daci) were an ancient people of Europe who lived at Thrace and then moved west to the north bank of the Danube where they became known by the Romans as the Daci.
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GETULIO VARGAS

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Getulio Vargas was a Brazilian politician. He was born in 1883 at Sao Borja and died in 1954. A trained lawyer, he was elected as a federal deputy in 1923, later serving as Minister of Finance and became President of Brazil. In 1940 he initially welcomed fascism in Europe, moderating his tone in 1941 to oppose aggression.
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