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The Probert Encyclopaedia of People

S C H MONRO

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Colonel S C H Monro was a British soldier. He was born in 1856. He entered the army in 1876 and in 1877 was a Lieutenant with the Seaforth Highlanders. In 1888 he became a Captain and later the same year was promoted to Major. In 1896 he became Lieutenant-Colonel and in 1900 a full Colonel. He served with the 72nd Highlanders during the whole of the Afghan War of 1787 to 1880 accompanying Sir F Roberts to Candahar and being severely wounded at the Battle of Candahar. He served with the 1st Battalion Seaforth Highlanders in the Egyptian War of 1882 and accompanied Sir Charles Warren to South Africa in 1884 and served with the Bechuanaland Expedition in command of the Volunteers. He was Garrison Adjutant of N B District from 1887 to 1888. He served with the 2nd Battalion Seaforth Highlanders in the Hazara Expeditions of 1891. He was Station Staff Officer of Bengal and Punjab 1894 to 1896 and later served with the Chitral Relief Force of 1895. from 1897 to 1898 he served in the campaign on the Northwest Frontier and was in special service in South Africa from 1899 to 1900, and was attached to the Field Intelligence Department in 1900. He commanded Bethune's Mounted Infantry in November 1900 during the Boer War.
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S. S. MARBLE

S S Marble was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Maine from 1887 until 1889.
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S. V. STEWART

S V Stewart was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Montana from 1913 until 1921.
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S. W. T. LANHAM

S W T Lanham was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Texas from 1903 until 1907.
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SAAMI

The Saami (Lapp) are a group of herding people living in north Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula, and numbering about 46,000. Some are nomadic, others lead a more settled way of life. They live by herding reindeer, hunting, fishing, and producing handicrafts. Their language belongs to the Finno- Ugric family. Their religion is basically animist, but incorporates elements of Christianity.
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SABAEANS

The Sabaeans were a South Arabian people who attained a position of great wealth and importance as the commercial intermediaries between the East and the Mediterranean lands. They were especially flourishing from the 11th to the 1st century BC; and as early as 1000 BC. They had numerous colonies on the African mainland, and laid the foundations of the Ethiopian empire. Around the 8th century BC they were tributary to Assyria, and around the period of the foundation of the Roman empire they became subordinate to, though allied with the Himyarites; and from the 2nd to the 7th century AD they were subject to Abyssinia.
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SABELLIUS

Sabellius was a Christian teacher at Ptolemais in Upper Egypt, who lived about 250, and is known as the founder of a sect who considered the Son and Holy Ghost only as different manifestations of the Godhead, but not as separate persons. He taught that as man, though composed of body and soul, is but one person, so God, though he is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, is but one person. Dionysius of Alexandria wrote against Sabellius, and Pope Dionysius condemned him in a council held at Rome in 263. As a sect the Sabellians are extinct since the beginning of the 5th century, but their views have always found adherents.
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SABIANS

The Sabians or Sabeans was a name improperly given by writers of the middle ages to heathen star-worshippers. It is also given to a sect which arose about 830, and whose members are also called Pseudo-Sabians, or Syrian-Sabians, from the fact that the sect originated among the Syrians of Mesopotamia. Their religion is described as the heathenism of the ancient Syrians, modified by Hellenic influences. This sect flourished for about two centuries.
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SABINE BARING-GOULD

Sabine Baring-Gould was an English author or numerous hymns and novels. He was born in 1834 at Exeter and died in 1924. Educated at Cambridge, he held several livings in the English Church, being one time rector of Lew Trenchard, Devon. He wrote with success on theological and miscellaneous subjects, and latterly distinguished himself as a novelist. Among his works are: Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas; Curious Myths of the Middle Ages; the Origin and Development of Religious Belief; Lives of the Saints (in 15 volumes); Village Sermons; The Vicar of Morwenstowe (an account of the Reverend Robert Hawker); The Mystery of Suffering, etc; besides the novels Mehalah, John Herring, Richard Cable, The Gave-rocks, Court Royal, etc; and short stories or novelettes.
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SABINES

The Sabines (Sabini) were an ancient people of central Italy allied to the Latins, and were already a prominent nation before the foundation of Rome. Originally they were confined to the mountain districts to the north-east of Rome, and their ancient capital was Amiternum, near the modern Aquila.They had their daughters taken away by the Romans under Romulus, and were finally defeated by Manius Curius Dentatus in 290 BC after which they became absorbed into the Roman empire.
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SACRAMENTARIANS

Sacramentarians is a term used in more senses than one. Ordinarily in England it means one who holds a 'high' or extreme doctrine of the efficacy of the sacraments, especially of the Eucharist

Technically, however, the word is used in church history in an almost diametrically opposite sense for persons holding a 'low' doctrine on the subject of the sacraments for the party among the Reformers who separated from Luther on the doctrine of the Eucharist. Luther taught the doctrine of the real presence of the body and blood of Christ along with the bread and wine. Carlstadt, Capito, and Bucer were the leaders of those who called this doctrine in question. This sacramentarian party became so considerable that in the diet of Augsburg they claimed to present a special confession known in history by the name of the Tetrapolitan Confession - so called from the four cities, Strasburg, Constance, Lindau, and Meminingen. The Tetrapolitan Confession rejects the doctrine of a corporeal presence, and although it admits a spiritual presence of Christ which the devout soul can feel and enjoy, it excludes all idea of a physical presence of Christ's body. Simultaneously with this German movement, yet independent of it, was that of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, whose doctrine on the Eucharist was identical with that of Carlstadt, and who himself presented a private confession of faith to the Augsburg diet in which this doctrine is embodied. The four cities named above continued for many years to adhere to this confession presented to the diet of Augsburg in their name; but eventually they accepted the so-called Confession of Augsburg, and were merged in the general body of Lutherans. On the contrary, the article of Zwingli upon the Eucharist was in substance embodied in the confession of the Helvetic Church.
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SACROBOSCO

Sacrobosco (John Holywood) was an English mathematician and astronomer. He was born at Halifax and died between 1244 and 1256. He studied at Oxford, and spent most of his life in Paris, where he died. He was author of a Tractatus de Sphaera, which was long a standard work.
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SACS

The sacs or Sauks were a North American Indian tribe forming a branch of the Algonquin family. They were originally based on the upper St Lawrence. They were driven beyond Lake Michigan by the Iroquois and settled near Green Bay, where they subsequently joined with the Foxes. They aided Pontiac, and during the American Revolution supported the English. In 1812, the Rock River Sacs aided Great Britain. In 1804 and 1816 they ceded lands. Their later history is that of the Foxes.
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SADDAM HUSSEIN

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Saddam Hussein At-Tikriti was an Iraqi socialist politician. He was born in 1937 at Tikrit and died in 2006. In 1957 he joined the Ba'th Socialist party. He entered the Iraqi parliament when the Ba'thists took control in a coup in 1968 and in 1972 was responsible for the nationalisation of Iraq's oil industry. In 1979 he became President of Iraq, a position he held until Iraq was invaded by the USA supported by Britain in 2003. Following the American-led invasion he was arrested, put through a show trial and executed.
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SADDLER OF BAWTRY

In Yorkshire it was customary for criminals condemned to execution to stop at a certain tavern in York for a last drink, or 'parting draught'. One such felon, the Saddler of Bawtry refused the offer of a drink and was subsequently hanged, his reprieve arriving a few minutes too late. Had he stopped at the tavern and accepted his last drink, his reprieve would have reached him and his life would have been saved.
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SADI

Sadi or Saadi was the assumed name of the Sheikh Muslik-ed-Din, the famous didactic poet of Persia. He was born about 1184 at Shiraz and died in 1291. In his youth he visited Hindustan, Syria, Palestine, Abyssinia, and made several pilgrimages to Mecca and Medina. While in Syria he was kidnapped by the Crusaders, and forced to work as a slave at the fortifications of Tripoli. After about fifty years of wandering he returned. to his native city, delighting everybody with his poems and sage precepts. The best of his works are; Gulistan (Garden of Roses), a moral work, comprising stories anecdotes, and observations and reflections in prose and verse; and Bostan (the Orchard), a collection of histories, fables, and moral instructions in verse.
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SAHIB

Sahib (meaning master or lord in Arabic) is a title of respect in India and surrounding areas equivalent to the English 'mister; or 'sir'. The title sahib was formerly given to European men by Indian and Persian natives during the times of colonial occupation of those countries. The equivalent title for a woman ius Sahibah.
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SAINT

Saint is a word used in the New Testament as a general term to designate a believer in the gospel of Jesus Christ. In a specific sense it signifies a person whose life has been deemed so eminently pious that the Greek and Roman Catholic Churches have authorized practices of commemoration and invocation in regard to them.

The points involved in the Roman Catholic mythology are the intercession of the saints and the utility of invoking them. According to the Council of Trent 'the saints reigning with Christ offer their prayers for men to God;' and it teaches that 'it is good and useful to call upon them with supplication, and in order to obtain benefits from God through Jesus Christ, who alone is our Redeemer and Saviour, to have recourse to their prayers, help, and aid.' This help and aid is not expected to be given directly, but only through the favour the saints have with God, and through their intercession. As to how the saints are enabled to hear prayers addressed to them, there is no definite teaching. It is chiefly holy men who have died since the time of Christ that are spoken of as saints. The doctrine of saints, and the ideas and usages which grew out of them, form one of the main points of difference between the Protestants and the adherents of the above-mentioned churches. The Roman Catholics regard their beliefs on the subject of saints as supported by different parts of the Bible and the writings of many of the early fathers.

Protestants generally object to the whole doctrine, alleging that not only is the idea of saints as intercessors nowhere contained in the Bible, but that it originated centuries after the establishment of Christianity; and that it is against the chief doctrine of Christianity, which declares all men to be sinners, and to be saved only by Christ. Countries, cities, arts, trades, orders, things, etc, have their patron saints, or saints who are supposed to be specially interested on their behalf; but the church, it seems, determines nothing in relation to them. St Denis is the patron of France; St. George of England and Russia; St Andrew of Scotland; St Patrick of Ireland; Olaff of Norway; Canute of Denmark; Nepomuk of Bohemia; Cecilia of music; Hubert of hunting; Crispin of shoemakers, etc.
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SAINT AUSTREBERTA

Saint Austreberta was a French nun. She was born in 633 at Artois and died in 704. She was the daughter of Badefroy, kinswoman of Dagobert. She became prioress of the abbey of the Port, then abbess of Pavilly, and gave, through her whole life, an example of piety.
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SAINT AUSTREGISILIA

Saint Austregisilia, commonly known as Saint Austrille, or Saint Outrille, was a French priest. He was born in 551 at Bourges and died in 624. After having filled different offices at the court of Gontran he was ordained a priest and was abbot of Saint Niziers at Lyon for 20 years, and then was made Bishop of Bourges in 611. His relics, exhumed in 1334, were burned in the 16th century by the Protestants.
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SAINT GENEVIEVE

Saint Genevieve is the patron saint of Paris. She was born in 423 at Nanterre, about 5 miles from Paris died about the beginning of the 6th century. She devoted herself while still a child to the conventual life. Her prayers and fastings are credited with having saved Paris from the threatened destruction by Attila in 451. Many legends are told respecting her, and several churches have been dedicated to her. Her festival is held on the 3rd of January.

Saint Genevieve (by birth the Duchess of Brabant) was the wife of Siegfried, count palatine in the reign of Charles Martel about 750. According to the legend, which is the subject of several tales and dramas, she was accused of adultery during her husband's absence and condemned to death;
but was allowed to escape, and she lived six years in a cave upon nothing but herbs. She was finally found, and carried home by her husband, who in the meantime had become convinced of her innocence.
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SAINT-SAENS

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Camille Saint-Saens was a French composer. He was born in 1835 in Paris and died in 1921.
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SAIVAS

Saivas are worshippers of Siva; one of the two great sections of the Hindus. They are distinguished from the Vaishnavas by the marks on their foreheads - three horizontal white or grey lines.
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SAIYID AHMAD

Sir Saiyid Ahmad was an Indian educational reformer. He was born in 1817 at Delhi and died in 1898. His family, of Muslim Afghan origin, had held office in Delhi under the Moguls, and he was the leader of the Muslims in India, using his influence to promote understanding between the British and the Muslims, even encouraging his Muslims to study English and advocating a modernized educational system.
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SAKAI

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The Sakai are an aboriginal people of the Malay peninsular. The Sakai traditionally lived in the mountains, so as to avoid persecution from the Malays. Western visitors of the 19th century described a wild and untamed people who shunned strangers. By the 1930's the Sakai had started to move out of the mountains, their persecution at the hands of the Malays having diminished, and they started to become Westernised and were introduced to opium smoking.
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SAKTAS

The Saktas are a sect of Hindus who worship the yoni, or female principle, according to the Tantras. They are divided into two classes - the Dakshina Chari, or right-hand worshippers; and the Vama Chari or left-hand worshippers. The Saktas hold that the great aim of life is the extinction of desire, which they aim for through exhaustion or gratification, which includes orgies at which the Sakti, or female vigour, is personated by a naked virgin.
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SALADIN

Saladin, or properly Salah-Ed-Din, was a celebrated sultan of Egypt and Syria. He was born in 1137 and died in 1193. His father, a native of Kurdistan, was governor of Tekrit (on the Tigris). He early distinguished himself as a soldier, became vizier to the last of the Fatimite caliphs in succession to his uncle Shirkuh, and on the caliph's death in Egypt in 1171 Saladin usurped his wealth and authority, with the approval of Nureddin, the sultan of Damascus. After the latter's death in 1173, Saladin succeeded also in possessing himself of Damascus and Southern Syria.

He rapidly extended his conquests over Syria and the neighbouring countries, and thus came in contact with the Crusaders during the Third Crusade. The disastrous defeat he suffered from the Crusaders in 1177 compelled him to return to Egypt, but in 1182 he resumed his career of conquest. In 1187 he gained the famous victory of Tiberias, and Jerusalem surrendered to him after a gallant resistance. But the fall of Acre in 1191 after a two years' siege, and the defeats at the hand of Richard I, compelled Saladin to conclude a truce in 1192, which was followed by the withdrawal of Richard I. About a year after this event Saladin died at Damascus. He was a skilful, brave, and magnanimous general; and an astute, beneficent, and merciful ruler. Saladin was the founder of the dynasty of the Ayoubites.
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SALADOID

The Saladoids were the first inhabitants of Statia arriving in great sea- going canoes from South America before the end of the 15th century.
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SALAR JUNG

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Sir Salar Jung was an Indian statesman. He was born in 1829 and died in 1883. Of a family famous under the Moguls, he succeeded his uncle as prime minister under the nizam in 1853. He reorganised the Arab mercenaries and used them to suppress robbers and lawless nobles; he then went on to organise a police force, establish courts of justice, and improve education and agriculture. His loyalty to the British during the mutiny was invaluable in the Deccan.
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SALESIAN NUNS

The Salesian Nuns are the nuns of the order of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary, founded by St Francois de Sales and his friend Madame de Chantal, one of his disciples, in 1610, at Annecy, in Savoy, as a refuge for widows and sick females. In the 18th century there were 160 convents and 6600 nuns of this order. There were still Salesian nuns in the principal cities of Italy, devoting themselves to the healing of the sick and the education of young girls, at the end of the 19th century.
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SALIANS

The Salians, or Salian Franks is the name given to that section of the Franks who from the 3rd to the middle of the 4th century were settled on the left bank of the Lower Rhine. Their origin is uncertain, but we know that the earliest Frankish kings were Salian Franks.
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SALISH

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The Salish (nicknamed 'Flatheads') are a North American Indian tribe of the Salishan family found in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Montana and Oregon. The Salish are a tribe of plateau Indians, typical of inland hunting Indians. Upon contact with Europeans they engaged in fur trading and relations were generally friendly. They were visited by Roman Catholic missionaries during the 1840's and signed a treaty with the USA in 1955 which assigned them a reservation around Flathead Lake in Montana.
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SALLEE ROVERS

The Sallee Rovers were notorious Moroccan pirates operating out of Sallee (Sale) near Rabat. It was only in the 19th century that Britain ceased to pay an annual subsidy to the sultan of Morocco to secure safe passage from attacks by the Sallee Rovers, but as late as 1890 they still barred any Europeans from living in the city of Sale in Morocco.
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SALLUST

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Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus) was a Roman historian. He was born in 86 BC at Amiternum and died in 35 BC. He became tribune in 52 BC, and in the civil war sided with Caesar. In 47 BC he was praetor elect, and in the following year accompanied Caesar to the African war, where he was left as governor of Numidia. He returned with immense wealth, was accused of maladministration and oppression, and after Caesar's death lived in luxurious retirement. Sallust wrote several historical works in a clear and concise style. His Bellum Catilinarium is a history of the Catiline conspiracy. The Jugurtha, or Bellum Jugurthinum, is a history of the war against Jugurtha, king of Numidia, from 111 BC to 106 BC.
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SALMAN TASEER

Salman Taseer was a secular Pakistani statesman. He was born in 1945 and died in 2011 when he was assassinated for his opposition to Pakistan's blasphemy laws, and his public support for the Pakistani christian woman Asia Bibi who was condemned to death for allegedly insulting Islam, an offence punishable by death under Shariah and Pakistan's blasphemy laws. Salman Taseer, the governor of Punjab province, was shot dead by one of his body guards, Malik Mumtaz Hussein Qadri.
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SALMON CHASE

Salmon Portland Chase was an American statesman and jurist. He was born in 1808 at New Hampshire and died in 1873. Having adopted the law as his profession he settled at Cincinnati and acquired a practice there. He early showed himself an opponent of slavery, and was the means of founding the Free-soil party, which in time gave rise to the great Republican party - the power that brought the downfall of slavery. In 1849 to 1855 he was a member of the US Senate, in which he vigorously opposed the extension of slavery into the new territories. In 1855 he was elected governor of Ohio, being re-elected in 1857. In 1860 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency. In 1861 he was nominated secretary of the treasury, and in this post was signally successful in providing funds for carrying on the American Civil War. In 1864 he resigned office, and was appointed chief-justice of the supreme courts.
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SALMON P. CHASE

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Salmon Portland Chase was an American politician. He was born in 1808 at Cornish, New Hampshire and died in 1873. After graduating from Dartmouth college in 1826 he studied law and after becoming first a school teacher was admitted to the bar in 1829. He became involved with a political anti-slavery movement, was one of the leaders of the Liberty party and of the later Free-Soil party and acted as legal counsel for fugitive slaves. He was a Republican governor of Ohio from 1856 until 1860, and also a US senator, secretary of the treasury and chief justice of the United States.
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SALOMON ANDREE

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Salomon August Andree was a Swedish balloonist. He was born in 1854 at Grenna and died in 1897. In 1897 he left Danes Island, Spitsbergen on an expedition to reach the North Pole by balloon with two companions, and was never seen again.
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SALOMON GESSNER

Salomon Gessner was a German poet and artist. He was born in 1730 at Zurich and died in 1788. In 1749 he was sent by his father to learn the business of bookselling at Berlin, but having taken a dislike to the business he maintained himself by executing landscapes. On his return to Zurich he published Daphnis, a small volume of idylls, and Tod Abels (The Death of Abel), a kind of pastoral idyll in prose. These idylls acquired for him a great reputation amongst contemporaries. For some years afterwards he devoted himself to the engraving art, in which he also became very eminent.
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SALVADOR ALLENDE

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Salvador Allende was a radical Chilean Marxist democrat leader who became president in 1970, but was killed in a military coup in 1973.
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SALVADOR DALI

Salvador Dali is a Spanish painter. He was born in 1904. He is a surrealist painter.
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SALVATOR ROSA

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Salvator Rosa was an Italian painter, etcher and poet. He was born in 1615 at Arenella and died in 1673. He received instruction in art from his brother-in-law, Francesco Fracanzaro, a pupil of Ribera, but his taste and skill were more influenced by his studies of nature on the Neapolitan coast. Rosa's father, dying in 1632, left his family in difficulties, and Salvator was compelled to sell his landscapes for small sums. One of his pictures fell into the hands of the painter Lanfranco, who at once recognized the genius of the youth, and encouraged him to go to Rome. In 1638 Rosa settled in Rome, where he soon established his reputation and rose to fame and wealth. The bitterness of his satire, expressed both in his satirical poems and in an allegorical painting of the Wheel of Fortune, rendered his stay in Rome inadvisable. He therefore accepted an invitation to Florence in 1642, where he remained nearly nine years, under the protection of the Medici. He finally returned to Rome, where he died.

Salvator Rosa delighted in romantic landscape, delineating scenes of gloomy grandeur and bold magnificence. He also painted battle-scenes, and latterly historical pictures. His poems were all satires, vigorous enough and pungent; among them are Babylon (i.e. Rome), Music, Poetry, Painting, War, and Envy. Rosa etched from his own works with great skill.
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SAM A. BAKER

Sam A Baker was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Missouri from 1925 until 1929.
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SAM C. FORD

Sam C Ford was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Montana from 1941 until 1949.
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SAM H. JONES

Sam H Jones was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Louisiana from 1940 until 1944.
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SAM HOUSTON

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Sam Houston was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1793 near Lexington, Virginia and died in 1863. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Tennessee from 1827 until 1829 and a life-long supporter of the cause of the Cherokee Indians with whom he lived when young.
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SAMAGHIRS

The Samaghirs are a division of the Tunguses people, living about the northern affluents of the Amur River.
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SAMARITANS

The Samaritans are a mixed people, who inhabited the region between Judsea and Galilee, and who formed a sect among the Jews. They consisted partly of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh left in Samaria by the King of Assyria when he had carried their brethren away captive, and partly of Assyrian colonists. On the return of the Jews from captivity they declined to mix with the Samaritans, though united with them in religion. The latter attempted to prevent the Jews from building the temple at Jerusalem, and, failing in this, they built a temple on Mount Gerizim exclusively for their own worship. In 1905 a very few of the race still existed at Nablus. They adhered strictly to the Mosaic law, but were regarded by the Jews as heretics, as they accepted only the Pentateuch, of which they had a special version of their own. They believed in angels, in a resurrection and future retribution, and expect the coming of a Messiah, in whom they looked only for a prophet. In the synagogue the Aramaic Samaritan dialect was used, but they spoke Arabic. They avoided connection with other sects, and married only among themselves.
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SAMBURU

The Samburu are a pastoral people of mixed Hamitic stock inhabiting northern Kenya.
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SAMNITES

The Samnites were an ancient people of Lower Italy, who were of Sabine stock, and consisted of several tribes. They were a brave, frugal, and religious people. Their first war with the Romans resulted in favour of the latter, and secured a Samnite alliance during the Latin war of 340-338 BC. The second Samnite war of 326-304 BC was a fierce contest, in which the Romans were shamefully defeated at the Caudine Forks, but were finally successful. The third Samnite war of 298-290 BC saw the overthrow of the Samnites and Gauls at Sentinum. When the Italian allies of Rome revolted against her in 90 BC the Samnites once again rose against their oppressors, but were completely subdued and almost extirpated by Sulla. The Samnites appear to have been a crude pastoral people. Their form of government was democratic.
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SAMOSET

Samoset was a chief of the Pemaquid Indians in Maine. He was born about 1590. He learned English from the colonists of Monhegan Island, sent out by Sir Ferdinando Gorges. Soon after the landing of the Pilgrims he entered Plymouth, saying, 'Welcome, Englishmen'. He brought Squantoy who had visited England, to act as interpreter, and manifested a friendly interest toward the colonists.
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SAMOYEDES

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The Samoyedes are a Mongolian race of Ural-Altaic stock, inhabiting the tundras of north east Europe and Siberia. They are nomadic, dwelling in tents or huts and hunting (mainly reindeer) and fishing. They were described in 1588 by Giles Fletcher as eaters of raw flesh, black haired and beardless, men and women alike wearing shirts, breeches and boots made of seal-skin.
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SAMUEL

Samuel was the first of the order of prophets and the last of the judges of Israel. He was the son of Elkanah of Ramathaimzophim, belonging to the tribe of Levi, and was consecrated by Hannah, his mother, to the service of Jehovah. He was educated in the house of the chief priest Eli at Shiloh, and predicted the disasters that should befall the house of Eli. He assumed the judgeship of Israel about twenty years after the death of Eli, and headed a successful expedition against the Philistines. He mentions his own name in the list of warlike chiefs who sought deliverance of his people, and it is recorded that he judged Israel as civil ruler all his life, going a yearly circuit from Ramah, where was his home, to Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpeh. His administration was distinguished by the restoration of the neglected worship of Jehovah. He also gave a new vigour to the theocratical institutions of Moses by the establishment of schools of the prophets. In his old age, Samuel appointed Saul as king, and when Saul failed to live up to expectations, Samuel appointed David as king, resulting in the predictable conflict between the two factions.
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SAMUEL ADAMS

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Samuel Adams was an American politician. He was born in 1722 at Boston, Massachusetts and died in 1803. A second cousin to John Adams, the second President of the USA, Samuel Adams was educated at Harvard and briefly studied law. After failing in business and as a tax collector, he became politically involved in Massachusetts, campaigning against taxation from Britain and played a role instigating the Stamp Act riots in Boston. A later signatory of the Declaration of Independence, he was lieutenant governor of Massachusetts from 1789 to 1794 and governor from 1794 until 1797.
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SAMUEL ALLIBONE

Samuel Austin Allibone was an American author. He was born in 1816 and died in 1889. He compiled a most useful Critical Dictionary of English Literature and British and American Authors published in three volumes in 1859, 1870 and 1871.
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SAMUEL ARGALL

Sir Samuel Argall was a British adventurer. He was born in 1572 and died in 1639. He went to Virginia in 1609 and in 1612 was responsible for the abduction of Pocahontas. In 1613 he commanded an expedition which destroyed Port Royal, Acadia. From 1617 to 1619 he was deputy-governor of Virginia, but was so cruel and evil he was recalled to England.
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SAMUEL ARMSTRONG

Samuel Armstrong was an American politician. He was a Whig governor of Massachusetts from 1835 until 1836.
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SAMUEL ASHE

Samuel Ashe was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of North Carolina from 1795 until 1798.
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SAMUEL B MAXEY

Samuel B Maxey was an American politician. He was born in 1825 and died in 1895. He served during the Mexican War, and was made major-general in the Confederate service. He represented Texas in the US Senate as a Democrat, from 1875 to 1887
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SAMUEL B. MOORE

Samuel B Moore was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Alabama during 1831.
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SAMUEL BAGSTER

Samuel Bagster was an English publisher. He was born in 1772 and died in 1851. He was a founder of the firm of Bagster & Sons, celebrated for their bibles. He began business as a London bookseller in 1794, and soon turned his attention to the publication of bibles, bringing out a Hebrew bible, the Septuagint (Greek) version, and the English version, with 60,000 parallel references, followed by his great polyglot bible, which in its final form showed eight languages at the opening of the volume. Separate versions in different languages were also brought out, with various other aids to the study of Scripture; a polyglot Book of Common Prayer, in eight languages; etc.
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SAMUEL BAKER

Si Samuel White Baker was an English traveller. He was born in 1821 and died in 1893. He resided some years in Sri Lanka; in 1861 began his African travels, which lasted several years, in the Upper Nile regions, and resulted, among other discoveries, in that of Albert Nyanza lake in 1864, and of the exit of the White Nile from it. In Africa he encountered Speke and Grant after their discovery of the Victoria Nyanza. On his return home he was received with great honour and was knighted. In 1869 he returned to Africa as head of an expedition sent by the Khedive of Egypt to annex and open up to trade a large part of the newly explored country, being raised to the dignity of pasha. He returned in 1873, having finished his work, and was succeeded by the celebrated Gordon. Since then he travelled much. His writings include: The Rifle and the Hound in Ceylon ; Eight Years' Wanderings in Ceylon; The Albert Nyanza, etc; The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia; Ismailia: a Narrative of the Expedition to Central Africa; Cyprus as I saw it in 1879; also, Cast up by the Sea, a story published in 1869.
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SAMUEL BAMFORD

Samuel Bamford was an English social reformer and poet. He was born in 1788 at Middleton in Lancashire and died in 1872. A weaver, he championed the cause for an improvement in the working conditions for the working class, a cause that led to him being arrested and imprisoned.
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SAMUEL BARBER

Samuel Barber was an American composer. He was born in 1910 at West Chester and died in 1981. He trained at the Curtis Institute of Music, Philadelphia. One of the best-known American composers of the neo-romantic school, he received the Prix de Rome in 1935, Pulitzer Travelling Scholarships in music in 1935 and 1936, a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1945, and the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1958 and 1963. Among his compositions for orchestra are the overture to The School for Scandal written in 1933, Adagio for Strings written in 1936, and two symphonies written in 1936 and 1944; concertos for violin written in 1940, cello written in 1945, and piano written in 1962; and the ballets Medea written in 1946. He also composed works for chorus, chamber ensemble, and piano, and he is noted for his songs. His first opera, Vanessa written in 1958, has been recorded. His second opera, Anthony and Cleopatra written in 1966, was commissioned for the opening performance at the new Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.
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SAMUEL BARNETT

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Samuel Augustus Barnett was a British Socialist, social reformer and churchman. He was born in 1844 at Bristol and died in 1913. Educated at Wadham College, Oxford, he was for five years curate of St Mary's, Bryanston Square assisting Octavia Hill in her philanthropic work. From 1872 until 1894 he was vicar of St Jude's, Whitechapel and in 1893 was appointed canon of Bristol, in 1906 canon of Westminster and in 1913 sub-dean of Westminster. Samuel Barnett was concerned with the poor-law, housing and educational reform, he was a virtual founder of Toynbee Hall, the first university settlement of which he was warden from 1884 until 1906, and president until his death. He originated the Children's Country Holiday Fund formulated in 1902. He co-wrote the 1888 book 'Practicable Socialism' and other titles on social reform.
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SAMUEL BARRINGTON

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Samuel Barrington was a British admiral who gained distinction during the Seven Years War. He was born in 1729 and died in 1800. He entered the navy at the age of ten and served under Hawke in the Basque Roads, 1757, and under Rodney at Havre-de-Grace, 1759, and with Keppel at Belle Isle in 1761. As commander-in-chief of the West Indies station he took part in the capture of St Lucia in 1778 and the action off Grenada. In 1787 he was made an admiral.
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SAMUEL BELL

Samuel Bell was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of New Hampshire from 1819 until 1823.
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SAMUEL BERRY

Samuel Berry was professor of Midwifery at Queen's College, Birmingham. He was born in 1808 and died in 1887.
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SAMUEL BIGGER

Samuel Bigger was an American politician. He was a Whig governor of Indiana from 1840 until 1843.
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SAMUEL BIRCH

Samuel Birch was an English orientalist. He was born in 1813 at London and died in 1885. He entered the British Museum as assistant-keeper of antiquities in 1836, and ultimately became keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities. He was specially famed for his capacity and skill in Egyptology, and was associated with Baron Bunsen in his work on Egypt, contributing the philological portions relating to hieroglyphics. His principal works, besides numerous contributions to the transactions of learned societies, to encyclopaedias, etc, include Gallery of Antiquities, 1842; Catalogue of Greek Vases, 1851; Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphics, 1857; Ancient Pottery, 1858; Egypt from the Earliest Times, 1875. He edited Records of the Past, from 1873 intil 1880. He had the LLD degree from St Andrews and Cambridge, DGL from Oxford, besides many foreign academical distinctions.

Samuel John Lamorna Birch was an English landscape painter. He was born in 1869 and died in 1955.
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SAMUEL BOCHART

Samuel Bochart was a French theologian and Oriental scholar. He was born in 1599 at Rouen and died in 1667 at Caen where he was the Protestant clergyman. His chief works are his Geographia Sacra (1646), and his Hierozoicon, or treatise on the animals of the Bible (1663).
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SAMUEL BOUGH

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Samuel Bough was an English painter. He was born in 1822 near Carlisle and died in 1878. He was a self-taught painter, first of theatrical scenery at Manchester and Glasgow, before proceeding to landscapes, mainly in water- colours.
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SAMUEL BUTLER

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Samuel Butler was a British satirist and poet. He was born in 1612 and died in 1680. He was educated at Worcester free-school, and held various situations as clerk or amanuensis to persons of position, among them being Sir Samuel Luke, a Puritan colonel of Bedfordshire, who is caricatured in the celebrated knight Hudibras. Butler published the first part of Hudibras after the Restoration, in 1663. It became immensely popular, and Charles II himself was perpetually quoting the poem, but did nothing for the author, who seems to have passed the latter part of his life dependent on the support of friends, and died in poverty in London in 1680. A second part of Hudibras appeared in 1664, a third in 1678. The poem is a sort of burlesque epic ridiculing Puritanism, and fanaticism and hypocrisy generally. Butler was author also of various other pieces, including a satire on the Royal Society entitled the Elephant in the Moon.
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SAMUEL C REID

Samuel C Reid was an American sailor. He was born in 1783 and died in 1861. He commanded the privateer General Armstrong, and fought at the Battle of Fayal in 1814 with a British squadron. He designed the US flag.
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SAMUEL C. CRAFTS

Samuel C Crafts was an American politician. He was a National-Republican governor of Vermont from 1828 until 1831.
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SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN

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Samuel Champlain was a French naval officer. He was born in 1570 and died in 1635. His exploits in the maritime war against Spain in 1595 caught the attention of Henry IV who in 1603 commissioned him to found establishments in North America. He made three voyages to found establishments in North America, the last founded Quebec, and in 1620 he was appointed Governor of Canada.
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SAMUEL CHAPMAN ARMSTRONG

Samuel Chapman Armstrong was an American soldier and educator. He was born in 1839 at Hawaii and died in 1893. He was educated at Oahu College and Williams College. In 1862, after the outbreak of the American Civil war, he joined the Union army. In 1863 the then Major Armstrong volunteered for the 'colored service' and in 1864 he was commissioned colonel of the 9th US Colored Infantry, a black regiment, which he commanded for two years. In 1866 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. At the close of the war he applied to general Howard for a position which should enable him to work among the freedmen, and he was sent to Hampton, Virginia to settle the difficulties between the thousands of refugee contrabands who had drifted in there and the returned Confederate families. He was put in charge of the work of the Freedmen's Bureau at this point, and was given supervision of ten counties of eastern Virginia. A year spent in this service impressed him strongly with the importance of establishing an educational centre in this locality, and he urged the American Missionary Association to buy land for that purpose. They accepted his plan, and at their request he took charge of the work and in 1868 he founded, for the education of blacks, the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute for Negroes, now Hampton Institute, and served as its president until his death.
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SAMUEL CHASE

Samuel Chase was an American patriot. He was born in 1741 at Maryland and died in 1811. He was a signer of the American Declaration of Independence and was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 until 1778. He became Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791, and was appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1796. In 1804 he was impeached by the House of Representatives, on the ground of Federalist partisanship, but the Senate failed to sustain the charges.
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SAMUEL CLARKE

Samuuel Clarke was an English theological and philosophical writer. He was born in 1675 at Norwich and died in 1729. Educated at Caius College, Cambridge, he became chaplain to Dr. More, bishop of Norwich, and between 1699 and 1701 published Essays on Baptism, Confirmation, and Repentance, replied to Toland's Amyntor, and issued a paraphrase of the Gospels. He was then presented with two livings, and in 1704 and 1705 twice delivered the Boyle lectures at Oxford on The Being and Attributes of God, and on The Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion.

In 1706 he published a letter to Mr. Dodwell on the Immortality of the Soul, and a Latin version of Newton's Optics. He was then appointed rector of St Bennet's, London, and shortly afterwards rector of St James's and chaplain to Queen Anne. In 1712 he edited Caesar's Commentaries, and published his Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity, which became a subject of much controversy and of complaint in the Lower House of Convocation. His chief subsequent productions were his discussions with Leibnitz and Collins on the Freedom of the Will, his Latin version of part of the Iliad, and a considerable number of sermons. His philosophic fame rests on his a priori argument for the existence of God, his theory of the nature and obligation of virtue as conformity to certain relations involved in the eternal fitness of things, and his opposition to Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Leibnitz, and others.
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SAMUEL CLEMENS

Samuel Clemens was the real name of Mark Twain, the American writer.
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SAMUEL CODY

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Samuel Franklin Cody was an American-born British aviator. He was born in 1861 at Forth Worth, Texas and died in 1913. In his early life lie was associated with a cowboy troupe and the stage, and the money he made he spent on experiments with man-lifting kites. These kites were so successful that he was employed by the War Office at Farnborough in the balloon section of the Royal Engineers as a kite instructor. While there he took part in the designing and building of the Nulli Secundus, the first British dirigible. He was the first man in Britain to fly a heavier-than-air-craft. He constructed his first aeroplane in 1908 and invented a successful biplane in 1909. In 1910 In he built another machine which held the world's record for a cross-country flight. He won numerous Michclin prizes and in 1912 he won the first prize of 4000 pounds, open to the world in the military aeroplane competition, and the 1000 pound prize for the best British aeroplane. Cody was also given a special award of 500 pounds for his kites.

In 1911 he was the only British entrant to finish the course in an English aviation race. He was aeronautical advisor to the War Office and won its aeroplane competition in 1912. He was killed in an air crash while experimenting in aeronautics, near Aldershot in 1913.
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SAMUEL COLERIDGE

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge was an English poet and philosopher. He was born in 1772 at Ottery St Mary in Devon and died in 1834. Sent to school at Christ's Church Hospital, to which he had obtained a representation, the young Samuel Coleridge took little interest in the ordinary sports of childhood, and was noted for a dreamy abstracted manner, though he made considerable progress in classical studies, and was known even at that early age as a devourer of metaphysical and theological works.

From Christ's Church he went with a scholarship to Jesus College, Cambridge, where he remained for two years, but without achieving much distinction. At this time, too, his ultra-radical and rationalistic opinions made the idea of academic preferment hopeless, and perhaps it was partly to escape the difficulties and perplexities gathering about his future that Samuel Coleridge suddenly quit Cambridge and enlisted in the 15th Dragoons. Rescued by his friends from this position, he took up his residence at Bristol with two congenial spirits, Robert Southey, who had just been obliged to quit Oxford for his Unitarian opinions, and Lovell, a young Quaker. The three conceived the project of emigrating to America, and establishing a pantisocracy as they termed it, or community in which all should be equal, on the banks of the Susquehanna. This scheme, however, never became anything more than a theory, and was finally disposed of when, in 1795, the three friends married three sisters, the Misses Pricket of Bristol.


Samuel Coleridge about this time started a periodical, the Watchman, which did not survived beyond the ninth number. In 1796 he took a cottage at Nether Stowey, in Somersetshire, where, soothed and supported by the companionship of Wordsworth, who came to reside at Allfoxden, he wrote much of his best poetry, in particular the Ancient Mariner and the first part of Christabel. While residing at Nether Stowey he used to officiate in a Unitarian chapel at Taunton, and in 1798 received an invitation to take the charge of a congregation of this denomination at Shrewsbury, where, however, he did nothing further than preach the probation sermon.

An annuity bestowed on him by some friends (the Wedgewoods) furnished him with the means of making a tour to Germany, where he studied at the University of Gottingen. In 1800 he returned to England and took up his residence beside Southey at Keswick, while Wordsworth lived at Grasmere in the same neighbourhood. From this fact, and a certain common vein in their poetry, arose the epithet of 'Lake School' applied to their works. About 1804 Coleridge went to Malta to re-establish his health, seriously impaired by opium-eating. In 1806 he returned to England, and after ten years of somewhat desultory literary work as lecturer, contributor to periodicals, etc, Samuel Coleridge in a sort took refuge from the world in the house of his friend Mr. Gillman at Highgate, London. Here he passed the rest of his days, holding weekly conversaziones in which he poured himself forth in eloquent monologues, being by general consent one of the most wonderful talkers of the time.

His views on religious and political subjects had now become mainly orthodox and conservative, and a great work on the Logos, which should reconcile reason and faith, was one of the dreams of his later years. But Samuel Coleridge had long been incapable of concentrating his energies on anything, and of the many years he spent in the leisure and quietness of Highgate nothing remains but the Table Talk and the fragmentary notes and criticism gathered together, and edited by his nephew, valuable enough of their kind, but less than might have been expected of Samuel Coleridge.

The dreamy and transcendental character of Samuel Coleridge's poetry eminently exhibits the man. In his best moments he has a fine sublimity of thought and expression not surpassed by Milton; but he is often turgid and verbose. As a critic, especially of William Shakespeare, Samuel Coleridge's work is of the highest rank, combining a comprehensive grasp of large critical principles and a singularly subtle insight into details.

Samuel Coleridge's poetical works include The Ancient Mariner, Christabel (incomplete), Remorse, a tragedy, Kubia Khan, a translation of Schiller's Wallenstein, etc; his prose works, Biographia Literaria, The Friend, The Statesman's Manual, Aids to Reflection, On the Constitution of Church and State, etc. Posthumously were published specimens of his Table Talk, Literary Remains, etc.
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SAMUEL COLT

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Samuel Colt was an American inventor. He was born in 1814 at Hartford, Connecticut and died in 1862. He ran away from home and joined the navy, and later patented the first successful percussion revolver first in England in 1835 and later in America in 1836.
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SAMUEL CONY

Samuel Cony was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Maine from 1864 until 1867.
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SAMUEL COOPER

Samuel Cooper was an American soldier. He was born in 1798 and died in 1876. From 1815 he was an officer in the US army and was adjutant-general from 1852 until 1861. Resigning, he then became adjutant-general and inspector-general of the Confederate army.
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SAMUEL COUSINS

Samuel Cousins was an English mezzotint engraver. He was born in 1801 at Exeter and died in 1887. He engraved plates after Lawrence, Landseer, Reynolds, Millais, Leslie, Eastlake, Ward, etc. He was elected Royal Academician Engraver in 1855, and when this class was abolished he became an Academician proper. On his death he bequeathed 15,000 pounds to the Academy in trust for poor artists.
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SAMUEL CROCKETT

Samuel Rutherford Crockett was a Scottish novelist. He was born in 1859, near New Galloway and died in 1914. Educated at Castle-Douglas and at Edinburgh University, he became Free Church minister at Penicuik, but gave up the church for literature. The Stickit Minister, which appeared in 1893, first made his name known. After that he produced a number of tales and sketches, including The Raiders; Mad Sir Ughtred of the Hills; The Lilac Sun-bonnet; The Men of the Moss Hags; The Playactress; Sweetheart Travellers; Cleg Kelly, Arab of the City; etc.
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SAMUEL CROMPTON

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Samuel Crompton was an English inventor born in 1753 near Bolton he died in 1827. He early displayed a turn for mechanics, and when only twenty-one years of age invented his machine for spinning cotton, which was called a mule, from its combining the principles of Hargreave's spinning-jenny and Arkwright's roller-frame, both invented a few years previously. The mule shared in the odium excited among the Lancashire hand-weavers against these machines, and for a time Samuel Crompton was obliged to conceal his invention. He afterwards brought it again into work; but was unable to prevent others from profiting by it at his expense. Various improvements were introduced from time to time on the mule, but the original principle, as devised by Samuel Crompton, remained the same. The sum of 5000 pounds, voted to him by parliament in 1812, was almost all the remuneration which he received for an invention which contributed so essentially to the development of British manufactures.
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SAMUEL CUNARD

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Sir Samuel Cunard was the founder of the Cunard shipping line. He was born in Wales in 1787 and died in 1865.
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SAMUEL CURTIS

Samuel R Curtis was an American soldier. He was born in 1807 and died in 1866. An Ohio lawyer from 1841 to 1846, he became adjutant-general of militia in 1846, and during the Mexican War commanded at Camarago against General Urrea. He was a Congressman from Iowa from 1857 to 1861, when he was commissioned brigadier-general and gained a great victory at Pea Ridge, Arkansas He commanded Fort Leavenworth during the Price raid in 1864, and was US Commissioner to negotiate Indian treaties.
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SAMUEL D. FELKER

Samuel D Felker was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Hampshire from 1913 until 1915.
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SAMUEL D. MCENERY

Samuel D McEnery was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Louisiana from 1881 until 1888.
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SAMUEL DALE

Samuel Dale was an American army scout. He was born in 1772 and died in 1841. He became a US army scout in 1793 and commanded a battalion against the Creeks in 1814. He was appointed with Colonel George Gaines to remove the Choctaw Indians to their reservations on the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
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SAMUEL DANIEL

Samuel Daniel was an English poet and historian. He was born in 1562 and died in 1619. Under the patronage of the Pembroke family he received several court appointments, but he commonly lived in the country, employed in literary pursuits. His great poem, The History of the Civil Wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster, is written with much rhetorical grace and dignity of style. He wrote also epistles, pastorals, sonnets, and a few tragedies, as well as a clear and useful sketch of English history until the time of Edward III and 'Defence of Ryme'.
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SAMUEL DAVIDSON

Samuel Davidson was an Irish biblical scholar. He was born in 1807 and died in 1898. He studied at Glasgow and Belfast, entered the Presbyterian ministry, and was for a time a divinity professor at Belfast, afterwards joined the Congregationalists, and was a professor in their college at Manchester, but had to resign owing to his advanced theological views, and settled in London. His works include: Introduction to the New Testament; Introduction to the Old Testament; Biblical Criticism; translation of the New Testament, from Tischendorf's text; Canon of the Bible; Doctrine of Last Things.
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SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN

Samuel de Champlain was a French navigator. He was born in 1567 and died in 1635. In 1599 he sailed in the 'St Julien' for the West Indies, and returned by way of the Isthmus of Panama, across which he conceived the plan of a ship-canal. In 1603 and 1604 in two voyages, he explored the St Lawrence River. Between 1604 and 1606 he explored and mapped the coast of America as far as Cape Cod. On his next voyage he founded Quebec in 1608. In 1609 he joined the Montagnais against the Iroquois. They ascended the Sorel River and entered the lake to which he gave his own name.
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SAMUEL DEXTER

Samuel Dexter was an American politiican. He was born in 1761 and died in 1816. A noted lawyer of Massachusetts, he was successively, for short periods in 1800 and 1801, Secretary of War and of the Treasury in the Cabinet of President John Adams.
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SAMUEL DINSMOOR

Samuel Dinsmoor was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Hampshire from 1831 until 1834.
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SAMUEL DINSMOOR JR.

Samuel Dinsmoor Jr. was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of New Hampshire from 1849 until 1852.
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SAMUEL DRIVER

Samuel Rolles Driver was an English professor of Hebrew and Biblical critic. He was born in 1846 at Southampton and died in 1914. He was educated at Winchester and at New College, Oxford, where he graduated with first-class honours in classics in 1869. He gained the Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholarship in 1866, and the Kennicott Scholarship (also for Hebrew) four years later, besides prizes for Septuagint Greek and Syriac. He was for some years a fellow and tutor of his college, and from 1876 to 1881 a member of the Old Testament Revision Company. In 1883, on the death of Pusey, he became Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford and (ipso facto) a Canon of Christ Church. Of his numerous works may be mentioned: A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (1874); Isaiah: His Life and Times (1888); Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (1891), a work suited for popular reading, which has passed through many editions; Sermons on Subjects connected with the Old Testament (1892); the Parallel Psalter (1904);
Commentaries on various books of the Bible; articles in Bible dictionaries and in periodicals ; etc. He was a joint editor of the new Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament published by the Clarendon Press.
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SAMUEL E. PINGREE

Samuel E Pingree was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Vermont from 1884 until 1886.
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SAMUEL E. SMITH

Samuel E Smith was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Maine from 1831 until 1834.
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SAMUEL ELBERT

Samuel Elbert was an American politician. He was a governor of Georgia from 1785 until 1786.
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SAMUEL F MILLER

Samuel F Miller was an American jurist and politician. He was born in 1816 and died in 1890. He was an ardent anti-slavery advocate and a Republican leader in Iowa. He was a Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1862 to 1890, and was regarded by many as its leading member.
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SAMUEL FOOTE

Samuel A Foote was an American politician. He was born in 1780 and died in 1846. He was a Representative from Connecticut in the US Congress from 1819 to 1821 and 1823 to 1825; was Speaker of the State Legislature from 1825 to 1826, and a US Senator from 1827 to 1833. In the Senate he offered the resolution which caused the famous debate between Webster and Hayne. He was Governor of Connecticut in 1834.
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SAMUEL FRANCIS DU PONT

Samuel Francis Du Pont was an American naval commander. He was born in 1803 and died in 1865. He entered the navy in his youth, but had no opportunities for distinction until the Mexican War, when he took San Diego. His great naval feat was in the first year of the American Civil War; he captured the fortifications of Port Royal harbour on November 7th 1861, and followed up this success by seizing Tybee and reducing many points on the coast of Georgia and Florida. For these successes he was made rear-admiral. The unsuccessful attacks on the defences of Charleston, under his lead, in 1863, were made against his better judgment.
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SAMUEL G. COSGROVE

Samuel G Cosgrove was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Washington during 1909.
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SAMUEL GARDINER

Samuel Rawson Gardiner was an English historian. He was born in 1829 and died in 1902. Educated at Winchester and Christ Church, Oxford, he was for some years professor of modern history at King's College, London, but resigned in 1885. He specially devoted himself to the period of English history beginning with the accession of James I, and gave a full and impartial account of the events of the time, based on the original documents. The first section comes down to the outbreak of the English Civil War (1603-1642), the second deals with the civil war (1642-1649), the third with the Commonwealth and Protectorate. He also wrote a Student's History of England, etc.
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SAMUEL GARTH

Sir Samuel Garth was an English physician and poet. He was born in 1661 and died in 1719. Educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge he graduated in medicine in 1691, after studying at Leyden and was made a fellow of the College of Physicians in 1693. A division among the medical profession on the establishment of a dispensary for the metropolitan poor was the occasion of his successful mock-heroic poem, The Dispensary published in 1699. He became the chief Whig physician, as Radcliffe was chief Tory physician, and on the accession of George I was knighted, and appointed physician in ordinary to the king, and physician-general to the army. He wrote much in verse and prose, including translations.
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SAMUEL GOODRICH

Samuel Griswold Goodrich was an american politician and writer. He was born in 1793 at Eidgefield, Connecticut, 1793 and died in 1860. He was a publisher in Hartford and afterwards in Boston. He served in the Massachusetts Senate in 1838 and 1839, and was US Consul at Paris from 1851 until 1855. He published many juvenile and educational works, usually under the pseudonym of Peter Parley, famous among which was a popular history of the United States.
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SAMUEL GORTON

Samuel Gorton was an English religious leader. He was born in 1600 and died in 1677. He emigrated to America from England in 1636, was banished from Massachusetts for religious reasons, and finally settled in Rhode Island, where he founded a religious sect. He afterwards named the place Warwick, in honour of the earl from whom he obtained redress for his grievances, when between 1644 and 1647 he was persecuted by Massachusetts.
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SAMUEL H. ELROD

Samuel H Elrod was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of South Dakota from 1905 until 1907.
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SAMUEL H. SHAPIRO

Samuel H Shapiro was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Illinois from 1968 until 1969.
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SAMUEL HAHNEMANN

Samuel Christian Friedrich Hahnemann was a German doctor. He was born in 1775 at Meissen and died in 1843. He was the founder of the homoeopathic system. He studied medicine at Leipzig, Vienna, and Erkangen, taking his degree at the last-mentioned place in 1779. After practising in various places, he published in 1810 his Organon der rationellen Heilkunde, which fully explained his new system of curing any disorder by employing a medicine which produces a similar disorder. He was driven from Saxony by the government which prohibited him from dispensing medicines, and found asylum in Paris, France where the government authorised his system and it found a popular following.
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SAMUEL HALL

Samuel Carter Hall was an English writer. He was born in 1800 and died in 1889. He studied law and became a barrister; reported parliamentary debates for the New Times; edited in succession the Amulet, the New Monthly Magazine, and the Art Journal from 1839 to 1880, besides various popular annuals, and the Book of Gems, Book of British Ballads, and Baronial Halls. He also published Memories of Great Men and Women of the Age (1870),and The Retrospect of a Long Life (1883). He was associated with the founding of various London charities, and from 1880 received an annual civil-list pension. His wife was Anna Maria Fielding, an Irish writer.
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SAMUEL HEINTZELMAN

Samuel P Heintzelman was an American soldier. He was born in 1805 and died in 1880. He graduated at West Point, served as a captain in the Mexican War, and was brevetted major for bravery. He was commissioned colonel in the American Civil War, and afterwards commanded as brigadier-general at Alexandria, Bull Run, Yorktown, Williamsburg and Fair Oaks, and in 1863 commanded the Northern Department. He was retired in 1869 with the full rank of major-general USA.
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SAMUEL HOOD

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Sir Samuel Hood was an English naval officer. He was born in 1762 and died in 1814. He saw action off Dominica in 1782 under his cousin, also called Samuel Hood. In 1793 he gained fame for his clever escape from the port of Toulon which he had entered believing it to be in British hands. In 1797 he commanded the Zealous at the attack on Santa Cruz and at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. In 1805 he lost an arm capturing four heavy frigates off Rochefort.
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SAMUEL HOOD 2

Viscount Samuel Hood was an English sailor. He was born in 1724 and died in 1816. He joined the navy as a midshipman in 1740, and attained the rank of post-captain in 1759. Having become rear-admiral, he preserved the island of St Christopher's from being taken by De Grasse, assisted in the defeat of De Grasse by Hoduey in 1782, and was rewarded with the title of Baron Hood of Gatherington in the Irish peerage. In 1793 he commanded against the French in the Mediterranean, and captured Toulon and Corsica. In 1796 he was made an English peer, with the title of Viscount Hood.
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SAMUEL HOOPER

Samuel Hooper was an American politician. He was born in 1808 and died in 1875. He was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature from 1851 to 1854, and of the US Congress as a Republican from 1861 to 1875. He served on the Committees of Ways and Means, Banking and Currency, and War Debts.
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SAMUEL HOPKINS

Samuel Hopkins was an American theologian. He was norn in 1721 at Connecticut and died in 1803. He was ordained in 1743, and became a pastor at Newport, Rohde Island in 1770. He was prominent in the Rhode Island anti-slavery movements in 1774. His religious views exerted a powerful influence.
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SAMUEL HORSLEY

Samuel Horsley was an English bishop. He was born in 1733 and died in 1806. He was educated at Cambridge, and in 1759 became rector of Newington Butts. In 1767 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, of which he was appointed secretary in 1773. After several charges he was appointed in 1788 Bishop of St David's, from which he was translated to Rochester in 1793, receiving at the same time the deanery of Westminster; and finally to St Asaph in 1802, when he resigned his deanery. Samuel Horsley was the greatest theological controversialist of his day, and is famous for his controversy with Priestley on Unitarianism. He published numerous sermons, and several works on Biblical criticism, besides editing an edition of Sir Isaac Newton's works.
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SAMUEL HOUSTON

Samuel Houston was an American politician. He was born in 1793 and died in 1863. Enlisted in the US army in 1813, he was promoted to lieutenant for bravery in the Creek War of 1813 to 1814. He represented Tennessee in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1823 to 1827, and was Governor of Tennessee from 1827 to 1829. He was a member of the Texas Constitutional Convention in 1833. As commander-in-chief of the Texan army he secured the independence of Texas. He was president of Texas from 1836 to 1838 and from 1841 to 1844, secured the annexation of Texas to the United States and represented it in Congress from 1845 to 1859. He was again chosen Governor of Texas in 1859 and served until he refused to espouse the Confederate cause in 1861.
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SAMUEL HOWE

Samuel G Howe was an American writer. He was born in 1801 and died in 1876. He founded a school for the blind in 1833 subsequently called the Perkins Institution, of which he was superintendent until 1876, and at which Laura Bridgman was educated. From 1851 to 1853 he edited the Commonwealth. When commissioner to Santo Domingo in 1871 he advocated annexation to the United States. He was author of an 'Historical Sketch of the Greek Revolution', in which he had participated.
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SAMUEL HUBBARD

Samuel D Hubbard was an American politician. He was born in 1799 and died in 1855. He represented Connecticut in the US Congress as a Whig from 1845 to 1849. He was Postmaster-General in Fillmore's Cabinet from 1852 to 1853.
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SAMUEL HUNTINGTON

Samuel Huntington was an American politician. He was born in 1732 at Cobbecticut and died in 1796. He signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776, was President of the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1781, and Governor of Connecticut from 1786 to 1796.

Samuel Huntington was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Ohio from 1808 until 1810.
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SAMUEL INGHAM

Samuel D Ingham was an American politician. He was born in 1779 and died in 1860. He represented Pennsylvania in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1813 to 1818, and from 1822 to 1829. He was Secretary of the Treasury from 1829 to 1831 in Jackson's Cabinet.
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SAMUEL INSULL

Samuel Insull was an English born American financier. He was born in 1859 at London and died in 1938. He moved to the USA in 1881 and became the private secretary to Thomas Edison. On consolidation of Edison's interests, Insull became vice president of Edison General Electric Co. in 1889 and president of the Chicago Edison Co. in 1892 and of Commonwealth Electric Co. of Chicago in 1898, which he merged as Commonwealth Edison. He was also the president of Peoples' Gas Light and Coke Co. , Chicago, and various other companies. Over expansion caused financial difficulties for a pyramid of holding companies he created and three of his largest companies went into receivership in 1932 resulting in his indictment, he fled to Europe but returned in 1934 and was three times acquitted of fraud and embezzlement.
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SAMUEL J. CRAWFORD

Samuel J Crawford was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Kansas from 1865 until 1868.
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SAMUEL J. KIRKWOOD

Samuel J Kirkwood was an American politician. He was born in 1813 and died in 1894. He was prosecuting attorney of Richland County, Ohio, from 1845 to 1849. He was Governor of Iowa from 1859 to 1863. He represented Iowa in the US Senate as a Republican from 1866 to 1867. He was Governor of Iowa from 1875 to 1877, and a US Senator from 1877 to 1881, when he became Secretary of the Interior in Garfield's Cabinet, serving until 1882.
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SAMUEL JOHNSON

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Dr Samuel Johnson (popularly known as Dr Johnson) was an English writer and lexicographer. He was born in 1709 at Lichfield and died in 1784. The son of a bookseller, he received his early education partly at the free school of Lichfield, and partly at Stourbridge, in Worcestershire. In 1728 he entered Pembroke College, Oxford, but was obliged by poverty to retire after three years without taking a degree. He became successively an usher in Leicestershire, a bookseller's drudge in Birmingham, and the head of a school established with some money he acquired by marrying, in 1736, Mrs. Porter, the widow of a mercer, considerably older than himself, but to whom he was sincerely attached.

The school speedily failed; and in 1737, removing to London, Samuel Johnson entered on his long course of literary toil. His reputation rose very slowly; the greater part of his time was wasted for many years on desultory and occasional efforts. A large proportion of his writings appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, or as pamphlets; and most of these are quite forgotten. His two poetical satires, London published in 1738 and The Vanity of Human Wishes, published in 1749, are striking specimens of reflection and diction, but neither they nor his tragedy of Irene entitle him to be considered as a great poet. Rasselas published in 1759, written in a week to pay for his mother's funeral, is one of the most interesting and characteristic of his works. His two sets of periodical essays, The Rambler (1750-52) and The Idler (1758-60), were at first coldly received, but on being collected and reprinted they became very popular.

For eight years from 1747 Samuel Johnson's attention was chiefly engaged by his Dictionary of the English Language, a work which appeared in 1755, and is highly honourable to the author in the circumstances in which it was produced, but is of little real philological value being so full of errors. The dictionary, though it raised his fame, added little to his worldly means and Samuel Johnson lived in poverty until 1762, when he obtained, through Lord Bute, a pension of 300 pounds a year.

He was thenceforth in easy circumstances, and could enjoy without restraint the society of Burke, Reynolds, Gibbon, Garrick, Goldsmith, and others in the famous club which became a formidable power in the world of letters. In 1763 the first interview with his now equally famous biographer, James Boswell, took place. In 1765 began his intimacy with the family of Mr. Thrale, the great brewer, and in the same year appeared his long-promised edition of Shakespeare.

In 1773 Samuel Johnson made a tour to the Hebrides in company with his friend Boswell, of which he gives a highly instructive account in his Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland. In 1775 he received the diploma of DCL from the University of Oxford, and soon after visited France in company with the Thrales. His last literary undertaking was his Lives of the Poets which was published in 1781.
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SAMUEL JOHNSTON

Samuel Johnston was an American politician. He was a Federalist governor of North Carolina from 1787 until 1789.
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SAMUEL JONES TILDEN

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Samuel Jones Tilden was an American lawyer and politician. He was born in 1814 at New Lebanon, New York and died in 1886. Educated at Yale and New York university, he was called to the bar in 1841. He was a Democratic governor of New York from 1875 until 1876 when he stood as a Democratic presidential candidate, but lost the election to Rutherford Hayes by a single vote after an investigation into illegal voting in Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida. Tilden then retired from public life.
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SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD

Samuel L Southard was an American politician. He was born in 1787 and died in 1842. He represented New Jersey in the US Senate as a Democrat from 1821 to 1823. He was Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinets of Monroe and Adams from 1823 to 1829. He was acting Secretary of the Treasury from March to July in 1825, Governor of New Jersey in 1832, and a US Senator from 1833 to 1842.
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SAMUEL LANGLEY

Samuel Pierpoint Langley was an American astronomer and aviation pioneer. S P Langley was engaged during the greater part of his life in astronomy, and it was while he was working at the observatory in Alleghany in 1886-1887 that he became interested in the study of flight. He began the study of aerodynamics and constructed a whirling table some 60 feet in diameter. He began the construction of power-driven models which flew in 1896. The models were fitted with a one horse-power engine and weighed about 25 pounds. The success of these models was followed by a grant from the United States Government for further experiments. In 1903 a largo machine was constructed weighing 730 pounds, and fitted with a 52 hp engine designed by Langley's assistant, Manley. Two trials were made, one on the 7th of October, 1903, and the other on the 8th of December, of the same year, over the Potomac River. Neither trial was successful and the causes of failure became a subject of controversy. These trials saw the end of Langley's experiments.

Langley was one of the real pioneers in aviation who studied flight from a scientific point of view. Despite the controversy which arose about his work, controversy with which Langley had nothing to do, he undoubtedly contributed to the solution of the problem of flight. He died in 1906, when his dream of flying was about to come true.
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SAMUEL LISTER

Samuel Cunliffe Lister (first Baron Masham) was an English inventor and manufacturer. He was born in 1815 near Bradford and died in 1906. The son of a manufacturer who was MP for Bradford, he gained business experience in Liverpool and in America, and in 1837 he and an elder brother started in Manningham, near Bradford, as worsted spinners and manufacturers. He turned from manufacturing to wool-combing and invented a highly successful machine which did away altogether with hand labour in the wool-combing process, and which greatly extended and practically revolutionized the wool-trade. In the period between 1855 and 1865 he invented and perfected the silk-combing machine, by means of which he was enabled to produce plush and velvet out of silk-waste, formerly worthless; this - which created a new industry - was probably his most remunerative invention. He became a great land-owner and owner of coal-mines, and presented Cartwright Memorial Hall and Lister Park to Bradford. He took out patents for all kinds of mechanical devices and industrial processes which he never pushed further. He was created a baron in 1891, taking his title from the town of Masham
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SAMUEL LOVER

Samuel Lover was an Irish novelist, poet, and musical composer. He was born in 1797 at Dublin and died in 1868. He first devoted his attention to painting, but afterwards turned to literature, and wrote novels, which he illustrated with his own pencil, dramas, operettas, and songs, which he set to music. Among his works are Legends and Stories of Ireland (1832-34); Rory O'More, a novel (1837); Songs and Ballads (1839); Handy Andy, a novel (1842); Treasure Trove, a novel (1844). The Angels' Whisper, Molly Bawn, and the Low-backed Oar were among his most popular songs.
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SAMUEL M. RALSTON

Samuel M Ralston was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Indiana from 1913 until 1917.
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SAMUEL MAUNDER

Samuel Maunder was an English writer. He was born in 1785 at Devon and died in 1849.
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SAMUEL MEDARY

Samuel Medary was an American journalist. He was born in 1801 and died in 1864. he founded the Ohio Statesman, a powerful Democratic paper, and edited it until 1858. He is said to have originated the campaign cry, 'Fifty-four forty or fight'.
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SAMUEL MERRILL

Samuel Merrill was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Iowa from 1868 until 1872.
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SAMUEL MEYRICK

Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick was an English archaeologist. He was born in 1783 and died in 1848. He formed a finely arranged collection of medieval armour. His chief work is the beautifully illustrated Critical Enquiry into Ancient Armour.
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SAMUEL MORLEY

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Samuel Morley was an English politician and philanthropist. He was born in 1809 at London and died in 1886. He was returned MP for Nottingham in 1865, later losing that seat and representing Bristol from 1868 to 1885, declining a peerage on his retirement. A great philanthropist he granted liberal pensions to his workpeople and gave large sums to nonconformist projects.
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SAMUEL MORSE

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Samuel Finley Breese Morse was an American artist and inventor. He was born in 1791 and died in 1872. Educated at Yale, in 1810 he travelled to England to study art with Allston and Benjamin West, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1813. In 1815 he returned to New York and settled as a portrait painter. In 1826 he was appointed the first president of the national academy of design. Interested in science, he experimented with the phenomena of electricity and invented the morse code in 1832 as a by-product of his invention of communications by electric telegraphy and conceived the idea of a recording magnetic telegraph.
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SAMUEL NELSON

Samuel Nelson was an American jusrist. He was born in 1792 at New York and died in 1873. He was a Circuit Judge from 1823 to 1831. He was a Justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1831 to 1837 and its Chief Justice from 1837 to 1845. He was a Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1845 to 1873. He was a member of the Joint High Commission, which in 1871 negotiated the Treaty of Washington.
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SAMUEL OSGOOD

Samuel Osgood was an American politician. He was born in 1748 and died in 1813. He was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress from 1780 to 1784, Commissioner of the Treasury from 1785 to 1789, and Postmaster-General from 1789 to 1791.
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SAMUEL P. GODDARD JR.

Samuel P Goddard Jr. was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arizona from 1965 until 1967.
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SAMUEL PARR

Samuel Parr was an English scholar. He was born in 1747 and died in 1825. He was educated at Harrow and Cambridge; taught successively in the grammar-schools of Stanhope, Colchester, and Norwich; and in 1783 became perpetual curate of Hatton in Warwickshire. Here he engaged in literature, and became noted among his contemporaries as a classic purist and bitter polemic.
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SAMUEL PARRIS

Samuel Parris was an American clergyman. He was born in 1653 in England and died in 1720. He was a clergyman in Salem, Massachusetts, from 1689 to 1696. In 1692 his daughter and niece accused Tituba, a slave, of bewitching them. Samuel Parris beat Tituba until she confessed to the crime she hadn't committed. The delusion spread, and the Salem Witch trials were inaugurated in which nineteen innocent people were hanged. Samuel Parris afterwards acknowledged his error.
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SAMUEL PARSONS

Samuel H Parsons was an American politician. He was born in 1737 and died in 1789. He was a member of the Connecticut Assembly from 1762 to 1780. He planned the capture of Ticonderoga in 1775. He fought at Long Island in 1776, and commanded a brigade at White Plains and the troops at New York Highlands from 1778 until 1779. He succeeded General Israel Putnam in command of the Connecticut line in 1780. He had an important part in the forming of the Ohio Company, the securing of the Ordinance for the Government of the Northwest Territory and the early settlement of Ohio.
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SAMUEL PAYNTER

Samuel Paynter was an American politician. He was a Federalist governor of Delaware from 1824 until 1827.
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SAMUEL PEPYS

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Samuel Pepys was an English civil servant and staunch Royalist, renowned for his diary. He was born in 1633 at London and died in 1703. He entered the navy office in 1660, a few months after starting his diary. He was appointed secretary to the Admiralty in 1672, imprisoned in the tower of London with loss of office in 1679 on suspicion of being connected with the Popish Plot - no formal charges were ever brought against him, he was reinstated in 1684, and finally deprived at the 1688 Revolution when he retired to Clapham. His diary was discontinued in 1669 as he thought his sight was failing, and was written in a personal version of Shelton's shorthand, and was not deciphered until 1825 - and then only transcribed in a censored edition. In 1970 his diary, all twelve volumes and 1.3 million words was finally transcribed in its entirety. His diary is unrivalled for its intimacy and the human picture it presents of daily life in the 17th century, much of which is disturbing by modern standards, Pepys having no qualms about recording details of the executions he witnessed, and the adulterous affairs that appear to have been the norm.

In addition to his diary, Samuel Pepys revolutionised the organisation of the British navy, weeding out much of the corruption of the time which meant unqualified officers were able to buy comissions and endanger the crew of their ship, and instead Samuel Pepys was responsible for the introduction of tests for naval officers, ensuring those in command were at least qualified sailors.
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SAMUEL PETERS

Samuel Peters was an American clergyman. He was born in 1735 and died in 1826. He became a Church-of-England minister in the churches of Hartford and Hebron, Connecticut, in 1762. He was suspected of being a Tory, and in 1774 was required to make a written declaration that he had not communicated with England concerning the controversies with the colonies and would not do so. Soon afterwards he fled to England. He wrote a satirical 'History of Connecticut' which greatly angered his former oppressors.
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SAMUEL PHELPS

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Samuel S Phelps was an American jurist and politician. He was born in 1793 and died in 1855. He was a Judge of the Vermont Supreme Court from 1831 to 1838. He represented Vermont in the US Senate from 1839 to 1851, and from 1853 to 1854. He was a pro-slavery Democrat.
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SAMUEL PLIMSOLL

Samuel Plimsoll (known as 'the sailors' friend') was an English businessman and politician. He was born in 1824 at Bristol and died in 1898. He became clerk and later manager in a brewery, and in 1853 set up in business in London as a coal merchant. He began to take an active interest in the condition of sailors in the mercantile marine, agitating against the practice of putting to sea 'coffin-ships', which were unseaworthy, over-insured, and in many cases never meant to survive the journey. He entered Parliament as a Liberal for Derby in 1868, and made repeated efforts to get a bill passed putting his views into effect. In 1873 he published Our Seamen, which forcibly directed public attention to the abuses. The government was induced to bring in a bill in 1875, but when Disraeli announced that this was to be dropped Plimsoll created a violent scene in the House, for which he subsequently had to apologize. In 1876, however, the Merchant Shipping Act was passed, which imposed penalties on unseaworthy vessels, and provided for a compulsory fixed load-line (commonly known as the Plimsoll line or Plimsoll mark). In 1880 Plimsoll gave up his seat at Derby to Sir William Harcourt, and did not again enter Parliament. In 1890 he published a work dealing with the abuses prevalent on cattle-ships.
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SAMUEL POMEROY

Samuel C Pomeroy was an American politician. He was born in 1816 and died in 1891. He was an organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Society, and founded a colony at Lawrence, Kansas, in 1854. He represented Kansas in the US Senate as a Republican from 1861 to 1873.
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SAMUEL PRIOR

Samuel Prior ('The children's policeman') was an English policeman. He was born in 1862 and died in 1944. An orphan at the age of nine he worked for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, before joining the metropolitan police in 1888. During his twenty-five years with the Metropolitan police he championed the cause of abused and exploited children, being responsible for 600 cases of rescuing children and having them placed in industrial schools where they could learn a trade. After his retirement from the police he worked with the Children's Aid Society.
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SAMUEL PROUT

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Samuel Prout was an English painter in water-colours. He was born in 1783 at Plymouth and died in 1852. He received a few lessons in drawing in his native town, and prosecuted his work by industriously sketching from nature. In 1803 he visited, and in 1812 finally moved to London, where he maintained himself by teaching and furnishing drawings for Britton's topographic and architectural publications. He was an occasional exhibitor at the Academy and British Institution from 1803 to 1827, and was one of the earliest members of the Society of Painters in Watercolours. In 1818 he visited the Continent, after which he made repeated artistic tours; he became famous for his drawings of street scenes and the quaint mediaeval architecture of Europe. Some of his seacoast scenes exhibit great power. His drawings are held in much repute.
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SAMUEL PROVOOST

Samuel Provoost was an American bishop. He was born in 1742 and died in 1815. He was rector of Trinity Church, New York, from 1784 to 1800. He was Bishop of New York from 1787 to 1801, and was one of the first bishops consecrated for America.
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SAMUEL PURCHAS

Samuel Purchas was an English writer. He was born in 1577 at Thaxted, in Essex and died in 1626. He was educated at Cambridge and took orders and in 1604 became the vicar of Eastwood in Essex, the duties of which office he left for some years to be discharged by a brother, while he devoted himself in London to the self-imposed task of collecting geographical, historical, and miscellaneous information. In 1613 he issued Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages and Places discovered from the Creation unto the Present, etc. In 1615 he was appointed rector of St Martin's, Ludgate Hill, London, a position favourable to the pursuit of his multifarious researches. The manuscript remains of Richard Hakluyt having come into his hands he gave to his next work, published in 1624, the title Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrims, containing a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and others, which is valuable as containing the narratives of voyagers, explorers, and adventurers as written by themselves, the language of the previous work, the Pilgrimage, on the other hand being Purchas' own. The Pilgrims have been much utilized by subsequent compilers of voyages and travels.
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SAMUEL R. MCKELVIE

Samuel R McKelvie was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Nebraska from 1919 until 1923.
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SAMUEL R. VAN SANT

Samuel R Van Sant was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Minnesota from 1901 until 1905.
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SAMUEL RANDALL

Samuel J Randall was an American politician. He was born in 1828 and died in 1890. He represented Pennsylvania in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1863 to 1890. He distinguished himself by speeches against the 'Force Bill' in 1875. While chairman of the Committee on Appropriations, from 1875 to 1876, he curtailed expenditures by a systematic reduction in appropriations. He was Speaker from 1876 to 1881. He was prominent as a leader in opposition to the Morrison tariff bill in 1884. He served on Committees of Banking, Rules and elections. He was prominent in tariff debates as a leader of the protectionist wing of the Democratic party.
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SAMUEL RICHARDSON

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Samuel Richardson was an English novelist. He was born in 1689 at Derbyshire and died in 1761.
The son of a joiner, after serving an apprenticeship as a printer he entered into business and became printer of the House of Commons Journals, and King's Printer and was made master of the Stationers' Company.

Samuel Richardson began to write novels when he was quite old and was approached with a view to publishing a model letter-writer. This suggestion was the origin of his first novel, 'Pamela', which was published in 1740. It was intended as a moral novel, and as such met with much ridicule, but was original and full of life. 'Pamela' was followed by 'Clarissa Harlowe',
a somewhat tedious seven-volume novel, written between 1747 and 1748, and 'Sir Charles Grandison' published in 1753.

Critics place Samuel Richardson's chief importance in his introduction of the analysis of human emotion into novel writing. He had great influence on the Continent, being the inspirer of Diderot and Rousseau among others and his novel 'Pamela' allegedly inspired Henry Fielding to write novels.
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SAMUEL ROGERS

Samuel Rogers was an English poet. He was born in 1763 at Stoke-Newington, London and died in 1855. His father was a leading member of a Dissenting congregation and a banker by profession. After completing his attendance at school, young Samuel Rogers entered the banking establishment as a clerk, but his favourite pursuits were poetry and literature. His first appearance before the public was in 1786, when he gave to the world his Ode to Superstition and other Poems. The Pleasures of Memory with which his name is principally identified appeared in 1792, and An Epistle to a Friend (1798). In 1810 he published The Voyage of Columbus, a fragment; in 1814, Jacqueline, a tale; in 1819, Human Life; and in 1822, Italy, a descriptive poem in blank verse.

He was, until within a few years of his death, a man of extremely active habits, and his benevolence was exerted to a large extent on behalf of suffering or friendless talent. He formed a remarkable collection of works of art, etc, and issued sumptuous editions of his own works, with engravings on steel from drawings by Turner and Stothard. A volume of his Table Talk was published by his friend Alexander Dyce in London in 1856.
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SAMUEL ROMILLY

Sir Samuel Romilly was an English lawyer. He was born in 1757 and died in 1818 by suicide. He was called to the bar in 1783, and gradually rose to be leader in the Court of Chancery. In 1805 he was appointed chancellor of Durham, and next year he became solicitor-general under Fox and Grenville, though he had not previously sat in parliament. At the same time he was knighted. When his party went out of office he remained in parliament, where he became distinguished by his talent in debate, and particularly by the eloquence with which he urged the amelioration of the cruel and barbarous penal code which then prevailed. His efforts, though not attended with great success during his life, certainly hastened the just and necessary reforms which subsequently were effected, and entitle him to the name of a great and merciful reformer. Sir Samuel Romilly was at the height of popularity and reputation, when, griving at his wife's death, he committed suicide in November 1818. His second son, also a lawyer, was created Lord Romilly in 1866.
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SAMUEL RUTHERFORD

Samuel Rutherford (Samuel Rutherfurd) was a Scottish divine. He was born about 1600 in Roxburghshire and died in 1661. He studied at Edinburgh University, took his degree of MA in 1621, and in 1627 was appointed minister of Anwoth in Kirkcudbright. On account of his strong Presbyterian views he was deprived of his living in 1636 and imprisoned for two years, when he was restored. He took a prominent part in the drawing up of the National Covenant. In 1639 he became professor of divinity, and in 1649 principal of the new college, St Andrews. He published numerous politico-theological treatises. The most famous of these is Lex Rex, which on the Restoration was publicly burned, and he himself charged with high treason. His own death, however, prevented him from answering the charge before parliament. His Familiar Letters, published after his death, have been frequently reprinted.
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SAMUEL S COX

Samuel S Cox (also known as 'Sunset Cox') was an American newspaperman and statesman. He was born in 1824 and died in 1889. He was editor of the Columbus, Ohio 'Statesman'. In 1855 he was Secretary of Legatation to Peru and from 1857 until 1877 a member of Congress. From 1885 to 1886 he was Minister to Turkey.
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SAMUEL SCHWABE

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe was a German astronomer and botanist. He was born in 1789 at Dessau and died in 1875. In 1826 he began observing the sun, and for the next forty-two years each day recorded the visible sun spots, the results of his observation being published in a tabular form in 1851 in volume 3 of Humboldt's 'Kosmos', thereby establishing for certain the sun- spot cycle.
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SAMUEL SEWALL

Samuel Sewall was an English jurist. He was born in 1652 and died in 1730. He went to America from England in 1661. He was an 'assistant' of Massachusetts from 1684 to 1688, a member of the Executive Council from 1692 to 1735, and judge of the probate court from 1692 to 1718. He was prominent in the Salem witchcraft trials and afterwards publicly acknowledged his error. He was Chief Justice from 1718 to 1728. He published 'The Selling of Joseph', one of the first tracts advocating the rights of slaves, and kept a diary, since published, which gives an interesting and amusing picture of life in Puritan Boston.
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SAMUEL SHARP

Samuel Sharpe was an English Egytologist. He was born in 1799 and died in 1881. In addition to numerous biblical publications he was the author of a History of Egypt, Chronology of Ancient Egypt, and numerous monographs on hieroglyphics and Egyptian antiquities
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SAMUEL SLATER

Samuel Slater was an English engineer. He was born in 1768 and died in 1835. He went to America from England in 1789 to introduce cotton machinery in the American States. His machinery was constructed from memory, as communication of models of English machinery was forbidden. He started his new cotton-spinning machinery at Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1790, which was the beginning of cotton manufacture in America. He established mills at Webster and Slaterville, Massachusetts.
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SAMUEL SMILES

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Samuel Smiles was an English author and social reformer. He was born in 1812 at Haddington and died in 1904. Educated at Edinburgh University, he graduated as a medical doctor but dissatisfied with medical practice, he went to Leeds, where he became editor of The Leeds Times and an active social reformer. Subsequently he became identified with railway management in Leeds and later in London. His first literary success was a biography of George Stephenson published in 1857. In 1859 he published his best known work, 'Self Help', a work designed to show what can be accomplished in life by determination and the will to succeed, illustrated by copious examples from the lives of eminent people.
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SAMUEL SMITH

Samuel Smith was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1752 at Maryland and died in 1839. He fought at Long Island, Harlem and White Plains, and was distinguished at Brandywine and Fort Mifflin, which he commanded. He also fought at Monmouth. He represented Maryland in the US Congress as a Democrat from 1793 to 1803, in the US Senate from 1803 to 1815, and again in the House from 1816 to 1822. He was again US Senator from 1833 to 1835. He attempted, with his brother Robert Smith, to control Madison's administration.
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SAMUEL SPRIGG

Samuel Sprigg was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Maryland from 1819 until 1822.
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SAMUEL STEVENS JR.

Samuel Stevens Jr. was an American politician. He was a Democratic- Republican governor of Maryland from 1822 until 1826.
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SAMUEL STONE

Samuel Stone was an English Puritan divine. He was born in 1602 at Hertford and died in 1663. He went to New England in 1633 and settled at Newtown as a teacher. In 1636 he and Hook the preacher migrated with the majority of the inhabitants to a settlement in Connecticut which they called Hartford.
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SAMUEL TUCKER

Samuel Tucker was an American sailor. He was born in 1747 at Massachusetts and died in 1833. While commander of the Franklin and the Hancock in 1776, he captured more than thirty vessels. From 1777 to 1780 he commanded the Boston, and captured many prizes, including the sloop-of-war Thorn. He commanded the Thorn from 1780 to 1781, when he was captured by the British frigate HMS Hind. He was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature from 1814 to 1818.
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SAMUEL VON PUFENDORF

Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (Baron Samuel von Puffendorf) was a German writer on the law of nature and nations. He was born in 1632 and died in 1694. He studied theology and law at Leipzig and Jena, and in 1660 appeared his Elementa Jurisprudentise Universalis. In 1661 he became professor of the law of nature and of nations at Heidelberg. In 1677 he published his work De Statu Reipublicae Germanicae, which, from the boldness of its attacks on the constitution of the German Empire, caused a profound sensation. In 1670 he went to Sweden, became professor of natural law in the University of Lund, and brought out his chief work, De Jure Naturae et Gentium, and in 1675 an abstract of it, De Officio Hominis et Civis.

In 1677 Pufendorf went to Stockholm as historiographer-royal. There he wrote in Latin his vigorous vindication of Protestantism, On the Spiritual Monarchy of the Pope, a History of Sweden from the Campaign of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany to the Abdication of Queen Christina, a History of Charles Gustavus, and in German his Introduction to the History of the Principal States of Europe. In 1686 he received a summons to Berlin from Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg, a history of whom Pufendorf wrote for his son, the first king of Prussia. In 1694 he was created a baron by the King of Sweden, and in the same year he died at Berlin. There are English translations of his principal works.
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SAMUEL W. HALE

Samuel W Hale was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of New Hampshire from 1883 until 1885.
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SAMUEL W. MCCALL

Samuel W McCall was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Massachusetts from 1916 until 1919.
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SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER

Samuel W Pennypacker was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Pennsylvania from 1903 until 1907.
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SAMUEL WARD

Samuel Ward was an American politician. He was born in 1725 and died in 1776. He was Governor of Rhode Island from 1762 to 1763 and from 1765 to 1767. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1775.
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SAMUEL WARD KING

Samuel Ward King was an American politician. He was a Rhode Island Party governor of Rhode Island from 1840 until 1843.
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SAMUEL WARREN

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Samuel Warren was a British novelist. He was born in 1807 at Wales and died in 1877. He was called to the bar in 1837, obtained the recordership of Hull in 1852 and held the post of Conservative MP for Midhurst from 1856 to 1859 retiring on his appointment as a master in lunacy.
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SAMUEL WELLS

Samuel Wells was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Maine from 1856 until 1857.
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SAMUEL WILBERFORCE

Samuel Wilberforce was an English prelate. He was born in 1805 ar Clapham and died in 1873 from a riding accident. The son of William Wilberforce, the philanthropist, he graduated from Oriel College, Oxford; was appointed curate of Checkendon in 1828, rector of Brightstone in the Isle of Wight in 1880; became a rural dean in 1836, canon of Winchester in 1840, Bampton lecturer in 1841, dean of Westminster in 1845, and in the same year bishop of Oxford. He was the leader of the High Church party, and the author of Note-book of a Country Clergyman (1833), Eucharistica (1839), A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America (1844), a volume of University Sermons, and numerous other works.
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SAMUEL WILLIAMS

Samuel Wells Williams was an American Orientalist. He was born in 1812 at Utica, New York and died in 1884. He went to China in 1833 as. a printer for the missionary board at Canton. He learned Japanese, and made a version of Genesis and St. Matthew into that language. He wrote 'Easy Lessons in Chinese' in 1841, 'An English and Chinese Vocabulary' in 1843, 'A Chinese Commercial Guide' in 1844, 'The Middle Kingdom' in 1848, and ' Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language' in 1856. In 1858 he assisted in the negotiations at Tientsin.
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SAMUEL WOODWARD

Samuel Pickworth Woodward was an English naturalist and expert on invertebrate fossils. He was born in 1821 at Norwich and died in 1865. He was engaged as an assistant to the botanist Turner, and in 1838 went to work at the British Museum and later in the Geological Society. In 1851 he published ' Manual of the Mollusca'.
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SAMUEL WOODWORTH

Samuel Woodworth was an American journalist and poet. He was born in 1785 and died in 1842. He was engaged in numerous journalistic-ventures. He is chiefly memorable for his poems, of which the 'Old Oaken Bucket' was the most popular.
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SAMURAI

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The Samurai are a Japanese military caste.
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SAN

The San (formerly Bushman) are a small group of hunter-gatherer peoples living in and around the Kalahari Desert. Their language belongs to the Khoisan family.
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SANCHUNIATHON

Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon was a Phoenician historian and philosopher, who is supposed to have lived about 1250 BC. Only fragments of his works remain, quoted by Eusebius from a translation into Greek by Philo of Byblos. Some modern critics have said that the fragments were forgeries, and it is now doubted by many whether he ever existed.
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SANDER PETOFI

Sander Petofi was a Hungarian poet. He was born in 1823 and died in 1849. In his youth he was for some time a common soldier and then a strolling player; in 1843 he contributed to the journals several poems which attracted instant attention; he also wrote several dramas and novels; his lyric of Most vagy soha (Now or Never) became the war-song of the revolution of 1848; and in recognition of his lyrical fervency he has been named 'the Hungarian Burns.' In the revolutionary war he was appointed an adjutant under Bern, and was killed in the battle of Schussburg in 1849.#
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SANDRO BOTTICELLI

Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter of the Florentine School. He was born in 1444 and died in 1510. He started his career working in the shop of a goldsmith named Botticelli, from whom he took his name. He showed such talent however, that he was removed and taken to the studio of painter Fra Lippio Lippi from where he learnt his vigorous style.
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SANDROCOTTUS

Sandrocottus or Chandragupta was the Hindu king of Pataliputra or Palibothra, to whom in 306 BC Megasthenes was sent by Seleueus Nicator.
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SANEMAR

The Sanemar are an indigenous people of the Amazon rain forest, Venezuela. They are hunters and fishermen.
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SANFORD BALLARD DOLE

Sanford Ballard Dole was the president of the Republic of Hawaii and the first governor of the Territory of Hawaii. He was born in 1844 at Honolulu and died in 1926. The son of American Protestant missionaries, he went to the USA to study law and returned to Hawaii to practise as a lawyer, became elected to government and was a leader in the 1893 revolt against the monarchy. In 1894 he was elected the first president of the Republic of Hawaii, a position he held until the annexation of Hawaii to the USA in 1900 when President McKinley of the USA appointed him territorial governor. In 1903 he became the US district judge for Hawaii and in 1909 was re-elected governor, a position he held until the position expired in 1915 when he subsequently retired from public life.
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SANFORD CHURCH

Sanford E Church was an American jurist. He was born in 1815 at New York and died in 1880. He was Lieutenant-Governor from 1851 until 1855; Comptroller from 1858 until 1869; and Chief Justice of the Court of Appeals from 1870 until his death.
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SANKARA

Sankara, or Sankara Acharya ('the spiritual teacher Sankara'), was one of the most renowned theologians of India. The dates when he lived, as is the case with most celebrities of that country, is unknown. Tradition places him living about 200 BC, but the best authorities assign him to the 8th or 9th century after Christ. Most accounts agree in making him a native of Malabar, and a member of the caste of the Namburi Brahmans. All accounts represent him as having led an erratic life, and engaged in successful controversies with other sects. He may be regarded as having finally brought into its completed form the Vedanta philosophy or Mimansa; he taught that there was one sole supreme God, and is the origin of the sect of Smarta Brahmans. Towards the close of his life he moved to Cashmere, and finally to Kedarnath, in the Himalayas, where he died at the young age of thirty-two. His principal works, which exercised a great influence on the religious history of India, are his commentary on the Vedanta Sutras and his commentaries on the Bhagavad-gita and the principal Upanishads. His learning and personal eminence were so great that he was looked upon as an incarnation of the god Siva, and was fabled to have worked several astounding miracles.
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SANS-CULOTTES

Sans-culottes (without trousers) was the name given in derision to the Jacobins or popular party by the aristocratical in the beginning of the French revolution of 1789, and afterwards assumed by the patriots as a title of honour.
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SANSCULOTTES

Sansculottes, ie 'without breeches' was the name given in scorn, at the beginning of the French Revolution, by the court party to the democratic party in Paris. The latter accepted the title with pride, and used it as the distinctive appellation of a 'good patriot.' According to the interpretation in England, a sansculotte was a radical revolutionist who made a point of neglecting his apparel, and cultivating rough and cynical manners. But Littre makes no mention of breechlessness in the sense of raggedncss in his definition of the word; on the contrary, he says that the sansculottes 'were so called because they gave up the knee-breeches in fashion during the ancien regime and took to wearing trousers or pantaloons.'
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SANTA ANNA

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Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was a Mexican politician. He was born in 1795 and died in 1876. He entered the Spanish army in Mexico, sided finally with the patriots, opposed Iturbide, and became a politico-military leader of national prominence. He was President from 1832 to 1835. The next year he marched against the Texan revolutionists, stormed the Alamo, and was defeated by Houston at San Jacinto and captured. He was head of the executive in 1839, and again President from 1841 to 1844; overthrown, he was once more President in 1846, and in 1847 was beaten by Taylor at Buena Vista. After Scott's victories and conquest of the capital Santa Anna resigned, but reappeared as President and dictator in 1853 holding office until 1855. He was banished in 1867, but permitted to return in 1874. He frequently attempted to regain power, and was a marshal under the empire, but died in obscurity.
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SANTALS

The Santals are an aboriginal tribe of India belonging to the Kolarian family, originally occupying a long narrow strip of country between the mouth of the Mahandi in Orissa and the Ganges near Bhagalpur. The Santals numbered about one million in 1881, and were to be found then living on the edges of the great forests, when the ground became well cleared and cultivated they would move to a new site. The Santals were divided into twelve tribes, and following a bloody revolt in 1854 were granted self-governence by the British in India, though under British supervision.
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SAPPHO

Sappho was a Greek poet. She was born at Mitylene, on the Island of Lesbos, and lived about 600 BC. Little is known regarding her life, though she is made the subject of various legends. Of these may be mentioned the common story of her love for Phaon, which, being unrequited, caused her to leap down from the Leucadian Rock. At Mitylene Sappho appears to have been the centre of a female coterie, most of the members of which were her pupils in poetry, fashion, and gallantry. Her odes, elegies, epigrams, of which only fragments have come down to us, display deep feeling and imagination. Her reputation among the ancients almost borders on extravagance.
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SARACENS

The name Saracens was a general name applied by the Greeks and Latins to the Arab tribes along the edge of the Syrian desert, and was later used by European mediaeval writers to indicate Muslims in general, especially those encountered in European countries.
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SARAH MCLACHLAN

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Sarah McLachlan is a Canadian singer and song-writer. She was born in 1968 at Halifax, Nova Scotia. She started playing the piano when she was five years old and when she was 17 signed to the Nettwerk recording label. Her first album, 'Touch' was released in 1988, and she has also provided music for numerous films and television shows.
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SARAH PRIDDEN

Sarah Pridden (also known as Sally Salisbury) was an English prostitute. She was born in 1692 and died in 1723. Born into poverty she worked the streets of London until abandoned at the age of 17 by her first lover, Francis Charteris, she went to work at the exclusive brothel run by Mother Wiseborne. While working there she stabbed a customer and was convicted of assault, despite his pleas that she should be released, and sentenced to a year in prison. She died while in prison.
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SARAH WINNEMUCCA

Sarah Winnemucca was a Paiute diplomat and writer. She was born in 1844 in Nevada, USA and died in 1891. In 1860 her mother, sister and brother were killed during the Paiute War and she subsequently acted as a mediator between her people and the occupying Americans. Later she wrote the book 'Life Among The Paiutes' describing the suffering of the Paiute people.
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SARMATIANS

The Sarmatians were a people of supposed Asiatic race, who, in the time of the Romans, occupied the vast region between the Black, Baltic, and Caspian Seas. They were a nomadic race, whose women went to war like the men riding horses, and they were said by tradition to be descended from the Amazons by Scythian fathers. Sarmatia coincided in part with Scythia, but whether the people were of the same race is doubtful. The Sarmatians disappeared from history around 4 AD after being overthrown by the Goths.
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SARYKS

The Saryks or Sariks are a Turcoman tribe of central Russian Asia. About 1800 they controlled the whole Merv oasis but were driven out in 1850 by the Tekke Turcomans and in 1884 submitted to Russia.
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SASSACUS

Sassacus was chief of the Pequot Indians. He was born about 1560 and died in 1637. He led an attack on a fort at Saybrook and massacred its inmates. The English under John Mason massacred almost the entire Pequot people in 1637.
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SASSANIDAE

Sassanidae was a Persian dynasty of kings, which succeeded the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidae, and reigned from 226 BC to about 636 AD. The dynasty began with Ardishir Babigan, and owes its name to the grandfather of that prince, named Sassan.
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SASSOFERRATO

Sassoferrato (real name Giambattista Salvi) was an Italian painter. He was born in 1605 at Sassoferrato and died in 1685. He studied at Rome and Naples, and worked for most of his life at Rome. His paintings were chiefly the Madonna and Child, the latter sleeping.
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SATRAPS

In the ancient Persian Empire, Satraps were the governors of the provinces which were called satrapies. The power of the satrap, so long as he retained the favour of his sovereign, was absolute; he levied taxes at his pleasure and aped the capricious tyranny of his master unchecked.
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SAUL

Saul was a king of Israel from about 1095 to 1056 BC, and the son of Kish, a Benjamite. Selected for this office by Samuel, he obtained, by his personal courage and military capacity, several successes over the Philistines, Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites, by means of which he consolidated the tribes and confirmed his authority. After a long reign the wild nature of the king at length showed itself in a kind of religious frenzy. This frenzy, which is briefly described in the Bible as an 'evil spirit of God,' led him to the massacre of the priests of Nob and various similar excesses. Meanwhile the prophet Samuel, estranged by the king's misdeeds, had anointed David as his successor, and this took effect when Saul was killed by his own sword in a battle with the Philistines on Mount Gilboa.
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SAUVOLLE LE MOINE

Sauvolle Le Moine was a French colonial governor. He was born in 1671 and died in 1701. Educated in France, where he was eminent for his attainments. He was appointed first colonial Governor of Louisiana by Louis XIV., serving from 1699 to 1701.
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SAVATORE QUASIMODO

Savatore Quasimodo was an Italian poet. He was born in 1901 and died in 1968.
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SAVINIEN BERGERAC

Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac was a French writer. He was born in 1619 and died in 1655. He composed at college Le Pedant Joue, a comedy, which furnished hints for Moliere's Fourberies de Scapin; entered the army and won a high reputation for bravery, but was disabled by wounds. Notwithstanding these, however, he was throughout life a notorious duellist and universally dreaded. His best-known works, which show a strong but eccentric intelligence, are his Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires de la Lune, and Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires du Soleil, describing visits to the moon and the sun; they find kinship with Lucian's Veracious History, certain portions of Rabelais, and Swift's Voyage to Laputa.
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SAVOY

The House of Savoy was one of the oldest royal houses of Europe, at one time represented by the King of Italy. Humbert White Hand (Umberto Blancamano), the reputed descendant of Wittekind, the last of the Old Saxon kings, was the first of the family who took a prominent place among the princes of Northern Italy. The family dominions continued to increase, and under Amadeus II were raised to a county of the empire in 1111, and now received the name of Savoy. Count Thomas I obtained important accessions of territory in Chambery,Turin,Vaud, etc. Amadeus IV obtained the submission of the city of Turin to his rule. Amadeus VI lent his aid to the Greek emperor, John Palaeologus, against the Turks and the Bulgarians, and united the lordships of Cherasco, Coni, Gex, and Valromey to his possessions. His son, Amadeus VII forced the Count of Provence to cede to him Nice and Vintimiglia. Amadeus VIII, grandson of the preceding received the ducal title from the Emperor Sigismund in 1416, and acquired the county of Geneva, together with Bugey and Vercelli.

The elder male line became extinct in 1496, and the crown devolved on the nearest collateral heirs, Philibert II and his brother Charles III. The latter aided the Emperor Charles V against Francis I of France, and was finally deprived of all his territories by the French king. But his son Philibert Emmanuel, sumamed the Iron Head, succeeded in gaining back the greater part of the paternal domains. Charles Emmanuel I was prompted to reconquer the marquisate of Saluzzo, but Henry IV of France invaded Savoy and Piedmont, and compelled the duke to give up Bugey, Valromey, and Gex. His son, Victor Amadeus I, regained these possessions, and added to them Montferrat, Alba, and some other places. Victor Amadeus II grandson of the first of that name, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession sided with France, but afterwards transferred his services to Austria. By the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 he received a part of the Duchy of Milan, along with the island of Sicily, which conferred upon him the title of king; but in 1720 he was compelled to give up Sicily to Austria in exchange for Sardinia, wliich, along with Savoy, Piedmont, and his other dominions, became the Kingdom of Sardinia.
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SAXO GRAMMATICUS

Saxo Grammaticus (that is, Saxo the Grammarian, or the Learned), was the most celebrated of the old Danish historians. He lived in the 12th century and is supposed to have been a native of Denmark, of which kingdom and its dependencies he compiled (in Latin) an elaborate history down to 1186. Saxo was a priest in the cathedral of Roeskilde, and died about 1208.
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SAXON

The Saxons (German, Sachsen; Latin, Saxunes) were a Teutonic race whose name is generally derived from the Old German word saks (a knife or short sword). They are first mentioned by Ptolemy, who speaks of them as inhabiting a district bounded by the Eider, the Elbe, and the Trave. In the 3rd century of the Christian era they were a numerous, warlike, and piratical people. In the 5th century considerable hordes of them crossed from the Continent and laid the foundations of the Saxon kingdoms in Britain - Essex or East Saxons, Sussex or South Saxons, etc. Those who remained in Germany (Old Saxons) occupied a great extent of country, of vague and varying limits, which bore the general name of Saxony. Charlemagne waged a thirty years' war against the Saxons; and Wittikind, their national hero, with many of his countrymen, were conquered, and converted to Christianity.
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SAXRED

Saxred was joint ruler of the East Saxons in 614.
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SCANDERBEG

Scanderbeg (that is, Alexander Bey), was a prince of Albania. He was born about 1404 and deid in 1467. His proper name was George Castriota, and he was the son of John, prince of Albania. As a boy he was sent as a hostage and educated at the Turkish court. At the age of eighteen he was placed at the head of a body of troops, but hearing of the death of his father Scanderbeg renounced Islam and raised the standard of insurrection in Albania. He repeatedly defeated the Ottoman forces, and Mohammed II found it necessary in 1461 to accept terms of peace. After his death Albania again fell under Turkish dominion.
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SCAVENGER

Originally, a scavenger (from the Saxon word meaning to scrape or brush) was an English parish officer chosen annually to see that the streets were cleaned of dirt and filth. He was empowered to hire street cleaners (known as rakers) and equipment such as carts to clean the streets, and as such may be seen as the sort of environmental manager responsible for street cleaning, he not actually doing the street cleaning, that was the task of the raker. Later the term came to mean some one who collects discarded things, especially to reuse or sell them.
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SCHOLAR

A scholar is a learner. The word scholar implies someone who is already proficient in their subject, but who still researches and studies. Thus one might be a scholar of Roman antiquities, proficient in the subject of Roman antiquities and give lectures on the subject and write books about it, but still research and continue to learn to discover even more about the subject. Thus, in terms of learners we have a progression from pupil (a young child) to student (a young adult or adult with little knowledge of the subject) to scholar (an expert who continues to study to discover even more).
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SCHUYLER COLFAX

Schuyler Colfax was an American politician. He was born in 1823 and died in 1885. In 1844 he made campaign speeches for Clay. In 1845 he established the St Joseph Valley Register which became a very influential Whig journal. He was secretary of the national Whig conventions of 1848 and 1852, and was in Congress as a Republican from 1855 until 1869. He was Speaker of the House from 1863 until 1869, and Vice-president from 1869 until 1873, but failed to obtain a re-nomination for the next term. He was charged, probably unjustly, with complicity in the 'Credit Mobilier' scandal of 1873.
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SCIOPPIUS

Scioppius, properly Kaspar Schoppe, was a German theological controversialist. He was born in 1576 and died in 1649. He studied at Heidelberg, Altdorf, and Ingolstadt, and afterwards, in 1589,
travelled in Italy, where he renounced Protestantism, the whole of his subsequent career being marked by venomous attacks on his former co-religionists. The Jesuits likewise came in for a share of his hate. His written works are thought to number more than one hundred.
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SCIPIO AFRICANUS THE ELDER

Scipio Africanus The Elder (Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major) was one of the most illustrious of Roman warriors. He was born about 235 BC and died in 183 BC. At the battle of the Ticinus against the Carthaginians in 218 BC he is said to.have saved the life of his father. Two years later he was one of the few who escaped from the fatal battle of Caunee, when he succeeded in gathering together the remains of the defeated army and saving Rome. In 212 BC he was unanimously elected aedile, and a few years after was appointed proconsul in Spain.

His first successful enterprise of importance was the conquest of New Carthage, the stronghold of the Carthaginians in Spain. The next year, 209 BC, Scipio totally defeated Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, and subsequently a fresh army, led by Mago and Hasdrubal the son of Cisco. The result was to drive the Carthaginians wholly from Spain, and Scipio was empowered to lead an army against Carthage herself. The Carthaginians recalled Hannibal from Italy, but the great battle of Zama, fought on the 19th of October, 202 BC, resulted in the total defeat of the Carthaginians, who, on the advice of Hannibal sought for peace.

On his return to Rome Scipio was honoured with a triumph, and received the surname of Africanus. After this he discharged, in a praiseworthy manner, the office of censor; but lost the favour alike of the old Roman party and the new. After the successful close of the war with Antiochus, king of Syria, in 189 BC, Scipio retired into private life. He was not long permitted to rest, however, without experiencing the enmity of a party in the state who were hostile to him. First his brother Lucius was imprisoned and his property confiscated, on an alleged charge of misconduct in his dealings with Antiochus. This was followed up by charges brought against Scipio himself. When his trial came on he made no reply to these charges, but merely narrated all that he had done for the republic, and reminding them that this was the anniversary of the battle of Zama, called upon the people to follow him to the Capitol, there to return thanks to the immortal gods, and pray that they would grant the Roman state other citizens like himself. The people immediately followed him, leaving the accusers alone in the forum. Scipio immediately fled Rome, and retired to his villa at Liternum, where he died, it is believed, in 183 BC, the same year as his great opponent Hannibal.
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SCIPIO AFRICANUS THE YOUNGER

Scipio Africanus The Younger (Publius Cornelius Scipio AEmilianus AfriCanus Minor) was a Roman soldier. He was born about 187 BC and died in 129 BC. In 152 BC he accompanied the consul Lucius Licinius Lucullus to Spain as military tribune, and in 149 BC, on the outbreak of the third Punic war, commanded in Africa under the consul Manlius Nepos. His services were so important that in 147 BC, contrary to the usual custom, not being of the legal age, he was unanimously chosen consul and leader of the forces against the Carthaginians.

In 146 BC he took, and by command of the senate burned Carthage, for which he was honoured with a triumph at Rome and with the surname of Africanus. In 142 BC he was elected censor, and in 134 BC entered on his second consulship, in order to put an end to the war with Numantia in Spain. For his conquest of this powerful city a triumph was decreed to Scipio, and he received the surname of Numantinus.

In the last years of his life he made himself many enemies among the people by opposing the measures of the popular party, and especially the agrarian law of Tiberius Gracchus, of which Papirius Carbo, and Gracchus, the tribunes of the people, were the great supporters. He was found dead in his bed in 129 BC, Carbo being suspected of having murdered him. He was the adopted son of Scipio Africanus The Elder, a friend of Polybius, the historian, and a patron of Terence.
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SCOP

A scop was an Anglo-Saxon poet-minstrel.
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SCOTCH-IRISH

Scotch-Irish was a name used in America to designate immigrants from the north of Ireland, mostly Presbyterians of Scotch descent. Scots had been settled in the north of Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I. Thence some went to America early. But the large emigrations were just after the famous Siege of Londonderry in 1689, and again in 1718 and the years immediately succeeding. The largest settlements of them were made in the hilly parts of Pennsylvania, in the valley of the Shenandoah, and in the Carolinas. In all these, they occupied the highland regions, back from the coast, and formed a sturdy, independent, Presbyterian population. Jackson, John Calhoun, and many other eminent men were of this stock. In New England their chief settlements were at Londonderry, Antrim, etc., in New Hampshire, founded about 1719.
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SCOTT M. MATHESON

Scott M Matheson was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Utah from 1977 until 1985.
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SCYTHIANS

Scythians was a name very vaguely used by ancient writers. It was sometimes applied to all the nomadic tribes which wandered over the regions to the north of the Black and the Caspian Seas, and to the east of the latter. In the time of the Roman Empire the name Scythia extended over Asia from the Volga to the frontiers of India. The people of this region, being little known, were the subject of numerous fables.
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SEABURY FORD

Seabury Ford was an American politician. He was a Whig governor of Ohio from 1849 until 1850.
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SEAN O'CASEY

Sean O'Casey was an Irish playwright. He was born in 1884 at Dublin and died in 1966.
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SEBASTIA CARVALHO

Sebastio Jose Carvalho, Marquis of Pombal, was a Portuguese statesman. He was born in 1699 and died in 1782. After studying law at Coimbra, Pombal he served for some time in the army. In 1739 he was appointed ambassador in London. He was recalled in 1745, and the queen sent him to Vienna to act as mediator between the pope and Maria Theresa. Under Joseph I he became secretary of state for foreign affairs. He soon rendered the king entirely subject to his influence, and proceeded to the accomplishment of his favourite objects - the expulsion of the Jesuits, the humiliation of the greater nobles, the restoration of Portugal's prosperity, and the absolute command of the state in the name of the monarch. He deprived the leading nobles of their princely possessions in the colonies, and abridged the powers of the prelacy. In 1757 he deprived the Jesuits of the place of confessors and ordered them to retire to their colleges. A conspiracy against the life of the king afforded him opportunity to banish the whole order of Jesuits from the kingdom in 1759. He reorganized the army, and was active in his efforts to improve the country in every relation; he paid particular attention to education. Joseph I died in 1777, and was succeeded by his daughter Maria I, who immediately deprived Pombal of his offices.
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SEBASTIAN

Sebastian was king of Portugal. He was born in 1554 and died in 1578. In 1578 he led an expedition against the Moors, in which he was defeated and slain at the Battle of Alcazar in Morocco. Rumours afterwards arose that he was not dead, and these led to a number of impostors trying to claim the throne.
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SEBASTIAN BRANDT

Sebastian Brandt was a German author. He was born in 1458 at Strasburg in and died in 1521. He studied law at Basel, and wrote the famous German satire, the Narrenschiff, or Ship of Fools. The Narrenschiff is written in verse, and is a bold and vigorous satire
on the vices and follies of the age. It took the popular taste of its time, and was translated into all the languages of Europe. The Ship of Fools by Alexander Barclay (1509) is partly an imitation, partly a translation of it.
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SEBASTIAN CABOT

Sebastian Cabot was an English navigator. He was born about 1474 at Bristol and died about 1557. He was the son of John Cabot, a Venetian pilot, who resided at Bristol, and was highly esteemed for his skill in navigation. John Cabot appears to have settled in Bristol about 1472, and to have died there about 1498, after having lived again for some time at Venice. In 1496 John Cabot received from Henry VII a commission giving him and his sons authority to sail for the purpose of discovering islands and countries then unknown; and in 1497, in company with Sebastian Cabot and two other sons, he discovered the mainland of North America, having visited Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island.

In another voyage soon after Sebastian CAbot is said to have visited Labrador and Newfoundland. He subsequently entered the service of King Ferdinand of Spain, and in 1516 was to make an attempt to discover the north-west passage, an attempt relinquished owing to the king's death. In 1526, when in the Spanish service, he was put in charge of an expedition which visited Brazil and the river Plate. He now held the office of examiner of pilots under Charles V, and while in this post he compiled a famous map of the world published in 1544.

In 1547 he again settled in England, and received a pension from Edward VI He became life-governor of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, who under his advice made an attempt to discover a way to Cathay (China) by the northeast, an attempt having important results for English trade with Russia and Asia. He was among the first who noticed and investigated the variations of the compass.
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SEBASTIAN CHAMFORT

Sebastian Roch Nicolas Chamfort was a French writer and revolutionist. He was born in 1741 and died in 1794. By his success as dramatist, critic, and conversationalist he obtained a place in the French Academy, a pension, and a post at court. An intimate friend of the Comte de Mirabeau, he threw himself heartily into the revolution, was secretary to the club of the Jacobins, was one of the first of the storming party in the attack on the Bastille, and having been employed by Roland in the Bibliotheque Nationale published the first twenty-six Tableaux Historiques de la Revolution. His cynical wit could not, however, restrain itself, and he was denounced and threatened with imprisonment. Rather than undergo it he inflicted fatal injuries upon himself, dying in 1794. He is seen at his best in the collection of bon mots published under the title of Chamfortiana.
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SEBASTIAN GRYPHIUS

Sebastian Gryphius was a German printer. He was born in 1493 at Reutlingen, Swabia and died in 1556. He moved to Lyons and while there produced more than 300 printed works between 1528 and 1547.
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SEBASTIANO GOMEZ

Sebastiano Gomez was a Spanish painter. He was born about 1616 at Seville and died about 1690. He was originally a slave of Murillo, but on account of his genius he was liberated by his master and received among his pupils.
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SEBASTIEN ERARD

Sebastien Erard was a French musical-instrument maker. He was born in 1752 at Strasburg and died in 1831. He went to Paris at the age of eighteen, and together with his brother, Jean Baptiste, produced pianofortes superior to any that had previously been made in France. Afterwards he established a manufactory in London, and made considerable improvements in the mechanism of the harp.
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SEBASTIEN VAUBAN

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Sebastien Le Prestr de Vauban was a French soldier and engineer. He was born in 1633 at a Burgundian village, now in the deptarment of Yonne and died in 1707. He was educated at Semur and about 1650 entered the army. In charge of various siege operations during the war with Spain after the peace of 1659 he turned his attention to fortress work. Vauban's fame rests on the work he did for France during the wars carried on by Louis XIV. About forty fortresses were taken under his direction, and it was here that his genius was most fully shown, while he was responsible for the defences of almost every fortress on the French borders, the total number on which he was employed being put at over 160. He also invented the socket bayonet.
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SEBBI

Sebbi was joint ruler of the East Saxons in 663 until he became a monk.
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SEBEI

The Sebei are a people of eastern Uganda and western Kenya.
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SEBERT

Sebert was the first Christian king of the East Saxons. He reigned in 597.
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SECESSIONIST

In the United States, a secessionist is one who maintains the right of a state included under the constitution of the United States to withdraw from the Union and set up an independent government; specifically the term is applied to one who took part or sympathized with the inhabitants of the Southern States in their struggle, commencing in 1861, to break away from union with the Northern States, which was so violently put down.
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SEJANUS

Aelius Sejanus was a Roman soldier. The son of a Roman knight and noted as the favourite of Tiberius, he was born at Vulsinii in Etruria. He was commander of the prastorian bands, acquired the confidence of Tiberius, and aimed at the supreme power. He contrived to remove all the members of the imperial family who stood between him and power, but having roused the suspicion of Tiberius, he was executed in 31 AD.
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SELDON CONNOR

Seldon Connor was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Maine from 1876 until 1879.
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SELECTMEN

Selectmen were the chief officers of New England towns. English parishes had their vestries, which were of two sorts, common vestries, composed of all the rate payers, and select vestries. In the latter, concerns were managed by select vestrymen. Hence the term selectmen, as used in New England, for the governing board of a town. The practice was found in Massachusetts as early as the issue of the 'Body of Liberties'. The selectmen acted under the orders of the town-meeting.
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SELEUCIDAE

Seleucidae was a dynasty of kings who succeeded to that portion of the empire of Alexander the Great which embraced the Asiatic provinces, and is generally known as Syria. The power of the Seleucidae began to decline as early as the reign of Seleucus II (216 to 226 BC), and they successively lost, through revolts and otherwise, Bactria, Parthia, Armenia, Judea, etc, and what subsequently remained was converted into a Roman province in 65 BC.
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SELEUCUS I

Seleucus I (Seleucus the Nicator) was the founder of the line of Seleucidae. He was born about 358 BC, and was a general of Alexander the Great, shortly after whose death in 323 BC he obtained the satrapy of Babylon. Subsequently Antigonus forced him to withdraw into Egypt in 316 BC, but having induced Ptolemy, the governor of Egypt, along with Lysimachus and Cassander, to take the field against Antigonus, he was enabled to return to Babylon in 312 BC He gradually extended his possessions from the Euphrates to the Indus, assumed the title of king in 306, and latterly acquired Syria and the whole of Asia Minor, but was assassinated in 280 BC He is said to have been the
most upright of Alexander's successors, and was the founder of Antioch and other cities. He was succeeded by his son Antiochus I and by a number of monarchs of the name of Seleucus and Antiochus, the most distinguished being Antiochus the Great.
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SELIM I

Selim I was a Sultan of Turkey. He was born in 1467 and died 1520. He was the son of Bajazet II. The people, pleased with his warlike disposition, raised him to the throne in place of Bajazet, who was afterwards poisoned, as were also the brothers and nephews of Selim. In 1514 he entered upon a war with Persia and obtained large accessions of territory. He next directed his arms against the Mamelukes of Egypt, and in 1516-1517 became master of Syria and Egypt. The title of imam and the standard of the Prophet were at this time granted to Selim by the last descendant of the Abasside Caliphs in Egypt, and in consequence the sultans of Constantinople became the chiefs of Islam, the representatives of Mohammed. Selim was succeeded on the throne by Solyman I.
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SELIM III

Selim III was a Sultan of Turkey. He was born in 1761 and died in 1808. The son of Mustapha III, he succeeded his uncle Abdul-Hamed in 1789, and attempted reforms in his government after European methods, but wars with Russia, Austria, etc, prevented their being carried out. In 1791 Selim III was compelled to cede Choczim to Austria, and a year later he signed the Peace of Jassy, by which Russia acquired all Turkish possessions beyond the Dniester. Selim III entered with great ardour upon his system of reforms; but the fanatic zeal of the people, kindled by the preaching of the dervishes, burst into open revolt, and he was deposed by the Janizaries in 1807. An attempt to regain his throne ended in his murder. Selim's efforts for the reformation of Turkey were not altogether fruitless, for manufactures had begun to flourish, and generally a number of improvements calculated greatly to benefit the nation effected.
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SELISH

The Selish were a native American Infdian tribe. Frequently incorrectly refered to as the Flatheads they were always friendly to the whites and originally resided on the Bitter Root or St Mary's River. In a treaty approved in 1859 they ceded all their lands to the United States, and in 1871 were removed to a reservation in northwest Montana.
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SELJUK

The Seljuks were a Turkish family deriving their name from Seljuk, chief of a small Turkish tribe which had gained possession of Bokhara and the adjoining neighbourhood in the 9th century The most powerful of the various dynasties they founded in Mesopotamia, Persia, Syria, and Asia Minor during the llth and 12th centuries were:

(1) The Seljuks of Iran or Bagdad, and Ispahan. The founder, Togrul-Beg, grandson of Seljuk, completed the conquest of Persia about 1061. His notable successors were Alp-Arslan (1063-73), Melek-Shah (1073-93), Mohammed-Shah (1105-18), and Sanjar (1118-58). This dynasty became extinct in 1194 with Togrul-Shah, who was vanquished by Tekesh, sultan of Kharizm.

(2) The Seljuks of Kerman, who ruled the three provinces of Kerman. Their dynasty, founded by Kaderd, nephew of Togrul-Beg, ended in 1091.

(3) The Seljuks of Aleppo, in Syria, founded in 1079, and became extinct in 111 4.

(4) The Seljuks of Damascus, founded in 1096 by Dekkah. His successors reigned until 1155.

(5) The Seljuks of Iconium, or of Asia Minor, founded by Solyman-ben-Kutulmish, who was granted a territory in Asia Minor by the Sultan Kalek-Shah. During the reign of Alla-ed-Din II, one of the last princes of this dynasty, the Turk Osman distinguished himself as chief captain. His descendants founded the dynasty of Osman in Asia Minor. The Seljuk Empire then fell under Mongol domination.
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SELRED

Selred was king of the East Angles in 713.
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SELUNG

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The Selung are a people of eastern Bengal and the islands of the Mergui Archipelago.
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SEMINOLE

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The Seminole are a north American tribe of Indians. They are an offshoot of the Choctaw Muskogee tribe. They separated from the Confederation of the Creeks, and settled in Florida in 1750 under the name of Seminoles (meaning fugitives). They were subsequently joined by other Indians as well as negroes. General Jackson was sent against them in 1818 and in 1822 they numbered 3900. They latterly sold their lands and agreed to be transferred beyond the Mississippi, but refused to implement their agreement, and under their chief Osceola carried on a long and determined resistance. At last they were finally driven from the Everglade morasses by United States troops, and obliged to succumb in 1842, when all but a scanty remnant were transferred to the Indian Territory. In 1906 they came under agreement with the US government for the individual allotment of their tribal lands and absorption into American citizenship.
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SEMITE

The Semites are the peoples of the Middle East originally speaking a Semitic language, and traditionally said to be descended from Shem, a son of Noah in the Bible. Ancient Semitic peoples include the Hebrews, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldaeans, Phoenicians, and Canaanites. The Semitic peoples founded the monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. They speak languages of the Hamito-Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
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SEMYON BUDENNY

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Semyon Mikhailovich Budenny was a Russian soldier. He was born in 1883 and died in 1973. A Cossack, he fought as a private in the Russo-Japanese War and as an NCO during the Great War. After the Russian Revolution he defeated the White Russians at the Battle of Tsaritsyn and served in the war with Poland in 1920. In 1935 he was appointed a marshal and in 1941 commander of the Red Armies in Ukraine.
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SEMYON TIMOSHENKO

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Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko was a Russian soldier. He was born in 1895 at Bessarabia and died in 1970. Conscripted into the Tsarist army in 1915, he joined the Revolutionary forces and took part in the defence of Tsaritsyn in 1917. In 1940 he became a Marshall of the Soviet Union and successfully operated against the Finns in the Russo-Finnish war. In 1941 he commanded the central sector Red Armies. Following the Second World War he commanded the Byelo Russian district from 1956 until his retirement in 1960.
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SENECA

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the philosopher) was a Roman philosopher, dramatist and statesman. He was born in 3 AD at Cordova and died in 65 AD. When quite young he went to Rome, where he made rapid advances in knowledge under the tuition of his father, and also studiously pursued the Stoic philosophy. One of his best treatises, Consolatioad Helviam (a letter of consolation addressed to his mother), and also Consolatio ad Polybium (a letter consoling Polybius on the loss of his brother), were written in Corsica, whither he was banished in 41, being accused, through the jealousy of Messalina, of undue intimacy with Julia, a niece of the Emperor Claudius. He was recalled in 49, made prastor, and appointed joint-tutor with Burrhus of the young Domitius, afterwards the Emperor Nero. The good government of the first years of Nero's reign was largely due to Seneca (though Seneca had consented to the assassination of Nero's mother), but he lost his influence, and being accused of complicity in the conspiracy of Piso he was forced to commit suicide. His works comprise treatises on Anger; On Providence; On Tranquillity of Mind; On the Steadfastness of the Wise Man; On Clemency, addressed to Nero; seven books On Benefits; seven on investigations of nature; and twenty books of moral letters. The tragedies which bear Seneca's name are very inferior to his prose writings, and it is doubtful whether he is really the author, some of them having been attributed to his father (Marcus Seneca).
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SENECAS

The Senecas were a tribe of Iroquois Indians, who lived in Western New York. They allied themselves with Pontiac, destroying Venango, attacking Fort Niagara, and cutting off an army train near Devil's Hole in 1763. During the American Revolution they favoured the English. General Sullivan invaded their territory and devastated it. They made peace in 1784. They ceded a great part of their land, and in 1812 joined the American cause, though a part in Ohio joined the hostile tribes of the West, making peace in 1815. This band removed to Indian Territory in 1831, but the rest remained in New York.
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SENESCHAL

A seneschal was formerly a steward or major-domo who superintended the affairs of the household of some prince or grandee, having charge of feasts and ceremonials.
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SENNACHERIB

Sennacherib was an Assyrian king. The son of Sargon, whom he succeeded in 705 BC. He suppressed the revolt of Babylonia, and marched against the Aramsean tribes on the Tigris and Euphrates, of whom he took 200,000 captive. He then reduced part of Media; rendered tributary Tyre, Aradus, and other Phoenician cities; advanced upon Philistia and Egypt, and finally proceeded against Hezekiah, king of Judah, who had revolted. Panicking, Hezekiah paid the tribute exacted of 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. On his return to Assyria Sennacherib again attacked Babylonia and afterwards reinvaded Judah. Having marched through Palestine he besieged Libnah and Lachish, and wrote a threatening letter to Hezekiah; but in consequence of a miraculous visitation, which caused the death of 185,000 of his troops, Sennacherib returned to Nineveh and troubled Judah no more. From Herodotus we learn an Egyptian tradition regarding the destruction of Sennacherib's host, but no mention of it is found in the monuments of Sennacherib. The greatest architectural work of Sennacherib was the palace of Koyunjik, which covered fully 8 acres. Of the death of Sennacherib nothing is known beyond the brief Scripture statement of the Old Testament from which it appears that he was murdered by his own sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer around 681 BC.
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SENONES

The Senones were an ancient tribe of Gauls, who were settled on the river Yonne. The chief town of this tribe was the Sens of today.
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SENSI

The Sensi are an extinct aboriginal people formerly living on the right bank of the Ucayali River in Peru. They became extinct during the 20th century.
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SENUSSI

The Senussi are a strict Islamic sect inhabiting the desert regions of Libya, North Africa. They were founded by Sidi Mohammed ben Ali es Senussi around 1810, who claimed direct descent from Fatima.
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SEPARATISTS

The Separatists were a religious sect which arose, chiefly in the North of England, about 1567, inspired by the exhortations of ministers who believed the gospel should be preached freely and 'the sacraments administered without idolatrous gear', and who, like Robert Brown, called upon the people 'to separate' from the Church of England. A number of them emigrated to Holland in 1608. Their chief strength was about Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire. A number of the Pilgrim Fathers belonged to this sect.
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SEPARATISTS OF ZOAR

The Separatists of Zoar were the inhabitants of a communist settlement in Ohio, called Zoar. They originated in Wurttemberg, whence, in 1817, a number of them emigrated to America to secure religious freedom. They were dissenters from the Established Church. Arriving at Philadelphia, they procured a tract of 6500 acres of land in Ohio, and founded the village of Zoar, choosing Joseph Baumeler as leader. It was not their original intention to form a communist society, but necessity compelled them to do so later. At first marriage was prohibited, but in 1830 this rule was abolished.
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SEPOYS

Sepoys (a corrupted form of sipahis, soldiers, from sip, bow or arrow, the original weapon of the Hindu soldier), was the name given to the native military forces in India by the British during the occupation of India in the days of the British Empire.
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SEQUANI

The Sequani were a tribe of ancient Gaul, named after the river Sequana (the Seine) which rose in the north-western part of their territory. Their chief town was Vesontio (Besancon). They were subdued by the Romans under Caesar between 58 and 51 BC.
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SERB

The Serbs are Yugoslavia's largest ethnic group, found mainly in Serbia, but also in the neighbouring independent republics of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Their language, generally recognized to be the same as Croat and hence known as Serbo-Croatian, belongs to the Slavic branch of the Indo- European family. It has more than 17 million speakers. The Serbs are predominantly Greek Orthodox Christians and write in a Cyrillic script.
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SERES

The Seres or Seri are a tribe of Mexican Indians formerly living in Sonora. The first study of them was undertaken in 1895 by M'Gee who described them, rather unscientifically, as 'the most debased of all the North American aborigines'.
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SERF

Serfs was a term applied to a class of labourers existing under the feudal system, and whose condition, though not exactly that of slaves, was little removed from it. Under this system, from the vassals of the king downwards, the whole community was subject to certain degrees of servitude, and it was only on condition of specific services to be rendered to his superior that any individual held his fief. In the case of the lower classes this servitude amounted to an almost complete surrender of their personal liberty.

There were two classes of labourers, the villeins and the serfs proper. The former occupied a middle position between the serfs and the freemen. Hallam remarks, in reference to these two classes, that in England, at least from the reign of Henry II, one only, and that the inferior, existed; incapable of property and destitute of redress except against the most outrageous injuries. A serf could not be sold, but could be transferred along with the property to which he was attached. The revival of the custom of manumission counteracted the rapid increase of serfs. A serf could also obtain his freedom by purchase, or by residing for a year and a day in a borough, or by military service. By these various means the serf population gradually decreased.

In most parts of the Continent they had disappeared by the 15th century. The extinction of serfdom in England and Scotland was very gradual. As late as 1574 Elizabeth I issued a commission of inquiry into the lands and goods of her bondsmen and bondswomen in specified counties in order to compound for their manumission; and even in the 18th century a species of serfdom existed among Scottish miners. Serfdom in Russia was abolished by a manifesto of Alexander II on March the 17th, 1861.
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SERGE SOLOVIEV

Serge Mikhailovitch Soloviev was a Russian historian. He was born in 1820 at Moscow and died in 1879. Educated at Moscow, he travelled on the continent as a tutor from 1942 until 1844, and attended the lectures of the chief French and German historians of the time. In 1845 he published 'The Relations between Novgorod and the Grand Princes' and in 1847 'The History of the Relations Among the Russian Princes of the House of Rurick'. He was appointed professor of history at Moscow University, and became its rector. In 1851 he published the first of the 29 volumes of his 'History of Russia down to 1774', but died before its completion.
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SERGE WITTE

Count Serge Julievitch Witte was a Russian statesman. He was born in 1849 at Tiflis. He studied at Odessa University, and in 1877 entered the State Railway service. Later he was director of the Railway Department at the Ministry of Finance. In 1892 he was appointed minister of ways and communications, and in the following year he became minister of finance. Under him home industries were fostered by means of a moderate protective tariff, the Siberian Railway built, and the sale of alcohol was made a state monopoly. In 1896 he was appointed secretary of state to the czar; and in 1899 privy councillor. In 1903 he became president of the Committee of Ministers. In August 1905 he was Russian plenipotentiary in America in the peace negotiations with Japan, and was largely instrumental in securing for Russia the favourable terms granted, being rewarded with the rank of count. Throughout the internal disorders beginning in 1905 he was at the head of affairs, but could do little to stop the outbreaks. On October the 30th, 1905, the czar signed a constitution, by which a responsible ministry was created, with Count Witte as prime minister, but he resigned the next year. He has published books on The Principles of Railway Tariffs (1883), and Friedrich Lisa, Economist (1888).
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SERGEANT

A sergeant is a non-commissioned officer in the army, ranking next above the corporal. He is appointed to see discipline observed, to teach the soldiers their drill, and also to command small bodies of men, as escorts and the like. A company traditionally has four sergeants, of whom the senior is called colour-sergeant. Staff-sergeants are higher than these, and above all is the sergeant-major, who acts as assistant to the adjutant.
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SERGEI PROKOFIEV

Sergei Prokofiev was a Russian composer. He was born in 1891 in the Ukraine and died in 1953.
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SERGEI RACHMANINOV

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Sergei Rachmaninov was a Russian composer. He was born in 1873 and died in 1943. He composed Concertos, preludes (Prelude in C sharp minor), symphonies.
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SERGEI TANIEIEV

Sergei Ivanovitch Tanieiev was a Russian musician. He was born in 1856 at Vladimir and died in 1915. He studied at the Moscow conservatories where he became friends with Peter Tchaikovsky. A pianist, Sergei Tanieiev made his debut in 1875 and succeeded Peter Tchaikovsky as professor of harmony at Moscow conservatories in 1878, and held other teaching posts there until 1906.
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SERGI DIAGHILEV

Sergi Pavlovich Diaghilev was a Russian impresario. He was born in 1872 and died in 1929.
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SERGIUS STEPNIAK

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Sergius Stepniak (real name Sergius Michaelovitch Kravchinsky) was a Russian write and revolutionary. He was born in 1852 and died in 1895. At an early age he involved himself with the struggle for freedom in Russia and was arrested for his involvement with a known group of Nihilists. Placed under police surveillance he escaped to Switzerland and later moved to England where he became known as a writer and lecturer. He died at a railway level crossing at Chiswick on December the 23rd 1895.
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SERIAL KILLER

A serial killer is someone who commits a series of separate killings. Jack the Ripper is a well known example of a serial killer.
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SERJEANT-AT-ARMS

The Serjeant-at-Arms is an officer of the House of Commons who has responsibility for keeping order. If the speaker orders a member to leave, the Serjeant-at-Arms must see that the member leaves. Traditionally the serjeant-at-arms was one of the officers who attended the person of the sovereign to arrest offenders of distinction, etc.
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SERJEANT-AT-LAW

In England, a serjeant-at-law was formerly a barrister of the highest rank. The serjeants-at-law formed a special order or brotherhood, and took precedence over all the other barristers. They were appointed by the crown, and were selected from barristers of not less than sixteen years' standing. In court they were distinguished by a special dress. The judges in common law formerly were always selected from the serjeants.
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SERPA PINTO

Major Serpa Pinto was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in 1846 and died in 1900. Educated at the Royal Military College, Lisbon he entered the Portuguese army in 1863. In 1877-1879 he crossed Africa from Benguela to Durban, and described his journey in a work entitled How I Crossed Africa (published in London in 1881),which procured him many honours, especially from geographical societies. He led several exploring expeditions, and his proceedings in the Zambesi district led in 1890 to a vigorous and successful protest by Britain against the claims of Portugal in that quarter.
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SERVANT

A servant is a person who undertakes to perform various duties for a corporate individual in exchange for money (wages or a salary). Formerly in Britain country servants were often recruited at markets and fairs, where persons wishing to be hired advertised their availability by standing with a piece of straw or green branch in their mouth.
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SERVITES OF THE HOLY VIRGIN

The Servites of the Holy Virgin (Servants of the Holy Virgin) was a religious order founded at Florence about 1233. It first obtained recognition and sanction from Pope Alexander IV and from Martin V it received the privileges of the mendicant orders, but never had much influence in the church. The monks follow the rule of St Augustine. An order of Servite nuns was founded about the close of the 13th century.
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SERVIUS GALBA

Servius Sulpicius Galba was a Roman emperor. He was born in 3 BC and died in 69 AD. He was the successor of. He was made praetor in 20 AD, and afterwards governor of Aquitania, and in 33 AD was raised to the consulship through the influence of Livia Drusilla, the wife of Augustus. Caligula appointed him general in Germany, and Claudius sent him in 45 AD as proconsul to Africa, his services there obtaining him the honours of a triumph. He then lived in retirement until the middle of Nero's reign, when the emperor appointed him governor of Hispania Tarraconeusis, but soon after ordered him to be secretly assassinated. Galba revolted; the death of Nero followed and he himself was chosen emperor by the praetorian cohorts in Rome. He went directly to Rome, but soon made himself unpopular by cruelty and avarice, and he was assassinated in the forum in 69 AD at the age of seventy-two.
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SERVIUS TULLIUS

Servius Tullius was the sixth king of Rome. According to the tradition he was the son of a slave, given by the elder Tarquin to Tanaquil, his wife. He married Tarquin's daughter, and on the death of his father-in-law in 578 BC according to the usual chronology he was raised to the throne. He defeated the Veientines and the Etruscans, and divided the population of Rome into tribes, instituting at the same time the comitia centuriata and tributa; he also beautified the city, and built several temples. According to the common story Servius married his two daughters to the grandsons of his father-in-law; the elder to Tarquin, and the younger to Aruns. The wife of Aruns murdered her own husband so as to marry Tarquin, who had assassinated his wife. Servius was murdered by Tarquin, and his own daughter Tullia ordered her chariot to be driven over the mangled body of her father in 534 BC.
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SETH PADELFORD

Seth Padelford was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Rhode Island from 1869 until 1873.
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SETH WARNER

Seth Warner was an American soldier. He was born in 1743 at Vermont and died in 1784. He was a leader of the inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants in the conflicts of jurisdiction with the New York authorities, by whom he was outlawed. He was second in command at Ticonderoga. He captured Crown Point. He participated in Montgomery's campaign in Canada. He commanded at Hubbardston and was active at Bennington. He retired in 1782 on account of ill health.
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SETHITES

The Sethites were a Gnostic sect that existed in Egypt in the 2nd century and bore some resemblance to that of the Ophites. They worshipped Seth, the son of Adam, as the son of God, but not of the creator of Adam and Eve, and maintained that he had reappeared in the person of Jesus Christ. They claimed to have several books written by him.
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SEVEN WISE MEN

The Seven Wise Men of Seven Sages of Greece as generally set down were Periander of Corinth, Pittacus of Mitylene, Thales of Miletus, Solon of Athens, Bias of Priene, Chilo of Sparta, and Cleobulus of Lindus. Maxims of prudence and elementary morality are regarded as embodying a summary of their wisdom. Among these maxims are, 'Know thyself', 'Nothing in excess', 'Consider the end', etc.
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SEWARD

Seward was joint ruler of the East Saxons in 614.
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SEXAGENARIAN

A sexagenarian is someone aged between 60 and 70 years old.
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SEXBURGA

Sexburga was Queen of the West Saxons in 672.
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SEXTON

Sexton is a corruption of sacristan, an under officer of the church, whose business, in ancient times, was to take care of the vessels, vestments, etc, belonging to the church. The greater simplicity of Protestant ceremonies has rendered this duty one of small importance, and in the Church of England the sexton's duties now consist in taking care of the church generally, to which is added the duty of digging and filling up graves in the churchyard. The sexton may be at the same time the parish clerk.
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SEXTOS FESTUS

Sextos Pompeius Festus was a Roman grammarian. He lived during the 2nd or 3rd century, and was the author of an abridgment of a work by Verrius Flaccus called De Verborum Significatione, a kind of dictionary, which is very valuable for the information it contains about the Latin language. The work of Festus was still further abridged in the 8th century by Paulus Diaconus.
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SEXTUS EMPIRICUS

Sextus Empiricus was a sceptic who lived in the first half of the 3rd century AD. He was probably a Greek by birth, and he is said to have lived at Alexandria and Athens. Scepticism appears in his writings in the most perfect state which it had reached in ancient times, and its object and method are more clearly developed than they had been by his predecessors. We have two works by him, written in Greek, one, entitled Outlines of Pyrrhonism, explains the method of Pyrrho; the other, entitled Against the Mathematicians, is an attempt to apply that method to all the prevailing philosophical systems and other branches of knowledge.
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SEXTUS FRONTINUS

Sextus Julius Frontinus was a Roman governor. He was born about 40 and died in 106. He was governor of Britain from 75 to 78, and distinguished himself in the wars of the Silures. He appears to have been twice consul, and was appointed by Nerva to superintend the aqueducts, on which he also wrote.
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SEXTUS PROPERTIUS

Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet. He was born about 49 BC, probably at Asisium (the modern Assisi) and died in 12 BC. After the end of the civil war he found a patron at Rome in Maecenas; obtained the favour of the emperor; devoted himself to poetry; became the close friend of Ovid and lived mostly in Rome. His elegies, of which we have four books, are not so highly esteemed as those of his friends Ovid and Tibullus.
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SEYMOUR

Seymour is a noble English family of Norman origin. Their name is corrupted from St Maur, which was their seat in Normandy. They acquired lands in Monmouthshire in the 13th century, and early in the 15th century added to these estates others in Somerset. The first conspicuous member of this family, Sir John Seymour, was the father of the third wife of Henry VIII and of Edward Seymour, who, on his sister's marriage in 1536, was raised to the peerage as Viscount Beauchamp, and the following year created Earl of Hertford. During the minority of Edward VI the Earl of Hertford caused himself to be appointed governor of the king and protector of the kingdom in January 1547. The following month he obtained the post of lord-treasurer, was created Duke of Somerset, and made earl-marshal. The success of his expedition against Scotland in 1547 excited the jealousy of the Earl of Warwick and others, who procured his confinement in the Tower in October 1549. He was deprived of his offices and honours and heavily fined. Six months later he obtained a full pardon, was admitted to court, and ostensibly reconciled to Warwick.

The latter, however, caused Somerset to again be arrested in October 1551 on a charge of treasonable designs against the lives of some of the privy-councillors. He was tried, and beheaded on Tower Hill in January 1552.

His brother, Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, was made a peer and lord high-admiral of England by the protector. He married Catherine Parr, widow of Henry VIII, and was continually plotting against his brother. In 1548 he was attainted of treason, and he was executed in 1549.

The eldest son of the protector was created by Elizabeth I Earl of Hertford, and the grandson of this Earl of Hertford having distinguished himself in the royalist cause, obtained in his favour the revival of the title of Duke of Somerset in 1660. On the extinction of his line the descendants of the first Duke of Somerset by his first wife claimed the title, which they still hold.

A descendant, Sir Edward Seymour, was made speaker of the House of Commons in 1773, and subsequently became treasurer of the navy. He was an influential but unscrupulous politician.
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SFORZA

Sforza was a famous Italian family which played an important part in the 15th and 16th centuries, gave six rulers to Milan, and formed alliances with most of the princely families of Europe.
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SFORZA PALLAVICINO

Sforza Pallavicino was an Italian cardinal. He was born in 1607 at Rome and died in 1667. He studied in the Roman College, and afterwards joined the Jesuits. He is famous as the historian of the Council of Trent, and stood high in the esteem of Pope Alexander VII, who made him a cardinal.
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SHADRACH BOND

Shadrach Bond was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Illinois from 1818 until 1822.
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SHAH

Shah is the Persian or Iranian title for a 'king.' The proper title of the king of Persia or Iran was Shah-in-shah, King of kings.
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SHAH JEHAN

Shah Jehan was the fifth Mogul emperor of Delhi. He reigned from 1627 to 1658, when he was deposed by his son Aurengzebe. During his reign the Mogul Empire attained a great magnificence; he founded Delhi, where he erected the celebrated peacock throne; built the Taj Mahal at Agra, a mausoleum to his favourite wife, and several other buildings which have become architecturally famous. He died in 1666.
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SHAKERS

The Shakers, or Shaking Quakers are a religious sect which arose at Manchester, in England, about 1747, and has since been transferred to America. The formal designation which they give themselves is the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. That of Shakers was given them in ridicule, but is nevertheless passively accepted by them. The founder of the sect as it at present exists was Ann Lee, an expelled Quaker, born in Manchester in 1756. She went to America in 1774 with seven followers and formed the first settlement at Watervliet, near Albany. They agree with the Quakers in their objections to take oaths, their neglect of certain common courtesies of society, their rejection of the sacraments, etc. They believe in the immediate revelations of the Holy Ghost (gifts); maintain that the old law is abolished, the new dispensation begun; that intercourse between heaven and earth is restored; that God is king and governor; that the sin of Adam is atoned, and man made free from all errors except his own; that every human being will be saved; that the earth is heaven, now soiled and stained, but ready to be brightened by love and labour into its primeval state.

At first the motions from which they derive their name were of the most violent, wild, and irregular nature - leaping, shouting, clapping their hands, etc; but at present they move in a regular, uniform dance to the singing of a hymn, and march round the hall of worship, clapping their hands in regular time. The societies are divided into smaller communities called families, each of which has its own male and female head. Celibacy is enjoined upon all, and married persons on entering the community must live together as brother and sister. All property is held in common, and all bind themselves to take part in the family business - the men either as farmers, builders, gardeners, smiths, painters, or as followers of some other handicraft; and the women in some household occupation, or in the work of education.

A party of about 100 Shakers settled in the New Forest. Hampshire, about 1871, and were evicted for debt in the winter of 1874, when they suffered much from the severe weather. After the death of their leader, Mrs. Girling, the community dispersed.
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SHAMYL

Shamyl was a Caucasian chief. He was born in 1797 at the north of Daghestan and died in 1871. He studied Arabian grammar and philosophy under the Mollah Jelaleddin, and became a disciple of Kasi-Mollah, whose revival of Sufism had formed a bond of union among the tribes of Daghestan. In 1824 he joined Kasi-Mollah in the struggle which then broke out against the Russians. In this struggle he ultimately became the elected chief, and continued to resist the Russian power until 1859 when he was captured and taken to St Petersburg. Here he was hospitably received by the czar, who provided him with a pension and a residence.
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SHAN

The Shan are a people of the mountainous borderlands separating Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), and China. They are related to the Laos and Thais, and their language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family.
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SHANIA TWAIN

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Shania Twain (real name Eilleen Regina Edwards) is a Canadian country and western singer. She was born in 1965 at Windsor, Ontario.
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SHARLEEN SPITERI

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Sharleen Spiteri is a Scottish musician. She was born in 1967 at Glasgow. Originally a hairdresser, she formed the band 'Texas' together with John McElhone in 1984 being lead singer in the band.
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SHARON TURNER

Sharon Turner was an English historian. He was born in 1768 at London and died in 1847. He was an attorney by profession, but carried out researches among original Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. In 1805 he published the first volume of his history of England which he completed in 1839.
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SHAVELING

Shaveling was a 14th century term for a young man admitted to the holy orders.
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SHAWNEES

The Shawnees were a tribe of American Algonquin Indians, after wandering about the east they were driven west by the Iroquois. They first aided the French in their final struggle until won over to the English. They joined Pontiac and from time to time continued hostilities until the peace of 1786. They took part in the Miami War, but, finally reduced by General Wayne, they submitted under the Treaty of 1795. In 1812 a part joined the English. The Missouri band ceded their lands in 1825, and the Ohio band in 1831. They became somewhat scattered, but the main band in Kansas ended tribal relations in 1854.
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SHEIK

Sheik (shek or shak) is a title of dignity properly belonging to the chiefs of the Arabic tribes, but now largely used among Muslims as a title of respect. The head of the Islamic monasteries, and the head man of a village, are sometimes called sheiks.
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SHEKAWATI

The Shekawati are a people of India.
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SHELBY MOORE CULLOM

Shelby Moore Cullom was an American politician. He was born in 1829. He was chosen Speaker in the Illinois Legislature in 1860, was a member of the war commission at Cairo in 1862 and a member of Congress from 1865 to 1871. He was a Republican governor of Illinois from 1877 until 1883 and as chairman of the Illinois delegation at the Republican convention he placed General Grant in nomination in 1872 and General Logan in 1884; and from 1883 to 1897 was US Senator.
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SHERARD OSBORN

Sherard Osborn was a British admiral. He was born in 1822 at Madras and died in 1875. Having served in China from 1841 to 1842 he was appointed to command one of the ships of the first Franklin search expedition, and on his return published 'Stray Leaves from an Arctic Journal' in 1852. In 1852 until 1855 he again went to the Arctic. During the Crimean War he led a flotilla of light craft in the Sea of Azov, causing an immense amount of destruction. In the second China War he distinguished himself.
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SHERE ALI KHAN

Shere Ali Khan was an Amir of Afghanistan. He was born about 1823 and died in 1879. He succeeded his father, Dost Mohammed, in 1863. During the earlier part of his reign his fortunes changed variously and erratically, but by 1868 he was fully established on the throne of Kabul. In 1869 he entered into friendly relations with the Indian government. These friendly relations continued until 1878, when a Russian mission was received with honour at Kabul, while shortly afterwards permission was refused for a British mission to cross the frontier. Thereupon the British invaded Afghanistan and took possession of the Khyber Pass and the Kuram Valley. Shere Ali fled from Kabul, accompanied by the members of the Russian mission, and in 1879 died, a fugitive, in Afghan Turkistan. He was succeeded by his second son, Yakub Khan, who, however, on account of the Cavagnari massacre, was speedily deposed and deported to India, and was succeeded by his cousin, Abdur Rahman Khan, in 1880.
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SHERIF

Sherif is an Arabic title equivalent to noble, borne by the descendants of Mohammed. It descends both in the male and female line. Those who possess this rank are distinguished by green turbans and veils, green being the colour of the Prophet. The title is applied specifically to the chief magistrate of Mecca.
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SHERIFF

In England, a sheriff is the chief officer of the crown in every county, appointed annually. The custody of the county is committed to him by letters-patent, and he has charge of all the business of the crown therein. During his tenure of office he takes precedence within the county of any nobleman, and is entitled to sit on the bench with the justices of assize. The person appointed is bound under a penalty to serve the office, except in specified cases of exemption or disability, but a person who has served one year is not liable to serve again until after an interval of three years if there be another sufficient person in the county. The sheriff is specially entrusted with the execution of the laws and the preservation of the peace, and for this purpose he has at his disposal the whole civil force of the county - in old legal phraseology the posse comitatus. The most ordinary of his functions, such as the execution of writs, be universally performs by a deputy called under-sheriff, while he himself only performs in person those duties which are either purely honorary, such as attendance upon the judges on circuit, or which are of some dignity and public importance, such as presiding over elections and holding county meetings, which he may call at any time. Since the time of Henry I. the Liverymen of London have, on Midsummer Day, elected two sheriffs, who have been jointly sheriff of Middlesex, but by the Local Government Act of 1888 it was provided that while the city of London could continue a separate county, with its own sheriffs, these would no longer be jointly sheriff of Middlesex, and that the county of London would have a sheriff of its own. The office of sheriff was formerly hereditary in some counties, and continued so in Westmoreland until the death of the last hereditary sheriff, the Earl of Thanet, in 1849.

In Scotland there are three degrees of sheriffs, all of whom are appointed ad vitam aut culpam. The highest sheriff is the lord-lieutenant of the county; but as sheriff his office is merely nominal. The sheriff-depute, appointed by the crown, is now known as the sheriff, or sheriff-principal, and is the chief judge of the county. Under him are one or more sheriffs-substitute, who are the resident judges ordinary of the county, and are also appointed by the crown. The greater part of the duties of the office practically rests with the sheriffs-substitute, who have a rather wide jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases. The sheriff-principal is usually an advocate practising in Edinburgh. There are also honorary sheriffs-substitute, who in minor cases may act for the sheriff-substitute in his absence. There is an appeal from the decisions of the sheriffs-substitute to the sheriff-principal, and from him to the Court of Session. In the United States the sheriff is a very different functionary, not holding the position of a judge at all, but acting as the highest peace officer of his county, having to pursue and arrest criminals, to carry out sentences, to take charge of the jail, etc.
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SHERIFF-CLERK

In Scotland, the sheriff-clerk is the clerk of the sheriff's court who has charge of the records of the court. He registers the judgments of the court, and issues them to the proper parties. There is a principal sheriff-clerk appointed by the crown for each county, and one or more depute-clerks under him.
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SHERMAN ADAMS

Sherman Adams was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of New Hampshire from 1949 until 1953.
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SHERMAN W. TRIBBITT

Sherman W Tribbitt was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Delaware from 1973 until 1977.
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SHERPA

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The Sherpa are a Tibetan people of north east Nepal, and adjoining parts of China and India. Buddhists by religion, the Sherpa who live around Mount Everest have an international reputation as mountain climbers and guides. The Sherpa are related to, and similar to the Bhotias, but are more a farming people rather than pure traders, as the nomadic Bhotias are. Sherpa homes are two-storey. The lower level being used as a warehouse to store goods for trading and farm animals, the upper floor being the living quarters. Traditional Sherpa houses are devoid of furniture except carpets to sit upon, and have a fireplace in the middle of the floor and carved window frames.
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SHIITES

The Shiites are one of the two great sects of Islam, who do not acknowledge the Sunna as a law, and believe that Ali, the fourth caliph after Mohammed, was his first lawful successor.
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SHIKH MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH

Shikh Muhammad Abdullah ('The Lion of Kashmir') was a Kashmiri politician. He was born in 1905 at Soura and did in 1982. He was a major protagonist in the Kashmiri struggle for independence from India, actively encouraging the Muslim struggle against the Hindu maharajah. In 1948 he was appointed Prime Minister of Kashmir, before being imprisoned in 1953 for treason and encouraging Kashmiri independence from India. He was released in 1962 and continued to campaign for Kashmiri independence, persuading the Indian government to grant Kashmir some autonomy.
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SHILLUK

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The Shilluk are a Sudanese people living mainly on the west bank of the Nile. They are remarkable for not sitting to rest, but rather for standing on one leg for hours at a time.
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SHIOGOON

Shiogoon or Tycoon was the title of the hereditary military ruler of Japan for many centuries until the revolution of 1868, which reinstated the Mikado in power.
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SHIPS HUSBAND

A ship's husband is an agent appointed by the owner or owners of a vessel to see to her repairs, provisions, stores, manning, papers, etc, and in general to see her properly and efficiently equipped preparatory to a voyage.
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SHISHAK

Shishak was an Egyptian king, mentioned by the Hebrew writers, the Sheshenk I of the monuments, and the first sovereign of the Bubastite twenty-second dynasty, established about 961 BC. It was he to whom Jeroboam fled for protection when he fell under the suspicion of Solomon; and in the fifth year of Rehoboam he invaded Judah, and returned with the treasures of the temple and the palace. A remarkable sculpture at the temple of Karnak gives a list of 130 names of towns and peoples, including towns both of Judah and of Israel, conquered in this expedition by Shishak, who appears to have been one of the ablest and most powerful of the Egyptian monaruhs. His reign lasted at least twenty-one years.
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SHOEBLACK

Shoeblack was a Victorian name for someone who cleaned and shined strangers shoes for a living. In Victorian London shoeblacks were licensed and brigades were established, distinguished by their red uniform, to provide employment to 'poor and honest boys'. The first London shoeblack brigade was the Ragged Schools brigade of Saffron-Hill. In 1888 it was reported that the average earning for a shoeblack brigade boy was in the region of ten shillings a week.
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SHOESHINE

Shoeshine is an American term for someone who polishes the shoes of passers by for money. In England the title 'shoeblack' was formerly applied to the trade, but during the 20th century the American term of shoeshine was slowly adopted.
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SHOLEM ALEICHEM

Sholem Aleichem is the pen name of the Ukrainian writer Solomon Rabinowitz. He was born in 1859 and died in 1916. A former rabbi, he left Russia in 1905 and travelled to the USA and Switzerland. The film Fiddler on the Roof is based on his works about small east European Jewish towns.
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SHONA

The Shona are a Bantu-speaking people of south Africa, comprising approximately 80% of the population of Zimbabwe, and divided into a number of divisions: Karanga (Southern Shona), Korekore (Northern Shona), Zezuru, Ndau, Manyika, Kalanga. They once had an empire in east Africa but now live in Zimbabwe and the land between the Save and Pungure rivers in Mozambique, with smaller groups found in South Africa, Botswana, and Zambia. The Shona are traditionally mainly farmers, living in scattered villages, though with industrialisation many left the land to live and work in the towns and cities of Zimbabwe and South Africa. The Shona language belongs to the Niger-Congo family.

During the 19th century the Shona were conquered by the Ndebele who took land and enforced tribute in the form of cattle and other goods. Later the British subdued the Shona, who in 1896 with the Ndebele rose up against the British invaders but were suppressed within two years and the chiefs replaced by leaders obedient to the British colonial administration.
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SHOSHONE

The Shoshone, Shoshoni or Snake Indians, were various bands of American Indians of the Uto-Aztecan family, chief among which were the Buffalo Baters on Wind River, and the Tookarika on the Salmon. Some of the bands near Humboldt River and Great Salt Lake began hostilities in 1849. In 1862 California volunteers nearly exterminated the Hokandikah. Treaties with various bands followed in 1863, 1864 and 1865. Hostilities were afterwards renewed for a period. The Government attempted to collect the whole nation, and they were assigned various reservations. In 1905 there were about 5000 Shoshone living in an area extending over part of Idaho, Utah and Nevada,
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SIBYL

Sibyl is the name common to certain women mentioned by Greek and Roman writers, and said to be endowed with a prophetic spirit. Their number is variously stated, but is generally given as ten. Of these the most celebrated was the Cumsean sibyl (from Cumae in Campania). She is said to have written in Greek verses the collection of prophecies famous under the name of Sibylline books, and containing the fata urbis Romoe, which she offered to Tarquin the Proud for sale. When the king, on account of the high price asked, refused to buy them, she threw three of the books into the fire, and on a second refusal three more, after which the king, alarmed, paid for the three remaining the price originally asked for the whole. These books were preserved in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and were consulted on occasions of national danger. In 83 BC they were destroyed by fire along with the temple, and the senate sent delegates to the Italian and Greek cities, especially to Erythrse, to collect whatever Sibylline verses they could find; and after the rejection of those which were considered spurious, about 1000 of them were retained, and preserved in the new temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This collection of Sibylline oracles seems to have been burned by Stilicho shortly after 400 AD. The so-called Sibylline oracles which have come down to modern times are of Jewish or Christian origin, dating from about 170 BC to 700 AD.
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SIDI MOHAMMED BEN ALI ES SENUSSI

Sidi Mohammed ben Ali es Senussi was an Arab preacher and the founder of the Muslim sect of Senussi. He was born about 1787 in Algeria and died in 1859. He claimed direct descent from Fatima, and as a young man studied at Fez in Morocco, before leaving Morocco around 1810 to preach throughout North Africa reaching as far as Cairo and Mecca. He founded a monastery at Mecca, but encountering opposition and persecution there in 1843 he moved to Derna in Cyrenaica. In 1855 he retired to the desert oasis of Jarabub to escape the Turks, and there he died a few years later.
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SIDNEY BARTLETT

Sidney Bartlett was an American jurist. He was born in 1799 at Plymouth, Massachusetts and died in 1889. Educated at Harvard he lived to become the oldest surviving graduate of that famous institution in point of age. After studying law he was admitted to the bar, and manifested such steady ability, such a strong grasp of complicated situations, and such ready power to unravel every entanglement as to make him a leader. In 1851 he was elected to the Massachusetts Legislature, and in 1853 he served as a member of the Constitutional Convention.
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SIDNEY BECHET

Sidney Bechet was an American jazz musician. He was born in 1897 at New Orleans and died in 1959. Originally a jazz clarinet player, he took up the soprano saxophone in 1919 and was the first significant saxophone players in jazz.
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SIDNEY COLVIN

Sir Sidney Colvin was an English literary critic and art publisher. He was born in 1845 and died in 1927. He was Slade Professor of Fine Art at Cambridge from 1873 to 1885 and Keeper of Prints and Drawings at the British Museum from 1884 to 1912.
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SIDNEY GILCHRIST THOMAS

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Sidney Gilchrist Thomas was a British metallurgist. He was born in 1850 at London and died in 1885. He early applied himself in his spare time to the study of chemistry. From this he was led to the important invention of his life, the elimination of phosphorus in the Bessemer and Siemens-Martin processes of converting pig-iron into stee1. By careful study he evolved the basic lining to the Bessemer converter, and it was recognized that the invention was epoch-making. He was awarded the Bessemer gold medal of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1883.
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SIDNEY GODOLPHIN

Sidney Godolphin, Earl of Godolphin, was an English politician. He was born about 1635 in Cornwall and died in 1712. Under Charles II, he was one of those who voted for the exclusion of the Duke of York from the throne in 1680. He nevertheless retained office under that monarch, as he did also under William III, with whom he had long been in correspondence. During the reign of Queen Anne he was appointed lord high treasurer of England, and in this office did much to improve the public credit, and check corruption in the administration of the public funds. In 1706 he was made Earl of Godolphin, and four years afterwards was obliged to retire from office. He was a man of great business capacity, but his treasonable correspondence with James while he held an office of trust under William of Orange is a serious blot upon his character.
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SIDNEY HERBERT

Sidney Herbert (Lord Herbert of Lea) was an English statesman. He was born in 1810 and died in 1861. The son of the eleventh Earl of Pembroke, he was educated at Harrow and Oxford, and was Conservative member of parliament for South Wiltshire from 1832 until shortly before his death. He was secretary to the admiralty under Robert Peel in 1841, and in 1845 was made secretary for war, but became a convert to free-trade, and left office with Robert Peel in 1846. In 1852 he became war secretary in the Aberdeen cabinet, and retained it until the dissolution of the ministry in 1855. For a short time he was colonial secretary under Palmerston, and in 1859 became once more secretary for war. Early in 1861 he was transferred to the House of Lords.
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SIDNEY J. CATTS

Sidney J Catts was an American politician. He was a Prohibition governor of Florida from 1917 until 1921.
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SIDNEY LANIER

Sidney Lanier was an American poet and author. He was born in 1842 at Macon, Georgia and died in 1881. He served with the Confederacy during the American Civil War and wrote an account of his experiences in 'Tiger Lilies' published in 1867.
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SIDNEY LEE

Sidney Lee was an English writer. He was born in 1859 at London and died in 1926. Educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, Oxford, from 1883 to 1890 he was assistant editor of the Dictionary of National Biography (Leslie Stephen being editor), joint-editor from 1890 to 1891 (the first twenty-six volumes being now issued), and afterwards sole editor, so that under him appeared the remaining volumes, up to volume 63, with the three of supplement and one of epitome. In 1901 he was appointed Clarke lecturer in English Literature at Trinity College, Cambridge and in 1903 he lectured at several institutions in the United States. In the latter year he was appointed Chairman of the Executive of Shakespeare's Birthplace Trust. Among his publications were: Stratford-on-Avon from the Earliest Times to the Death of Shakespeare (1885); A Life of William Shakespeare (1898, with subsequent editions); A Life of Queen Victoria (1902); Shakespeare First Folio Facsimile, with Introduction and Census of Extant Copies (1902); The Alleged Vandalism at Stratford-on-Avon (1903); Elizabethan Sonnets (1904); and Great Englishmen of the 16th Century (1904).
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SIDNEY P. OSBORN

Sidney P Osborn was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arizona from 1941 until 1948.
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SIDNEY PERHAM

Sidney Perham was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Maine from 1871 until 1874.
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SIDNEY RIGDON

Sidney Rigdon was an American Mormon. He was born in 1793 and died in 1876. He was one of the propagators of the doctrine of the Mormons, and was one of the presidents of the church. He refused to recognize Brigham Young as leader of the church, and was excommunicated.
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SIDNEY SANDERS MCMATH

Sidney Sanders McMath was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arkansas from 1949 until 1953.
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SIDNEY WEBB

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Sidney James Webb was an English social reformer. He was born in 1859 and died in 1947.
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SIEGFRIED SASSOON

Siegfried Sassoon was an English writer. He was born in 1886 and died in 1967. He wrote poetry during the Great War which revealed the horror and wasteful destruction of the war.
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SIEUR DE LA SALLE

Sieur de La Salle (Robert Cavelier) was a French explorer. He was born in 1643 at Rouen and died in 1687. In 1669 he emigrated to Canada, and began the series of his remarkable journeys in the West. He visited Lake Michigan and the Illinois River, but whether he at this early stage saw the Mississippi is a disputed problem. In 1673 he received a grant of the station at Port Frontenac (now Kingston). He was again in France in 1677, but the next year was back in Canada and had reached Niagara. He ascended the chain of lakes to Mackinaw, thence up Lake Michigan and down the Illinois River to Peoria. Disappointments followed; but he was able to renew the canoe voyage, descend the Illinois and Mississippi to its mouth, which he reached in April, 1682, and to claim the entire region for Louis XIV. Returning to France, he organized an expedition which, in 1684, sailed directly for the mouth of the great river. But the explorers landed by mistake at Matagorda Bay, and after harassing wanderings Sieur de La Salle was murdered by his followers within the limits of Texas.
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SIGEBERT

Sigebert was joint ruler of the East Saxons in 614. Sigebert was king of the East Angles in 629.
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SIGEBERT II

Sigebert II (Sigebert the little) was king of the East Saxons in 623.
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SIGEBERT III

Sigebert III (Sigebert the good) was king of the East Saxons in 655 until he was put to death.
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SIGEBRIGHT

Sigebright was king of the West Saxons in 754. Having murdered his friend Cumbran, the governor of Hampshire, he was himself slain by one of Cumbran' s retainers.
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SIGENARD

Sigenard was king of the East Saxons in 693.
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SIGERED

Sigered was king of the East Saxons in 799.
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SIGERIC

Sigeric was king of the East Saxons in 799. He died while on a pilgrimage to Rome.
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SIGHER

Sigher was joint ruler of the East Saxons in 663.
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SIGISMUND

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Sigismund was German emperor from 1411 to 1437. He was born in 1368 and died in 1437. On the death of his father, the emperor Charles IV, he obtained the margraviate of Brandenburg. He married Mary, daughter and heiress of Louis the Great of Poland and Hungary; but on the latter's death in 1383 the Poles elected Mary's sister as queen; Sigismund, however, was crowned king of Hungary in 1387. He was subsequently involved in a war with Turkey, and being defeated by Bajazet at Nicopolis in 1396, he fled into Greece. On his return to Hungary in 1401 he was made prisoner, and the nation gave the throne to Ladislaus of Naples. Sigismund escaped, and having raised a powerful force, reduced Hungary to subjection. In 1411 he was elected emperor of Germany, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle. He took a leading part in the Council of Constance in 1414, but disgraced himself by allowing John Huss, to whom he had granted letters of safe-conduct, to be put to death. On the death of Wenceslaus in 1419 the Hussites refused to acknowledge his succession to the kingdom of Bohemia until he had signed the compact with the Council of Basel in 1431. He was then crowned emperor at Milan, and again at Rome in 1433. He was now in possession of the imperial crown and the crown of four kingdoms.
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SIGISMUND THALBERG

Sigismund Thalberg was a Swiss pianist. He was born in 1812 at Geneva and died in 1871. He received his first instruction on the pianoforte in Vienna, and already as a boy was famous as a performer. Towards the end of 1835 he went to Paris, where he at once established his fame. He subsequently visited England, the Netherlands, Russia, and Italy, being everywhere received with the greatest enthusiasm. During the years from 1865 to 1868 he visited Brazil and the United States, and after several years retirement on an estate he had purchased near Naples, he once more visited Paris and London in 1862, and later Brazil. After his death he left a number of compositions, including sonatas, studies, a concerto, several nocturnes, and other small pieces.
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SIGRID UNDSET

Sigrid Undset was a Norwegian writer. She was born in 1882 and died in 1949. She won the Nobel prize for literature in 1928.
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SIGURD ANDERSON

Sigurd Anderson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of South Dakota from 1951 until 1955.
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SIGURD SNOGOJE

Sigurd Snogoje was king of Denmark in 794.
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SIKHS

Sikhs (from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple'), are a religious sect in North-western Hindustan which worships one only and invisible God. Its founder was Nanak Shah, born in 1469 in the province of Lahore. He laboured to lead the people to a practical religion, to a pure worship of God and love to mankind. He died about 1540. Of his successors Arjun-mal gave stability and unity to the religion by publishing Nanak's writings in the Adi-Granth, the first sacred book of the Sikhs. The Sikhs had now rejected the authority of the Koran and the Vedas, and thus aroused the enmity both of the Muslims and Brahmans. Arjun-mal was thrown into prison, where he died.

His son and successor Har Govind transformed the Sikhs from peaceful believers into valiant warriors, and under his reign began the bloody contest with the Muslims. The real founder of the Sikh state was Govind Sinh or Singh, the tenth ruler from Nanak. He abolished the system of castes, and gave all men equal rights. His followers, owing to their valour in the protracted contest with the Muslims, received the title of Sinhs or lions. Govin Sinh wrote the Dasema Padshah ke Granth, or book of the tenth prince, which, besides treating of religious subjects, contained the history of the author's exploits. The Sikhs hold it in equal veneration with the Adi-Granth. Govind Sinh died in 1708, and the Sikhs gradually yielded to the superior power of the Muslims. A small number of the Sikhs escaped to inaccessible mountains, and preserved the doctrines of their fathers and an inextinguishable hatred towards the Muslims. After Nadir Shah's return to Persia they left the mountains and subdued all Lahore. The Sikhs then broke up into a number of independent communities, each governed by a sirdar; but in 1792 Runjeet Singh established himself as despotic ruler of the Sikhs, with the title of Maharajah.

The territory of the Sikhs now covered the whole Punjab, part of Multan, and most of the country between the Jumna and Sutlej with a total area of 69,000 square miles. After Runjeet Singh'a death in 1839 a period of anarchy followed. In 1845 (first Sikh war) the Sikhs attacked the British under Sir Hugh Gough at Mudki. Here they were repulsed on December the 18th, and again defeated at Ferozeshah three days later. On January the 20th, 1846, the Sikhs were routed by Sir H Smith near Aliwal, and on the 10th of February by Gough at Sobraon. A treaty was signed by which Britain held the city of Lahore, and a British resident took supervision of the government. In 1848 a general revolt broke out, and it was evident that the Sikhs had resolved on a decisive struggle, being also assisted by the Afghans. In this the second Sikh war Lord Gough advanced with an army against them, but received a severe check at Chillianwalla, 13th January, 1849. Both armies were then reinforced, and on the 21st February, at Gujerat, the power of the Sikhs was completely broken. The Sikh dominion was proclaimed at an end on the 29th March, and the Punjab was annexed to the British Empire in India, the Maharajah Dhulip Singh receiving aa annuity of 50,000 pounds sterling.

The bulk of the Sikhs are of Jat origin; they are of fine physique, and possess great powers of endurance as well as courage. During the Indian mutiny the Sikhs displayed the utmost loyalty to the British.
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SILAS A. HOLCOMB

Silas A Holcomb was an American politician. He was a Fusion governor of Nebraska from 1895 until 1899.
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SILAS DEANE

Silas Deane was an American statesman. He was born in 1737 at Groton, Connecticut and died in 1789. He was a member of the Connecticut Committee of Correspondence, and afterwards a Representative in the Continental Congress. In 1776 he was sent to France to purchase supplies for the Confederacy. Vergennes, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, referred him to Beaumarchais, a secret agent of the French Government, and with him Silas Deane negotiated. He was accused of extravagance and dishonesty, chiefly by his colleague, Arthur Lee. Silas Deane, Lee and Benjamin Franklin negotiated treaties of amity and commerce with France, which were signed on February the 6th 1778. Silas Deane was recalled the same year at the instigation of Lee. Congress refused him a hearing for some time and finally required a full statement. Returning to France for the necessary papers, he found himself unpopular there, and had to retire to Holland. He died just as he was re-embarking from England for America in 1789.
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SILAS GARBER

Silas Garber was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Nebraska from 1875 until 1879.
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SILAS H. JENNISON

Silas H Jennison was an American politician. He was a Whig governor of Vermont from 1835 until 1841.
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SILAS STRINGHAM

Silas H Stringham was an American sailor. He was born in 1798 and died in 1876. He entered the US navy in 1809. He served in the USS President during the engagements with the Little Belt and Belvidere. He served in the Algerine War in 1815. He was executive officer of the USS Hornet from 1821 to 1824 and captured the pirate ship Moscow. He commanded the USS Ohio at the bombardment of Vera Cruz in 1847, and the squadron which, assisted by the military force under General Butler, reduced Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark in 1861.
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SILAS WOODSON

Silas Woodson was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Missouri from 1873 until 1875.
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SILAS WRIGHT

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Silas Wright was an American politician. Educated at Middlebury College, he became a lawyer and influential politician in the State of New York. He was a member of the State Senate, and Congressman from 1837 to 1829. For the next four years he was Comptroller of New York. Then, from 1833 until 1844, he was US Senator, and one of the Democratic leaders in the Senate. From 1845 to 1847 he was Governor of the State. One of his acts was the calling out the militia to suppress the Anti-Renters. The local Democracy was at that time engaged in bitter factional fights, and Governor Silas Wright was defeated for re-election in 1846.
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SILURES

The Silures were an ancient British tribe which inhabited the district included in the modern counties of Hereford, Radnor, Brecknock, Monmouth, and Glamorgan. They were of the earlier Celtic stock, and were amongst the most warlike of the British tribes. They were subdued by the Romans about 78 AD.
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SILVANUS THOMPSON

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Silvanus Phillips Thompson was an English scientist. He was born in 1851 at York and died in 1916. Educated at Bootham School, the Institute, Pontefract, and the Royal School of Mines, he was professor of experimental physics at University College, Bristol from 1876 until 1885, and principal and professor of physics in the City and Guilds Technical College, Finsbury from 1885 until 1916. A leading physicist of his time, he published standard works on electricity and dynamo-electric machinery.
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SILVIO PELLICO

Silvio Pellico was an Italian poet. He was born in 1788 at Saluzzo, in Piedmont and died in 1854. By his tragedies of Laodamia and Francesca da Rimini (represented in 1819, with great applause) he earned an honourable place among Italian poets. In the same year, with Manzoni and others, he established the periodical Il Conciliatore. In consequence of the liberal spirit displayed in his productions he was in 1820, along with several of his friends, arrested on the charge of belonging to the Carbonari, and in 1822 was condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to imprisonment in the Austrian prison of the Spielberg for fifteen years. In 1830 he was set free. Silvio Pellico has given a most interesting account of his ten years' sufferings in Le Mie Prigioni (My Prisons), which has been translated into many languages. His constitution, naturally feeble, had been completely shattered. The Marchioness of Barolo offered him asylum at Turin, and he became her secretary.
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SIMEON OF DURHAM

Simeon of Durham was an English chronicler of the 12th century. He wrote Annals of England to the reign of Henry I, particularly valuable for events connected with the north of England. They were continued by John of Hexham.
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SIMEON S. PENNEWILL

Simeon S Pennewill was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Delaware from 1909 until 1913.
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SIMEON S. WILLIS

Simeon S Willis was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Kentucky from 1943 until 1947.
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SIMON B. BUCKNER

Simon Bolivak Buckner was an American soldier and politician. He was born in 1823 at Kentucky. He graduated at West Point in 1844. After serving as Professor of Ethics at the Military Academy he took part in the Mexican War, being promoted several times for gallant conduct; was assistant instructor of infantry tactics at West Point from 1848 to 1855; entered the Confederate army as a brigadier-general in 1861; surrendered Fort Donelson to General Grant in April, 1862; was promoted to major-general and afterward to lieutenant-general, and served with great distinction until the close of the war. He was a Democratic governor of Kentucky from 1887 until 1891.
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SIMON BAMBERGER

Simon Bamberger was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Utah from 1917 until 1921.
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SIMON BAR-COCHBA

Simon Bar-cochba was a Jewish dissenter. He raised a revolt, and made himself master of Jerusalem about 132 AD, and of about fifty fortified places. Hadrian sent to Britain for Julius Severus, one of his ablest generals, who gradually regained the different forts and then took and destroyed Jerusalem. Bar-cochba retired to a mountain fortress, and perished in the assault of it by the Romans three years after, about 135.
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SIMON BERNARD

Simon Bernard was a French soldier and engineer. He was born in 1779 and died in 1836. After going to the USA with Lafayette in 1824 he became the chief engineer in the US Army and was responsible for the planning and construction of Fortress Monroe.
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SIMON BOLIVAR

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Simon Bolivar ('The Liberator') was a Venezuelan patriot. He was born in 1783 at Caracas and died in 1830. Educated at Madrid, after travelling in Europe he returned to Caracas in 1801 and lived there until 1804 before, upon the death of his wife, revisiting Europe before returning to Venezuela via the USA in 1809 determined to make Venezuela an independent republic. Having joined the patriotic party among his countrymen he shared in the first unsuccessful efforts to throw off the Spanish yoke. In 1812 he joined the patriots of New Granada in their struggle, and having defeated the Spaniards in several actions he led a small force into his own country of Venezuela, and entered the capital, Caracas, as victor and liberator, on August the 4th, 1813.

But the success of the revolutionary party was not of long duration. Simon Bolivar was beaten by General Boves, and before the end of the year the royalists were again masters of Venezuela. Simon Bolivar next received from the Congress of New Granada the command of an expedition against Bogota, and after the successful transfer of the seat of government to that city retired to Jamaica.

Having again returned to Venezuela he was able to rout the royalists under Morillo, and, after a brilliant campaign, effected in 1819 a junction with the forces of the New Granada republic. The battle of Bojaca which followed gave him possession of Santa Fe and all New Granada, of which he was appointed president and captain-general. A law was now passed by which the Republics of Venezuela and New Granada were to be united in a single state, as the Republic of Colombia, and Bolivar was elected the first president.

In 1822 he went to the aid of Peru, and was made dictator, an office held by him until 1825, by which time the country had been completely freed from Spanish rule. In 1825 he visited Upper Peru, which formed itself into an independent republic named Bolivia, in honour of Simon Bolivar. In Colombia a civil war arose between his adherents and the faction opposed to him, but Simon Bolivar was confirmed in the presidency in 1826, and again in 1828, and continued to exercise the chief authority until May, 1830, when he resigned. He died at Carthagena on the 17th December, 1830. One of the departments of Colombia is named after him, as are also a state of the republic Venezuela, and the town Ciudad Bolivar.
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SIMON BRADSTREET

Simon Bradstreet was colonial Governor of Massachusetts. He was born in 1603 and died in 1697. He went to Massachusetts in 1630 and in 1679 was appointed Governor, remaining in the post until 1686 and again after Andros' recall until 1692. He opposed the witchcraft delusion.
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SIMON CAMERON

Simon Cameron was an American politician. He was born in 1799 and died in 1889. He worked at the printers trade in his boyhood and youth. In 1822 he edited a newspaper in Harrisburg. He soon became interested and acquired wealth in banking and railroad construction and was for a time Adjutant-General of Pennsylvania. He was US Senator from Pennsylvania from 1845 until 1849, acting with the Democrats. Upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise in 1854 he broke with that party and joined the Republican party upon its organization, by which he was elected to the US Senate in 1857. He was appointed by President Lincoln his first Secretary of War, a post he resigned in 1862 and was appointed Minister to Russia. He was again US Senator from 1867 until 1877.
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SIMON DE MONTFORT

Simon de Montfort (Earl of Leicester) was an English statesman and soldier. He was born in about 1200 in France and died in 1265 at the battle of Evesham. He inherited the earldom of Leicester in 1232, and in 1238 married Eleanor, countess dowager of Pembroke, a younger sister of Henry III.

From 1248 until 1252 he acted as the king's 'locum tenens' in Gascony; but complaints of his despotic rule led to a trial before the lords, which resulted in his acquittal and a violent, though temporary, quarrel with Henry. De Montfort withdrew to France, where he declined the important office of high steward, and on his return to England in 1254 took a prominent part in the disputes between the crown and the barons; giving proof however, of broader constitutional principles than the other great barons, who thought merely of the privileges of their own order. He was conspicuous among those who extorted the Provisions of Oxford from the king in the 'Mad Parliament' in 1258; and he was the leader of the barons in the so-called 'Barons War' that followed. In 1261 he agreed to submit the question of the king's right to repudiate the Provisions to Louis XI. of France; but when the latter, by the Mise of Amiens, decided in favour of Henry, De Montfort refused to be bound by the decision. On May the 13th 1264 he defeated and captured the king at Lewes.

The Mise of Lewes, to which Henry III agreed, contained the outlines of a new constitution, in which the principle of representative government was recognized; but this principle was carried a step farther in the famous parliament of Le Montfort, which was summoned to meet at Westminster on January the 20th, 1265. The distinctive feature of the new parliament was the fact that, for the first time, writs were issued for the election of members from cities and boroughs as well as from the counties. For this reason Simon De Montfort is sometimes spoken of as the 'founder of the House of Commons;' though the regular representation of cities and boroughs in parliament did not really begin until 1295. The king accepted the constitution on February the 14th, 1265; but Prince Edward and the Mortimers raised the standard of revolt. At the battle of Evesham on August the 4th, 1265 De Montfort was defeated and killed. His memory was long revered by the people as a martyr for the popular liberty.
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SIMON FRASER

Simon Fraser was a British soldier. He was born in 1729 and died in 1777. A British brigadier-general, who in 1776 had commanded at Three Rivers, he had command of Burgoyne's right wing in his advance upon New York during the American war of Independence. He won the victory of Hubbardton on July the 7th, 1777, but was mortally wounded in the battle of Saratoga, on October the 7th.
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SIMON FRAZER

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Simon Frazer or Simon Fraser (Lord Lovat, also known as 'Fox of the North') was an English aristrocrat. He was born in 1667 and died in 1747, beheaded at Tower Hill. In 1699, on the death of his father, Thomas Frazer of Beaufort, afterwards twelfth Lord Lovat, he assumed the title of Lord Lovat, to which on the death of the eleventh Lord Lovat his father had acquired a disputed claim. To secure the estates he effected a forced marriage with the Dowager Lady Lovat, for which he was outlawed and forced to take refuge in France. After a varied life of intriguing, first on the Hanoverian side and next on the Stuart, and a long imprisonment, his title, which had been objected to in various elections, was decided in his favour by the Court of Session in 1730. On the outbreak of the rebellion of 1745, Lovat acted with his usual duplicity, sending his son to fight for the Pretender, while he himself remained at home, protesting his loyalty to the Hanoverian house. This conduct brought him to trial for treason, and resulted in his execution.
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SIMON GIRTY

Simon Girty was an American patriot. He was born in 1750 at Kentucky and died in 1815. A Kentucky loyalist, he led the Indians in their depredations during the American war of Independence and in the War of 1812, committing many atrocious deeds.
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SIMON KENTON

Simon Kenton was an American pioneer. He was born in 1755 at Kentucky and died in 1836. He served as a scout in the colonial army until 1778. He commanded a Kentucky battalion from 1793 to 1794. He was engaged in the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
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SIMON MAGUS

Simon Magus (that is, the Magician) was a Samarian prophet. According to tradition he went to Egypt, where he studied philosophy and magic. On his return he exhibited his acquired arts as a proof of his divinity. He made many proselytes, and it is said that he was worshipped as a god at Rome. His name has given rise to the term Simony. He is regarded as one of the early Gnostics.
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SIMON MARKS

Simon Marks was a British chain-store magnet. He was born in 1888 and died in 1964. The son of a Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, who together with Tom Spencer started a number of 'penny bazaars' in 1887. Simon Marks entered the business in 1907 and built up a chain of more than 200 stores and started a democratic revolution in dress for men and women.
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SIMON NEWCOMB

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Simon Newcomb was a Canadian-born American astronomer. He was born in 1835 at Nova Scotia and died in 1909. He settled in the United States in 1853, and graduated in science at Harvard in 1858. In 1861 he became professor of mathematics in the United States navy, and later on occupied a high position at the Washington Observatory. In 1877 he was made director of the American Nautical Almanac, and in 1894 became professor of mathematics and astronomy in the Johns Hopkins University. His publications were numerous, being chiefly on astronomical subjects; but he has also written on economics. He was noted for his tables of celestial bodies and astronomical constants.
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SIMON OCKLEY

Simon Ockley was an English historian. He was born in 1678 at Exeter and died in 1720. He became professor of Arabic at Cambridge in 1711, and published a History of the Jews, several translations from Oriental languages, and a well-known History of the Saracens.
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SIMON P. HUGHES

Simon P Hughes was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Arkansas from 1885 until 1889.
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SIMON SNYDER

Simon Snyder was an American politician. He was a Democratic-Republican governor of Pennsylvania from 1808 until 1817.
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SIMON STEVINUS

Simon Stevinus was a Dutch mathematician. He was born in 1548 at Bruges and died in 1620. He was one of the first mathematicians to deal with the properties of regular and semi-regular polyhedra, and he laid down certain of the fundamental principles of mechanics.
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SIMONE MARTINI

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Simone Martini was an Italian painter. He was born in 1283 and died in 1344.
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SIMONE ST BON

Simone Arturo St Bon was an Italian admiral. He was born in 1823 at Chambery and died in 1892. He modernised the Italian navy, advocating the use of large battleships. Under Minghetti he was minister of marine, resigning in 1876 to resume active service, but returning to office in 1891. He served during the Crimean War at Ancona in 1860 and at the siege of Gaeta, and in the naval battle off Lissa in 1866.
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SIMONIDES

Simonides was a Greek lyric poet. He was born in about 5565 BC on the island of Ceos and died uin 467 BC. He visited Athens, and after the death of Hipparchus, who had treated him very generously, he proceeded to Thessaly, where he obtained the patronage of powerful families. He subsequently returned to Athens, and at a competition for the best elegy upon those who fell on the field of Marathon, gained the prize over AEschylus himself. When eighty years of age he was victorious in another celebrated poetical contest, which was his fifty-sixth victory of this nature. Shortly after this he was invited to the court of Hiero at Syracuse, where he remained until his death in 467 BC at the advanced age of ninety. Simonides is credited with the addition to the Greek alphabet of the long vowels and the double letters. Only fragments of the works of this poet have come down to us.
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SIMONS MENNO

Simons Menno was the founder of the sect known as the Mennonites. He was born in 1496 at Friesland and died in 1561. He was educated for the church, and became a Roman Catholic priest; but about 1530 he joined the Anabaptists. After the suppression of the disturbances at Munster Menno collected the scattered remnants of the sect, inculcated on them more moderate views, and for many years in Holland and the north of Germany, as far as Livonia, worked to increase the number of his followers, and to disseminate his doctrines. In this he was successful, and there were still a number of congregations in Holland, Germany, and Russia at the start of the 20th century who pass under the name of Mennonites. These do not believe in original sin, and object to taking oaths, making war, or going to law. The Mennonites are also found in the United States.
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SIN-ITIRO TOMONAGA

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga was a Japanese theoretical physicist. He was born in 1906 at Tokyo and died in 1979. He developed the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and developed methods for calculating the interaction between electrons, positrons and photons (as did also Feynman and Schwinger). He graduated from Kyoto University in 1929 and became professor of physics at the University of Tokyo in 1941 and President of the University 1956. In 1965 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.
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SINCLAIR

Sinclair originally St Clair, is a Scottish family of Norman origin, founded by William de Santo Claro, who settled in Scotland, and received from David I the grant of the barony of Roslin. The earldoms of Orkney, of Caithness, and of Rosslyn have been specially connected with this family, which at one time was one of the most powerful in the kingdom.
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SINCLAIR LEWIS

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Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist. He was born in 1885 and died in 1951.
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SINDHI

The Sindhi are the majority ethnic group living in the Pakistani province of Sind. The Sindhi language is spoken by about 15 million people.
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SINDHIA

Sindhia or Scindiah was the hereditary title of the head of a Mahratta dynasty ruling in Gwalior, which was founded in 1738 by Ranojee Sindhia, a chief who raised himself from obscurity by his own merits. He died in 1754. In 1781 Madaji Sindhia negotiated a peace between the British and the Mahrattas, and having introduced European discipline and tactics into his army, himself took Delhi, Agra, and the person of the Mogul emperor, in whose name he subsequently acted. He was the most powerful member of the Mahratta confederacy. His successor Dowlut Rao Sindhia was defeated by Wellington at Assaye, and at Delhi and Laswari by Lord Lake. After his death in 1827 the state became disorganized, and order was only restored after the battles of Maharajpur and Punnair (1843), in which the British troops were victorious. The state was then constituted subsidiary to the British government. At that time the ruling chief, Babajee Rao Sindhia,, was a minor. He was loyal to the British during the Indian Mutiny and was subsequently made a GCB and invested with the Star of India. He was succeeded by and aopted son in 1886.
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SINHALESE

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The Sinhalese are the majority ethnic group of Sri Lanka (70% of the population). Sinhalese is the official language of Sri Lanka; it belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family, and is written in a script derived from the Indian Pali form. The Sinhalese are Buddhists.
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SIOUX

The Sioux (shortened from Nadowessioux), Nadowessi, or Dakota Indians are an American Indian tribe. They first dwelt near the head waters of the Mississippi. Later several bands wandered to the Missouri, and some remained near the St Peter's.

They aided the English in the War of 1812, but soon after made peace with the American Government. In 1837 they ceded to the United States all their lands east of the Mississippi, and in 1851 made further grants. Historically conflicts arose between the Sioux and the American government after the American government repeatedly broke treaties. Hostilities arose in 1854, but the Indians were defeated in 1855, and peace followed. In 1862 a general uprising took place, and a large number of whites (more than a thousand settlers) and Indians were killed. They were finally conquered, and many bands fled to Dakota. In 1863 the Minnesota Sioux were removed to Crow Creek, and some bands fled to British territory. A few bands continued hostilities. An unsatisfactory treaty was made with the Sioux by General Sherman in 1868. Sitting Bull and other chieftains were unreconciled. On May the 15th, 1876, General Custer and 1100 men were wiped out at the Battle of Little Big Horn at the Little big Horn River by a force of 9000 Sioux.
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SIR CHARLES TOWNSHEND

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Sir Charles Vere Francis Townshend was an English soldier and politician. He was born in 1861 and died in 1924. He entered the Royal Marines in 1881, and saw service in the Suakin operations and in the Nile Expedition. In 1886 he transferred to the Indian Staff Corps, and in 1891 accompanied the expedition against the Hunza and Nagar tribes. He came to prominence following his defence of Chitral for which he was awarded the CB. He was at Atbara and Khartoum in 1898 and served in the South African War from 1899 until 1900, when he was transferred to the British army, joining the Royal Fusiliers. After various commands in India, he became major-general in 1911 and commander of a territorial division in 1912. He returned to India in 1913.

Early in 1915 he was sent to Mesopotamia at the head of a division, and after gaining several victories, had to retreat to Kut, which he defended for five months.. Taken prisoner after the fall of Kut he was removed to Constantinople, and was interned in Prinkipo Island.

He was knighted in 1916 and resigned from the army in 1920, becoming an independent member of parliament for the Wrekin division, joining the Conservative Party in 1922.
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SISTERS OF MERCY

Sisters of Mercy was the name given to members of female religious communities founded for the purpose of nursing the sick at their own homes, visiting prisoners, attending lying-in hospitals, superintending the education of females, and the performance of similar works of charity and mercy. At the start of the 20th century, communities of Sisters of Mercy were widely distributed over Europe and America, some of them being connected with the Church of England.
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SITTING BULL

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Sitting Bull was a medicine man and leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux. He was born in 1831 and died in 1890. He brought together the sub-tribes of the Sioux and refused to sign treaties which would hand over the sacred Black Hills of South Dakota to the Americans. He was one of the Sioux who defeated General Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
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SIXTUS I

Sixtus I was bishop of Rome from 115 until 125.
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SIXTUS V

Sixtus V (real name Felix Peretti) was a pope. He was born in 1521 near Montalto and died in 1590. He entered the Franciscan order in 1534, and distinguished himself in scholastic philosophy, theology, and Latin literature. In 1544 he taught the canon law at Rimini, and two years later at Siena. In 1548 he was made priest, doctor of divinity, and superintendent of the monastic school at Siena. In 1556 he was appointed director of the Franciscan school at Venice, and afterwards inquisitor-general. In 1560 he went to Rome, where the pope conferred upon him several dignities. In 1570 he was created cardinal, and took the name Montalto. Under Gregory XIII. he lived a retired life for some years in his villa, and is said to have assumed the mask of pious simplicity and old age in order to prepare himself for the papal chair. On Gregory's death in 1585 he was unanimously elected pope, and immediately manifested himself an able and energetic ruler. He restored order in the States of the Church, cleared the country of bandits, and regulated the finances. He re-established discipline in the religious orders, and fixed the number of cardinals at seventy. He took a part in most of the great political events then agitating Europe. He.supported Henry III against the Huguenots, and Philip II against England. The great aim of his foreign policy was the promotion of the cause of Roman Catholicism throughout Europe against Protestantism.
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SIZAR

Sizar is a term used in the University of Cambridge, and at Trinity College, Dublin, to denote a class of students of limited means who usually receive their commons free and are pecuniarily assisted otherwise. They were originally required to perform certain duties of a menial character, but this practice has long ago fallen into desuetude. Formerly there was a similar class of students at Oxford called servitors.
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SKALDS

The Skalds (Scalds) were ancient Scandinavian poets, who composed poems in honour of the distinguished men and their prowess, and recited or sang them on public occasions.
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SKANDERBEG

George Castriota (Skanderbeg) was an Albanian hero. He was born in 1403 and died in 1468. In 1414 the Turks invaded Albania and captured his uncle's fortress. Castriota was taken to Constantinople and given the Turkish name and title of Iskandar Bey, which was later corrupted into Skanderbeg. In 1443 Albania revolted and Castriota returned to free the country.
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SKY MARSHAL

A sky marshal is a plain-clothed armed guard placed on an aircraft to defend against hijackers. Sky marshals first originated in the USA and were quickly adopted by the Israeli airline El Al. Typically a sky marshal is armed with a low-velocity semi-automatic pistol which will not puncture the aeroplane's fuselage when discharged.
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SLAV

The Slavs (also known as Slavonians, and formerly Slaves) are an imaginary grouping of different Indo-European peoples in central and east Europe, the Balkans, and parts of north Asia, who happen to speak closely related Slavonic languages, these include the Venedae, Bulgars and Serbs. There is no homogenous Slav race. The ancestors of the 'Slavs' are believed to have included the Sarmatians and Scythians. Moving west from Central Asia, they settled in east and south east Europe during the 2nd and 3rd millennia BC.
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SLEDDA

Sledda was a son of Ella and king of the East Saxons in 587.
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SLOVAKS

Slovaks is the name of the Slavonian inhabitants of Slovakia, an area originally of Northern Hungary, and also found in Moravia and the adjoining districts.
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SLOVENE

The Slovene are the Slavic people of Slovenia and parts of the Austrian Alpine provinces of Styria and Carinthia. There are 1.5-2 million speakers of Slovene, a language belonging to the South Slavonic branch of the Indo- European family. The Slovenes use the Roman alphabet and the majority belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
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SMATCHET

A smatchet is an inconsequential or unimportant person.
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SMITH THOMPSON

Smith Thompson was an American jurist. He was born in 1768 and died in 1843. He was a Judge of the New York Supreme Court from 1802 to 1818. He was Secretary of the Navy in Monroe's Cabinet from 1818 to 1823, and a Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1823 to 1843.
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SNECK-DRAWER

Sneck-drawer was an old term for someone who stealthily opened doors (draws a sneck), and by extension then came to be applied to someone crafty, flattering or sly.
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SNORRI STURLUSON

Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic poet and historian. He was born in 1178 and died in 1241. Tracing his descent from the kings of Norway, he turned his attention at a young age to the history of their doings, and made a collection of sagas entitled the Heimskringia, or the Ring of the World, in which are interspersed songs of his own composing. It contains a record of the Norwegian kings from the earliest time to the death of Magnus Erlingsson in 1177, and was first printed in 1697. It has been translated into several languages. Snorri became chief judge of Iceland, but his ambitious and intriguing character led to his assassination in 1241. His name is also connected with the prose Edda.
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SOCMAN

In old English law, a socman was a person holding a tenure by socage. A socman was distinguished from one holding tenure by the rendering of sporadic military service by the fact that he rendered a specific and regular service, and he stood in a class superior to the villein; thus petty serjeantry was a form of socage tenure. Free, simple or common socage implied that the socman rendered some service of an honourable nature, as commonly by the acknowledgement of fealty and a fixed annual payment. Villein socage left the socman with a fixed and definite, but meaner, service for his tenure. From the free socmen of early times, the descent of the mediaeval yeoman class has been traced, and they became gradually merged in the freeholder class of tenants.
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SOCRATES

Socrates was a Greek philosopher. He was born in 469 BC at Athens and died in 399 BC. His father, Sophroniscus, was a sculptor, and Socrates himself for a time followed this occupation. He served as a common soldier in the campaign of Potidsea (432-429 BC), fought at the battle of Delium (424), and in 422 he marched with Cleon against Amphipolis. In these campaigns his bravery and endurance were conspicuous; and he was the means of saving the lives of Alcibiades and Xenophon.

After the naval battle of Arginusae (406) against the Spartans, ten Athenian officers were arraigned for neglecting the sacred duty of burying the dead. The clamour for their condemnation rose so high that the court wished to proceed in violation of all legal forms; but Socrates, the presiding judge at the trial, refused to put the question. Soon after he was summoned by the tyrannical government of the Thirty to proceed with four other persons to Salamis to bring back an Athenian citizen who had retired there to escape the rapacity of the new government. Socrates alone refused. After this he declined to take any further share in public affairs, giving as a reason the warnings of an internal voice of which he was wont to speak. Following the promptings of this divine mentor he trained himself to eat simple food, scanty clothing, and indifference to heat or cold, and brought into thorough subjection his naturally impetuous passions. But though a sage he was wholly removed from the gloom and constraint of asceticism; he indeed exemplified the finest Athenian social culture, was a witty as well as a serious disputant, and did not refrain from festive enjoyment.

Of his wife Xanthippe, all that has passed down through history is that she bore him three sons, and that she was an arrant shrew. Socrates wrote nothing, and neither sought to found a school nor a system of philosophy. His plan was to mix with men freely in any place of public resort, when he questioned and suggested the right path to real knowledge. Ignorance and pretence could not be hidden when his cross-examination came to bear on them, and he thus created many enemies.

Aristophanes attacked him violently in his Comedy of the Clouds as a sophist, an enemy of religion, and a corrupter of youth. But he had many distinguished friends, such as Plato, Xenophon, Euclid of Megara, Antisthenes, Ariytippus, AEschinea, and Alcibiades. In 399 BC a formal accusation was brought against him by Anytus, a leading demagogue; Meletus, a tragic poet, and Lycon, an orator, charging him with not believing in the gods which the state worshipped, with introducing new divinities, and with corrupting youth. The trial took place before a law-court composed of citizen judges. His bold defence is preserved by Plato, under the title of the Apology of Socrates. He dwelt on his mission to convict men of their ignorance for their ultimate benefit; declared himself a public blessing to the Athenians; assuring them if his life were spared he would continue in the same course; and regarded the approach of death with utter indifference. He was condemned to death by a majority of his judges; refused help to escape, and thirty days after his sentence drank the hemlock cup with composure, and died at the age of 70.

The account of his last hours is given in full detail in the Phasdo of Plato. In their accounts of the life of Socrates the two principal authorities, Xenophon and Plato, substantially agree. It should be borne in mind, however, that Plato in his Dialogues generally presents his own thoughts through the mouth of Socrates, and that it is often difficult to discriminate between the Platonic and Socratic elements. While the previous philosophies consisted of vague speculations on nature as a whole, combining cosmology, astronomy, geography, physics, metaphysics, etc, Socrates arrived at the conclusion that the knowledge he had gained was of little practical value; and the speculations of philosophers, from Thales downwards, as to the origin of all things out of fire, water, air, etc, he regarded as profitless. Men's strivings after knowledge, he opined, should be directed to the human relationships as involving men's practical concerns. Self-knowledge is the condition of practical excellence. He introduced no formal system of ethics and no reasoned system of dialectics, but he paved the way for other philosophers to take up these subjects and work them out; and thus his teaching was the precursor of Platonism and the Aristotelian logic, and of all the often conflicting systems which rose into more or less importance for successive centuries.
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SOFTAS

In Turkey, a softa is someone who withdraws from the world and devotes themselves to the study of Mohammedan law and religion, mostly the Softas are a set of fundamentalist bigots opposed to all reforms.
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SOJOURNER TRUTH

Sojourner Truth was an American social reformer. She was born in 1775 and died in 1883. A former slave, she was freed from slavery in New York in 1817 and became an effective lecturer in politics, temperance, women's rights and slavery.
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SOLDIER

A soldier is someone who serves in the army.
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SOLLY ZUCKERMAN

Solly Zuckerman was a South African-born British zoologist, educationalist, and establishment figure. He was born in 1904 at Cape Town and died in 1993. He did extensive research on primates, publishing a number of books that became classics in their field, including 'The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes' published in 1932 and 'Functional Affinities of Man, Monkeys and Apes' published in 1933. He was chief scientific adviser to the British government from 1964 to 1971. He was demonstrator in anatomy at the university of Cape Town, and afterwards came to London in the 1920s and soon established himself as a leading anatomist with the Zoological Society. He joined the faculty of Oxford University in 1934 and during the Second World War, as a government scientific adviser, investigating the biological effects of bomb blasts. He was professor of anatomy at Birmingham University from 1946 to 1968, and was created a peer in 1971. As chief scientific adviser to the government during Harold Wilson's premiership, he had his own office within
the Cabinet Office, with direct access to the prime minister himself. He published his autobiography 'From Apes to Warlords' in 1978.
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SOLOMON

Solomon was the third King of the Hebrews. He lived around 960BC. He was the son of David, king of Israel, by Bathsheba, formerly the wife of Uriah and was appointed by David to be his successor in preference to his elder brothers. By his remarkable judicial decisions, and his completion of the political institutions of David, Solomon gained the respect and admiration of his people; while by the building of the temple, which gave to the Hebrew worship a magnificence it had not hitherto possessed, he bound the nation still more strongly to his throne. The wealth of Solomon, accumulated by a prudent use of the treasures inherited from his father; by successful commerce; by a careful administration of the royal revenues; and by an increase of taxes, enabled him to meet the expense of erecting the temple, building palaces, cities, and fortifications, and of supporting the extravagance of a luxurious court. Fortune long seemed to favour this great king; and Israel, in the fullness of its prosperity, scarcely perceived that he was continually becoming more despotic. Contrary to the laws of Moses, he admitted foreign women into his harem; and
from love of them he was weak enough in his old age to permit the free practice of their idolatrous worship, and even to take part in it himself. Towards the close of his reign troubles arose in consequence of these delinquencies, and the growing discontent, coming to a head after his death, resulted in the division of the kingdom, which his feeble son Rehoboam could not prevent. The forty years' reign of Solomon is still celebrated among the Jews, for its splendour and its happy tranquillity, as one of the brightest periods of their history. The writings attributed to Solomon are the Book of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, with the apocryphal book the Wisdom of Solomon; but modern criticism has decided that only a portion of the Book of Proverbs can be referred to Solomon.
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SOLOMON FOOT

Solomon Foot was an American politician. He was born in 1802 and died in 1866. He was a member of the Vermont Legislature in 1833 and 1836, and Speaker in 1837, 1838 and 1847. He was a Whig Congressman from 1843 to 1847, and Senator from 1857 to 1866.
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SOLON

Solon was one of the seven wise men of Greece, and great legislator of Athens. He was born about 640 BC and died in 558 BC. He was of good family, and acquired a wide knowledge of the world in commerce and travel. One of his earliest public transactions was in stirring the Athenians up to the recovery of Salamis, after which he was chosen chief archon in 594 BC and invested with unlimited powers, the state of parties in Athens being such as to threaten a revolution. He established a new constitution, divided the citizens according to their wealth, and added to the powers of the popular assembly. He made many laws relating to trade, commerce, etc. He either entirely abrogated all debts or so reduced them that they were not burdensome to the debtors, and abolised the law which gave a creditor power to reduce his debtor to slavery. When he had completed his laws he bound the Athenians by oath not to make any changes in his code for ten years He then left the country, to avoid being obliged to make any alterations in them, and visited Egypt, Cyprus, and other places. Returning after an absence of ten years, he found the state torn by the old party hate; but all parties agreed to submit their demands to bis decision. It soon became evident, however, that Pisistratus would succeed in seizing the sovereignty, and Solon left Athens. Though Athens now fell under the despotic rule of Pisistratus, much of Solon's legislation remained effective.
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SOLYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT

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Solyman The Magnificent (Suleiman the Magnificent) was a Sultan of Turkey. He was born in 1495 and died in 1566. A son of Selim I, he inherited his father's ambitions and valour, and on ascending the throne in 1520, having crushed rebellions in Syria and Egypt, began a series of campaigns against the Western powers, taking Belgrade in 1521 and Rhodes in 1522. In 1526 he dealt a major defeat upon the Christian armies of Louis II and in 1532 advanced to within a few kilometres of Venice, but was beaten back by Charles V.
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SOMALI

The Somali are a Hamitic people of east Africa. They are a stalwart, lithe, dark-skinned people standing at slightly less than the average European height, with long faces, thin lips, a straight nose and ringlet hair. Traditionally the Somali were pastoral nomads living in patriarchal conditions of an Arabian origin. Coastal dwelling Somalis were traditionally agriculturalists and fishermen. The British army regiment the King's African Rifles were recruited from the Somalis.
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SONGHAI

The Songhai (Sonrhai) are a Negroid people of Mali and the Niger basin in the southern Sahara region of Africa. They are a tall, slender race, deep brown in colouration with thin lips, a straight nose and black ringlet hair. As a race they have over the years intermixed with Libyan and Arab peoples.
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SONNY BARGER

Sonny Barger is an American motorcyclist. He was born in 1938. He was a founder of the Oakland Hell's Angels Motorcycle Club in 1957.
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SOODRAS

Soodras are the lowest of the four great castes of India - Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Soodras. They are chiefly farmers, gardeners, artisans, and labourers of every kind.
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SOPHIA

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Sophia was Electress of Hanover. She was born in 1630 at the Hague and died in 1714. The twelfth child of the Elector Palatine and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of James I, she was born at the Hague while her parents were in exile. In 1658 she married Ernest Augustus, a duke of Brunswick, who in 1692 became Elector of Hanover. As neither William III nor his wife Anne, who would succeed him to the throne, had any children, and in its anxiety to exclude Roman Catholic descendants of Charles I from the English throne, Parliament settled the crown upon the Protestant Sophia and her heirs. Sophia, however, died shortly before Anne, and her eldest son was crowned George I.
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SOPHIA DOROTHEA

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Sophia Dorothea was a German princess and English queen. She was born in 1666 and died in 1726. The daughter of George William, a prince of Brunswick-Lunenburg, she was compelled to marry her cousin George, the future Elector of Hanover and king George I of England. Relations between her and her husband deteriorated, and after the mysterious disappearance of Philip von Konigsmark at the palace at Hanover in 1694, Sophia Dorothea was accused of intrigue, divorced and was imprisoned near Zell.
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SOPHIE COTTIN

Sophie Ristaud Cottin (Madame Cottin) was a French novelist. She was born in 1773 and died in 1807. In 1790 she married Monsieur Cottin, a banker of Bordeaux, who died in 1793, and thenceforth she followed literature. Her best-known work is Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia; other novels are Claire d'Albe, Malvina, Amelie, and Mathilde.
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SOPHISTS

Sophists is the name of a school or congeries of schools of philosophical teachers or 'thinkers', who appeared in Greece in the period immediately preceding and contemporary with Socrates in the latter part of the 5th century BC. It was a period of political decline and social corruption, and the sophists were people who, although often able and sometimes well meaning, were not strong enough to break away from the main crowd. Their philosophy (if it can be called so) was one of criticism of those that had gone before; there was nothing creative in it, nothing even formative. The tendency of the teaching of the sophists was mainly sceptical as regards previous philosophical speculation; and while the chief point of convergence of their teaching was in an ethical direction, the influence of their ethical teaching was mostly mischievous. But the sophists rendered considerable service to Science and literature, and even indirectly to philosophy. They belonged to all the liberal professions; they taught all the usual branches of knowledge. Some of them were distinguished as rhetoricians and grammarians, others as men of science. Rhetoric, to which they gave undue importance, was systematically studied by them, and they supplied some of the earliest models of good Greek prose. They are accused, however, particularly the later sophists, of being not only superficial in their attainments, but mercenary, vainglorious, and self-seeking in their aims.
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SOPHOCLES

Sophocles was a Greek dramatist. He was born in 496 BC at Colonus and died in 406 BC. The rank of his family is not known, but he received an education equal to that enjoyed by the sons of the best Athenian families.

Sophocles first appeared as a dramatist in 468 BC, when he took the first prize in competition with AEschylus. AEschylus retired to Sicily, and only returned to enter again for a brief period into the lists with Sophocles. Sophocles accordingly held all but undisputed supremacy until the appearance of Euripides, who took the first prize in 441. Sophocles, however, excelled both his rivals in the number of his triumphs. He took the first prize some twenty-four times, the second frequently, the third never. In 440 BC he was chosen one of the ten generals in the war against the aristocratic party of Samos.

In his old age he suffered from family dissension. His son, Tophon, jealous of the favour he showed to his grandson Sophocles, and fearing he himself should suffer from it in the disposition of his property, summoned him before the judges, and charged him with being incompetent to manage his affairs. In reply Sophocles read a part of the chorus of his OEdipus at Colonos, which he had just composed, and at once proved that his faculties were unimpaired. He died about the age of ninety.

One hundred and thirty plays in all are ascribed to him, of which seventeen are supposed to be spurious. Eighty-one of his dramas, including the seven now extant, were brought out after he had reached the age of fifty-five. The chronological order of the existing plays is given as follows: Antigone, Electra, Trachinias, OEdipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Philoctetes, OEdipus at Colonos.

Sophocles brought the Greek drama to the highest point of perfection of which that form of art is susceptible. His subjects are human, while those of AEschylus are heroic, and in his management he shows himself a perfect master of human passions. The tendency of his plays is ethical, and he subordinates the display of passions to an end. He also introduced scenic illustration and a third actor. No tragic poet in ancient or modern days has written with so much elevation and purity of style. The versification of Sophocles stands alone in dignity and elegance, and his iambics are acknowledged to be the purest and most regular. One of the best English translations of Sophocles is that by E H Plumptre.
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SOPHY WELLER

Sophy Weller was an English prostitute. In 1837 she was spotted in a Gray's Inn Road brothel in London wearing a stolen feather boa, by PC Jonathan Whicher, who promptly arrested her and she was subsequently tried and convicted for the theft, being transported as a consequence.
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SOTHO

The Sotho are a large ethnic group in southern Africa, numbering about 7 million and living mainly in Botswana, Lesotho, and South Africa. The Sotho are predominantly farmers, living in small village groups. They speak a variety of closely related languages belonging to the Bantu branch of the Niger-Congo family. With English,
Sotho is the official language of Lesotho.
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SOVEREIGN

A Sovereign is a supreme ruler, especially it is a term applied to a monarch.
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SPAGNOLETTO

Spagnoletto ('little Spaniard'), was a Spanish painter. He was born in 1588 at Valencia and died in 1656. His real name was Giuseppe Ribera, or Ribeira and he was at first a pupil of Caravaggio, but afterwards improved himself by the study of the works of Raphael and Correggio, at Rome and Parma. Settling in Naples he was appointed court painter, in which post he took the leading part in an infamous plot against his rivals Carracci, D'Arpino, Guido, Domenichino, etc. Ribeira excelled in the representation of terrible scenes, such, for example, as the Playing of St. Bartholomew. His works are not uncommon in European galleries.
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SPALDINGAS

The Spaldingas (people of Spald) were an ancient British tribe inhabiting part of Lincolnshire and east Yorkshire prior to the Norman Conquest. They gave their name to the town of Spalding in Lincolnshire and the village of Spaldington in east Yorkshire.
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SPARTACUS

Spartacus was a Thracian gladiator, the instigator and leader in a revolt of the slaves in Italy (the Servile War) in 73-71 BC. He had been compelled, like other barbarians, to serve in the Roman army, from which he had deserted. Being made prisoner Spartacus was sold as a slave, and placed in a gladiatorial school at Capua with 200 other Thracian, German, and Gaulish slaves. There they formed a conspiracy and effected their escape; and being joined by the disaffected slaves and peasantry of the neighbourhood, in a few months Spartacus found himself at the head of 60,000 men. Two consuls were now sent with armies against him, but Spartacus defeated them in succession and led his elated forces towards Rome. In this crisis Licinius Crassus, who was afterwards a triumvir, was placed at the head of the army, and managed to hem in the revolted slaves near Rhegium. Spartacus broke through the enemy by night, and retreated, but latterly had to encounter the army of Crassus. His soldiers fought with a courage deserving success; but they were overcome after an obstinate conflict, and Spartacus himself fell fighting.
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SPEAKER

Speaker is the term given to the presiding officer of the British House of Commons. The first person to receive the title was Sir Thomas Hungerford, speaker in 1377. he and his successors were called speakers because it was their duty to voice the wishes of the members of the house to the king. The speaker is elected by the members of the house, and receives a salary and a residence. He or she takes precedence of all commoners in the kingdom, represents the House of Commons on various ceremonial and other occasions, and is made a viscount and pensioned on retirement. The speaker takes no part in party politics during his or her tem in office. In the House of Lords the position of speaker is held by the lord chancellor.
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SPENCER BAIRD

Spencer Fulleron Baird was an American naturalist. He was born in 1823 and died in 1887. He was for a long while assistant secretary, and latterly secretary, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and was also chief government commissioner of fish and fisheries. He wrote much on natural history, his chief works being The Birds of North America (in conjunction with John Cassin); The Mammals of North America; Review of American Birds in the Smithsonian Institution; and (with Messrs. Brewer and Ridgeway), History of North American Birds.
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SPENCER CAVENDISH

Spencer Compton Cavendish, eighth Duke of Devonshire, long known as Marquis of Hartington, was an English statesman. He was born in 1833 and died in 1908. The eldest surviving son of the seventh Duke of Devonshire, he succeeded to the dukedom in 1891. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1854.

He was attached, in 1856, to Earl Granville's Russian mission, and in 1857 was elected as a Liberal one of the members for North Lancashire. In 1863 he was for a short time a lord of the admiralty, and he then became under-secretary for war, being raised to cabinet rank as war secretary in 1866. In 1868 he lost his seat for North Lancashire, but became postmaster-general under Mr. Gladstone, and was returned for the Radnor boroughs. In 1871 he was appointed chief secretary for Ireland. He went out with the Gladstone ministry in 1874, and on Mr. Gladstone's retirement he became the leader of the Liberal party.

On the fall of the Conservative government in 1880 he was elected for North-East Lancashire, and became secretary for India under Mr. Gladstone, being transferred to the war office in 1882. In the general election of 1885 he was returned for the Rossendale division of Lancashire. He strenuously opposed Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule Scheme of 1886, and became the leader of the Liberal Unionists, but long declined to take office in the cabinet. In 1895, however, he became Lord President of the Council, and in 1900-1902 he was president of the newly-instituted Board of Education. In 1903 he withdrew from co-operating with Mr. Balfour as prime minister, mainly on account of his disapproval of the fiscal changes proposed by Mr. Chamberlain, and accepted the position of head of the Free-Trade Unionists.
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SPENCER PERCEVAL

Spencer Perceval was an English statesman. He was born in 1762 and died in 1812 when he was assassinated. The son of John Perceval, Earl of Egmont, he received his education at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge. On leaving the university he studied law. In 1801 he became solicitor-general, and in 1802 attorney-general. In 1807 he was appointed chancellor of the exchequer, and on the death of the Duke of Portland, in 1809, he became prime minister. In this post he continued until May the 11th, 1812, when a person named Bellingham shot him dead with a pistol in the lobby of the House of Commons. Spencer Perceval was a keen debater and a fluent and graceful speaker, but was shallow and intolerant, and unequal to the task of leading the councils of a great nation.
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SPESSARD L. HOLLAND

Spessard L Holland was an American politician. He was a Democratic governor of Florida from 1941 until 1945.
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SPIKE LEE

Spike Lee is an American film producer and director. He was born in Atlanta, Georgia and attended Morehouse College in Atlanta and the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University, where he received his Master of Fine Arts degree in film production. He is one of the most prominent and outspoken filmmakers at work in America during the late 20th century. Crooklyn was his seventh feature film. His previous film, 'Malcolm X' produced in 1992 starring Denzel Washington became an international cultural event. Spike Lee's first feature, 'She's Gotta Have It' was one of the revelations of the 1986 Cannes Film Festival and firmly established him as the leader of a new wave of African-American filmmakers. With subsequent projects, Spike Lee continued to challenge audiences with controversial, thought-provoking social issues. His films, 'School Daze' in 1988, 'Do The Right Thing' in 1989, ' Mo'Better Blues' in 1990 and 'Jungle Fever' in 1991 all bear the imprint of a pace-setting stylist whose works have stirred up both public debate and deep personal feelings.

Spike Lee has also produced and directed music videos for such world-renowned artists as Miles Davis, Tracy Chapman, Branford Marsalis, Anita Baker, Public Enemy and Bruce Hornsby. Other music videos include work for Gangstarr and Naughty by Nature as well as the video for Arrested Development taken from the Malcolm X soundtrack. Lee's first television commercials were made in 1988 for Nike's Air Jordan. In them, Spike Lee appears as the character Mars Blackmon from She's Gotta Have It on the court with all universe Michael Jordan. Spike Lee has also directed a popular series of adverts for Levi's Button-Fly 501 jeans, as well as several Art Spot short films for MTV and a short film featuring Branford Marsalis and Diahnne Abbott for Saturday Night Live. He has written five books on the making of his films.
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SPIRIDION TRICOUPIS

Spiridion Tricoupis was a Greek statesman. He was born in 1788 at Missolonghi and died in 1873. Educated in France and England, he returned to the Ionian Islands then under British rule and took an active part in the war of liberation. After the accession of King Otto he was twice ambassador in London and again in 1850 after the difficulties with Great Britain which had led to the blockade of the Piraeus. He repeatedly held office in the Greek government before his death.
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SPIRO T. AGNEW

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Spiro T Agnew was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Maryland from 1967 until 1969.
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SQUIRE

A squire was an armour-bearer, and next in degree to a knight. He was entitled to coat armour and was exempt from jury duties.
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ST ADALBERT

St Adalbert was a missionary in north Germany and Poland. He was born in 955 and died in 997. He was martyred in Bremen.
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ST ADAMNAN

St Adamnan was an Irish clergyman and historian. He was born in Ireland about 624 and died about 703 or 704. He was elected abbot of lona in 679. He is best known from his Life of St Columba, valuable as throwing light on the early ecclesiastical history of Scotland.
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ST AGNES

St Agnes is the patron Saint of young virgins. St Agnes was a Roman Virgin and martyr to the Christian faith in the reign of Diocletian. At the age of twelve she was publicly humiliated and, refusing to marry the prefect of Rome and adhering to her religion, she was set to be burned alive, however, the fire going out Aspasius, who had set to watch the execution, drew his sword and beheaded her. Christians celebrate her feast day on January the 21st.

British folk lore has it that upon St Agnes night (January 21st) one may take a row of pins, and pull out every one, one after another. Saying a pater-noster, stick a pin in your sleeve and that night you will dream of him or her whom you shall marry.
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ST AIDAN

St Aidan was Bishop of Lindisfarne. He died in 651. He was originally a monk of Iona, in which monastery Oswald I, who became king of Northumberland in 635, had been educated. At the request of Oswald I, Aidan was sent to preach Christianity to his subjects, and established himself in Lindisfarne as the first of the line of bishops now designated of Durham.
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ST ALDHELM

St Aldhelm was born in 640 and died in 709. He was abbot of Malmsebury and later the bishop of Sherborne. He was an architect and poet.
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ST ALPHEGE

St Alphege was an Anglo-Saxon priest. He was born in 954 and died in 1012. He was bishop of Winchester from 984 and archbishop of Canterbury from 1006. When the Danes attacked Canterbury he tried to protect the city, was thrown into prison, and, refusing to deliver the treasures of his cathedral, was stoned and beheaded at Greenwich on the 19th of April 1012, his feast day.
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ST AMBROSE

St Ambrose was a celebrated father of the Christian church. He was born in 333 or 334, probably at Treves and died in 397. His father was prefect at Treves. He was educated at Rome, studied law, practised as a pleader at Milan, and in 369 was appointed governor of Liguria and AEmilia (North Italy). His kindness and wisdom gained him the esteem and love of the people, and in 374 he was unanimously called to the bishopric of Milan, though not yet baptized. For a time he refused to accept the post, but he had to give way, and at once ranged himself against the Arians. In his struggles against the Arian heresy he was opposed by Justina, mother of Valentinian II, and for a time by the young emperor himself, together with the courtiers and the Gothic troops. Backed by the people of Milan, however, he felt strong enough to deny the Arians the use of a single church in the city, although Justina, in her son's name, demanded that two should be given up. He also carried on a war with paganism, Symmachus, the prefect of the city, an eloquent orator, having endeavoured to restore the freedom to worship heathen deities.

In 390, on account of the massacre at Thessalonica ordered by the emperor Theodosius, he refused him entrance into the church of Milan for eight months. The later years of his life were devoted to the more immediate care of his see. His writings, which are numerous, show that his theological knowledge extended little beyond an acquaintance with the works of the Greek fathers. He wrote Latin hymns, but the Te Deum Laudamus, which has been ascribed to him, was written a century later. He introduced the Ambrosian Chant, a mode of singing more monotonous than the Gregorian which superseded it. He also compiled a form of ritual known by his name.
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ST ANACLETUS

St Anacletus was the third pope, according to the Roman Notizie. He reigned as pope from 78 until 91.
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ST ANDREW

St Andrew was a Christian preacher. He was the brother of St Peter, and the first disciple whom Christ chose. He is said to have preached in Scythia, in Thrace and Asia Minor, and in Achaia (Greece), and according to tradition he was crucified at Patrse, now Patras, in Achaia, on a cross of the form X. Hence such a cross is now known as a St Andrew's cross. The Russians revere him as the apostle who brought the gospel to them; the Scots, as the patron saint of their country. The day dedicated to him is the 30th of November.
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ST ANGILBERT

St Angilbert was the most celebrated poet of his age. He lived around the 8th centruy, and died in 814. He was secretary and friend of Charlemagne, whose daughter, Bertha, he married. In the latter part of his life he retired to a monastery, of which he became abbot.
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ST ANSELM

St Anselm was a Christian philosopher and theologian. He was born in 1033 at Piedmont and died in 1109. At the age of twenty-seven he became a monk at Bec, in Normandy, whither he had been attracted by the celebrity of Lanfranc. Three years later he was elected prior, and in 1078 he was chosen abbot, which he remained for fifteen years. During this period of his life he wrote his first philosophical and religious works: the dialogues on Truth and Free-will, and the treatises Monologion and Proslogion; and at the same time his influence made itself so felt among the monks under his charge that Bec became the chief seat of learning in Europe. In 1093 Anselm was offered by William Rufus the archbishopric of Canterbury, and accepted it, though with great reluctance, and with the condition that all the lands belonging to the see should be restored. William II soon quarrelled with the archbishop, who would show no subservience to him, and would persist in acknowledging Pope Urban in opposition to the antipope Clement. William ultimately had to give way. He both himself acknowledged Urban and conferred the pallium upon Anselm.

The king became his bitter enemy, however, and so great were Anselm's difficulties that in 1097 he set out for Rome to consult with the pope. Urban received him with great distinction, but did not venture really to take the side of the prelate against the king, though William had refused to receive Anselm again as archbishop, and had seized on the revenues of the see of Canterbury, which he retained till his death in 1100. Anselm accordingly remained abroad, where he wrote most of his celebrated treatise on the atonement, entitled Cur Deus Homo (Why God was made Man; translated into English, Oxford, 1858). When William was succeeded by Henry I Anselm was recalled; but Henry insisted that he should submit to be reinvested in his see by himself, although the popes claimed the right of investing for themselves alone. Much negotiation followed, and Henry did not surrender his claims until 1107, when Anselm's long struggle on behalf of the rights of the church came to an end. Anselm was a great scholar, a deep and original thinker, and a man of the utmost saintliness and piety. The chief of his writings are the Monologion, the Proslogion, and the Cur Deus Homo. The first is an attempt to prove inductively the existence of God by pure reason without the aid of Scripture or authority; the second is an attempt to prove the same by the deductive method; the Cur Deus Homo is intended to prove the necessity of the incarnation. Among his numerous other writings are more than 400 letters. His biography was written by his domestic chaplain and companion, Eadmer, a monk of Canterbury.
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ST ANTHONY

St Anthony was the founder of monastic institutions. He was born in 251 near Heraclea, in Upper Egypt and died about 356. Giving up all his property he retired to the desert, where he was followed by a number of disciples, who thus formed the first community of monks.
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ST ATHANSIUS

St Athanasius was Archbishop of Alexandria. He was born in 296 and died in 373. He was a renowned father of the church, and while yet a young man he attended the council at Nice in 325, where he gained the highest esteem of the fathers by the talents which he displayed in the Arian controversy. He had a great share in the decrees passed here, and thereby drew on himself the hatred of the Arians. Shortly afterwards he was appointed archbishop of Alexandria. The complaints and accusations of his enemies at length induced the Emperor Constantine to summon him in 334 before the councils of Tyre and Jerusalem, when he was suspended, and afterwards banished to Treves.

The death of Constantine put an end to this banishment, and Constantius recalled the holy patriarch. His return to Alexandria resembled a triumph. Deposed again in 340, he was reinstated in 342. Again in 355 he was sentenced to be banished, when he retired into those parts of the desert which were entirely uninhabited. He was followed by a faithful servant, who, at the risk of his life, supplied him with the means of subsistence. Here Athanasius composed many writings, full of eloquence, to strengthen the faith of the believers, or expose the falsehood of his enemies. When Julian the Apostate ascended the throne toleration was proclaimed to all religions, and Athanasius returned to his former position at Alexandria. His next controversy was with the heathen subjects of Julian, who excited the emperor against him, and he was obliged to flee in order to save his life.


The death of the emperor and the accession of Jovian in 363 again brought him back; buf Valens becoming emperor, and the Arians recovering the superiority, he was once more compelled to flee. He concealed himself in the tomb of his father, where he remained four months, until Valens allowed him to return. From this period he remained undisturbed in his office until he died. Of the forty-six years of his official life he spent twenty in banishment, and the greater part of the remainder in defending the Nicene Creed. His writings, which are in Greek, are on polemical, historical, and moral subjects. The polemical treat chiefly of the doctrines of the Trinity, the incarnation of Christ, and the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The historical ones are of the greatest importance for the history of the church, for example the Athanasian Creed.
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ST AUGUSTINE

St Augustine (real name Aurelius Augustinus) was a father of the Christian Church. He was born in 354 at Tagaste, in Africa and died in 430. His mother Monica was a Christian, his father Patrlcius a Pagan. His parents sent him to Carthage to complete his education, but he disappointed their expectations by his neglect of serious study and his devotion to pleasure. A lost book of Marcus Cicero's, called Hortensius, led him to the study of philosophy; but dissatisfied with this he went over to the Manichaeans. He was one of their disciples for nine years, but left them, went to Rome, and thence to Milan, where he announced himself as a teacher of rhetoric. St Ambrose, the bishop of this city, converted him to the faith of his boyhood, and the reading of Paul's epistles wrought an entire change in his life and character. He retired into solitude, and prepared himself for baptism, which he received in his thirty-third year from the hands of Ambrose. Returning to Africa, he sold his estate and gave the proceeds to the poor, retaining only enough to support him. At the desire of the people of Hippo Augustine became the assistant of the bishop of that town, preached with extraordinary success, and in 395 succeeded to the see. He entered into a warm controversy with Pelagiue concerning the doctrines of free-will, grace, and predestination, and wrote treatises concerning them, but of his various works his Confessions is among the most highly rated.
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ST AUSTIN

St Austin was the Apostle of the English. He lived at the end of the 6th century and died in 604. He was sent with forty monks by Pope Gregory I to introduce Christianity into Saxon England, and was kindly received by Ethelbert, king of Kent, whom he converted, baptizing 10,000 of his subjects in one day. In acknowledgment of his tact and success St Austin received the archiepiscopal pall from the pope, with instructions to establish twelve sees in his province, but he could not persuade the British bishops in Wales to unite with the new English Church.
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ST AVA

St Ava was a ninth-century French patron saint of children. Her feast day is May the 6th.
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ST BASIL

St Basil (called the Basil the Great) was one of the Greek fathers. He was was born in 329 and died in 379. In 370 he was made Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. He was distinguished by his efforts for the regulation of clerical discipline, and above all, his endeavours for the promotion of monastic life. The Greek Church honours him as one of its most illustrious saints, and celebrates his festival on January the 1st. The vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty framed by St Basil are essentially the rules of all the orders of Christendom, although he is particularly the father of the eastern, as St Benedict is the patriarch of the western orders.
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ST BENEDICT

St Benedict was the founder of the first religious order in the West. He was born in 480 at Nursia, in the province of Umbria, Italy, and died in 543. In early youth he renounced the world and passed some years in solitude, acquiring a great reputation for sanctity. Being chosen head of a monastery his strictness proved too great for the monks, and he was forced to leave. The rule for monks, which he afterwards drew up, was first introduced into the monastery on Monte Cassino, in the neighbourhood of Naples, founded by him. His Regula Monachorum, in which he aimed, among other things, at repressing the irregular lives of the wandering monks, gradually became the rule of all the western monks. Under his rule the monks, in addition to the work of God (as he called prayer and the reading of religious writings), were employed in manual labour, in the instruction of the young, and in copying manuscripts, thus preserving many literary remains of antiquity.
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ST BENEDICT LABRE

St Benedict Labre was a 18th century, itinerant beggar who became a patron saint of vagabonds. His feast day is April the 16th.
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ST BERNARD

St Bernard of Clairvaux was one of the most influential ecclesiastics of the middle ages. He was born in 1091 at Fontaines, Burgundy and died in 1153. In 1113 he became a monk at Citeaux; in 1115 first abbot of Clairvaux, the great Cistercian monastery near Langres. His austerities, tact, courage, and eloquence speedily gave him a wide reputation; and when, on the death of Honorius III in 1130, two popes, Innocent and Anaclete, were elected, the judgment of St Bernard in favour of the former was accepted by nearly all Europe.

In 1140 he secured the condemnation of Abelard for heresy; and after the election of his pupil, Eugenius III, to the papal chair, he may be said to have exercised supreme power in the church. After the capture of Edessa by the Turks he was induced to preach a new crusade, which he did in 1146 with disastrous effectiveness, the large host raised by him being destroyed.

Seventy-two monasteries owed their foundation or enlargement to him and he left no fewer than 440 epistles, 340 sermons, and 12 theological and moral treatises. He was canonized in 1174.
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ST BLASIUS

St Blasius was Bishop of Sebaste in Armenia. He was said to have been martyred around 316 by torture with a wool-comb, from which he became the patron St of wool-combers.
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ST BONAVENTURE

St Bonaventure, otherwise John of Fidanza was one of the most renowned scholastic philosophers. He was born in 1221 in the Papal States and died in 1274. In 1243 he became a Franciscan monk; in 1253 teacher of theology at Paris, where he had studied; in 1256 general of his order, which he ruled with a prudent mixture of gentleness and firmness. In 1273 Gregory X. made him a cardinal, and he died in 1274 while papal legate at the Council of Lyons. He was canonized in 1482 by Sixtus IV. His writings are elevated in thought and full of a fine mysticism, a combination which procured him the name of Doctor Seraphicus. He wrote on all the philosophical and theological topics of the time with authority, but best, perhaps, on those that touch the heart and imagination. Among his writings are Itinerarium Mentis in Deum; Reductio Artium in Theologiam; Centiloquium; and Breviloquium.
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ST BONIFACE

St Boniface (the apostle of Germany) was an English missionary. He was born in 680 at Devonshire and died in 755. His original name was Winfrid and he was born of a noble Anglo-Saxon family. In his thirtieth year he took orders as a priest, and in 718 he went to Rome and was authorized by Gregory II to preach the gospel to the pagans of Germany. His labours were carried on in Thuringia, Bavaria, Friesland, Hesse, and Saxony, through all of which he travelled, baptizing thousands and consecrating churches. Latterly he erected bishoprics and organized provincial synods. In 723 he was made a bishop, and in 732 an archbishop and primate of all Germany. Many bishoprics of Germany, as Ratisbon, Erfurt, Paderborn, Wiirzburg, and others, and also the famous abbey of Fulda, owe their foundation to him. He was slain in West Friesland by some barbarians in 755, and was buried in the abbey of Fulda.
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ST BRIDE

St Bridget (St Bride) was an Irish saint. She was born about the middle of the 5th century. She was supposedly exceedingly beautiful, and to avoid offers of marriage and other temptations implored God to render her ugly, a prayer which was granted. An order of nuns of St Bride was established, which continued to nourish for centuries. St. Bride was held in great reverence in Scotland as well as in Ireland.
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ST BRIGITTE

St Brigitte (St Birgit) was a Swedish princess. She was born about 1302 and died in 1373. The daughetr of a Swedish prince, she died on her return to Rome from a pilgrimage to Palestine. She left some mystic writings, and was the originator of a new religious order, at one time numerous. Her youngest daughter, Catherine, was also canonized, and became the patron saint of Sweden.
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ST BRUNO

The first St Bruno was a Benedictine apostle of Prussia who accompanied St Adalbert to Prussia, was appointed chaplain to the Emperor Henry II, and who, having been taken by the Pagans of Lithuania, had his hands and feet cut off, and was beheaded in 1008.

The second St Bruno was the founder of the order of Carthusian monks. He was born about 1030 at Cologne of an old and noble family; appointed by Bishop Gervais superintendent of all the schools of the Rheims district, whither he attracted many distinguished scholars, among others Odo, afterwards Pope Urban II. Subsequently he was offered the bishopric of Rheims, but, declining it, repaired with six friends to Hugo, bishop of Grenoble, who, in 1084 or 1086, led them to the Chartreuse, the spot from which the order of monks received its name. Here, in a bleak and narrow valley, Bruno and his companions built an oratory, and small separate cells for residence. In 1089 he reluctantly accepted the invitation of Urban II to Rome, but refused every spiritual dignity, and in 1094 founded a second Carthusian establishment in Delia Torre, Calabria. Here he died in 1101. He was beatified by Leo X and canonized by Gregory XV.
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ST CATHARINE

In the Roman hagiology there are six saints of this name, of whom only two are of importance:

St Catharine was a virgin of Alexandria who suffered martyrdom in the 4th century. She is represented with a wheel; and the legend of her marriage with Christ has been painted by several of the first masters.

St Catharine of Siena, born in 1347 and died in 1380. She was supposedly preternaturally pious from her birth, and at six years of age was given to self-castigation and other penances. Urban VI and Gregory XI sought her advice, and in 1460 - 80 years after her death - she was canonized. Her poems and letters have been published.
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ST CECILIA

St Cecilia was a Christian martyr. She died in 230. The patron saint of music, she has been falsely regarded as the inventor of the organ. In the Roman Catholic Church her festival celebrated on November the 22nd is made the occasion of splendid music. Her story forms one of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Dryden in his Alexander's Feast, and Pope in his Ode on St Cecilia's Day, have sung her praises. Raphael, Domenichino, Doice, and Mignard, have represented her in celebrated paintings.
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ST CLARE

St Clare was the first woman follower of St Francis of Assisi. She was born in 1194 and died in 1253. She founded the order of Poor Clares, who follow Franciscan rule and are one of the severest female religious orders. She is celebrated on August 12th.
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ST COLUMBA

St Columba was an Irish missionary. He was born in 521 at Gartan, Donegal and died in 597. In 545 he founded the monastery of Derry, and subsequently established many churches in Ireland. About 563 he landed in the island of Hy, now called Iona, and founded his church. About 565 he went on a mission of conversion among the northern Picts, and traversed the whole of Northern Scotland preaching the Christian faith and founding monasteries, all of which he made subject to that which he had set up on the island of Hy. The Columban church was in some points of doctrine and ceremonial opposed to that of Rome, to which it owed no allegiance. Shortly before his death he revisited Ireland. There is a well-known life of St Columba, Vita Sancti Columbae, written by St Adamnan, abbot of Iona.
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ST COLUMBANUS

St Columbanus (St Columban) was an Irish missionary and reformer of monastic life. He was born about 540 and died in 615. He became a monk in the Irish monastery of Benchor (Bangor), went through England to France with twelve other monks to preach Christianity, and founded the monasteries of Annegray, Luxeuil, and Fontaine in Burgundy. His rule, which was adopted in latter times by many monasteries in France, commands blind obedience, silence, fasting, prayers and labour, much more severe than the Benedictine rule, and punishes the smallest offences of the monks with stripes. He retained also the old ecclesiastical customs of the Irish, among which is the celebration of Easter at a different time from the Roman Church. He appears to have remained at Luxeuil for nearly twenty years. He then went among the heathen Alemanni, and preached Christianity in Switzerland. About 612 he passed into Lombardy, and founded the monastery of Bobbio, in which he died in 615. His writings comprise his monastic rule, sermons, some poems and ecclesiastical treatises. His Life was written by Abbot Jonas, a successor in the abbacy of Bobbio.
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ST CRISPIN

St Crispin is the patron St of shoe-makers.
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ST CUTHBERT

St Cuthbert was a celebrated father of the early English Church. He was born, according to the tradition, near Melrose about 635 and died in 687. He became a monk, and in 664 was appointed prior of Melrose, which after some years he quitted to take a similar charge in the monastery of Lindisfarne. Still seeking a more ascetic life, Cuthbert then retired to the desolate isle of Fame. Here the fame of his holiness attracted many great visitors, and he was at last persuaded to accept the bishopric of Hexham, which he, however, resigned two years after, again retiring to his hermitage in the island of Fame, where he died in 687. The anniversary of his death was a great festival in the English Church.
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ST CYPRIAN

St Cyprian was Bishop of Carthage and an early Christian martyr. He was born in 205 and died in 258.
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ST CYRIL

St Cyril (known as Cyril of Jerusalem) was the Bishop of Jerusalem. He was born in 318 and died in 386.

St Cyril, known as 'the Apostle of the Slaves,' was a native of Thessatonica. He converted the Chazars, a people of Hunnish stock, and the Bulgarians, about 860. He died about 868. He was the inventor of the Cyrillian Letters, which took their name from him, and is probably the author of the Apologies which bear his name.
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ST DAVID

St David is the patron Saint of Wales. He was the Archishop of Caerlon and afterwards Menevia, now called St Davids, where he died about 601. He was celebrated for his piety, and many legends are told of his miraculous powers. His writings are no longer extant. His life was written by Ricemarch, bishop of, St David's in the llth century.
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ST DENIS

St Denis was the apostle of the Gauls. He set out from Rome on his sacred mission towards the middle of the 3rd century, became the first Bishop of Paris, and was put to death by the Roman governor Pescennius. Catulla, a heathen lady converted by the sight of the saint's piety and sufferings, bad his body buried in her garden, where the Abbey of St Denis now stands.
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ST DIONYSIUS

St Dionysius was a disciple of Origen, and patriarch of Alexandria in 248 AD. He was driven from the city in 250, and in 257 was banished to Libya, but was restored in 260. He died in 265 AD.
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ST DOMINIC

St Dominic (Dominic de Guzman) was a Spanish priest. He was born in 1170 at Calahorra and died in 1221. He early distinguished himself by his zeal for the reform of canonical life and by his success as a missionary amongst the Mulsims. His attention having been directed to the Albigenses in the south of France, he organized a mission of preachers against heresy in Languedoc. In 1215 he went to Rome to obtain the sanction of Pope Innocent III to erect the mission into a new order of preaching friars. His request was only partially granted, and it was the succeeding pope, Honorius III, who first recognized the importance of a preaching order, and conferred full privileges on the Dominicans. He also appointed Dominic Master of the Sacred Palace or court preacher to the Vatican, an office which is still held by one of the order. Dominic died at Bologna in 1221, and was canonized in 1234 by Pope Gregory IX. St Dominic is usually considered the founder of the Inquisition, which is supposed to have originated with his mission to the Albigenses; but his claim is denied, on the ground that two Cistercian monks were appointed inquisitors in 1198.
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ST DUNSTAN

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St Dunstan was an English monk, abbot and royal advisor. He was born in 924 near Glastonbury and died in 988. Becoming a monk at Winchester, he settled at Glastonbury, of which he was appointed abbot by King Edmund in 945, and soon made the monastery famous as a centre of learning. On the death of Edmund he became chief adviser to the queen-mother, Eadgifu, and the young king, Edred; and through his policy the West Saxons ultimately conquered Northumbria from the Danes. With the death of Edred in 955 and the succession of Edwy, Dunstan's influence ceased and he moved to Flanders and studied the Benedictine rule. Being recalled to England by Edgar, who had become king of the country north of the Thames, Dunstan was made Bishop of Worcester and afterwards Bishop of London. With the death of Edwy in 959 Edgar became king of all England and appointed Dunstan Archbishop of Canterbury in the same year. Being famed for his skill in working with gold he became the patron saint of goldsmiths. A legend about St Dunstan (St Dunstan and the Devil) places him as a blacksmith, and hence he is also a patron saint of blacksmiths. His feast day is May the 19th.
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ST EDMUND

St Edmund was king of East Anglia. He was born in 841 at Nuremberg and died in 870. He was the son of the Saxon king Alkmund and was adopted as his heir by Offa whom he succeeded in 855. He was constantly attacked by the Danes and at the battle of Hoxne in 866 was defeated by them and afterwards murdered by them. The church made him a martyr, and a town (Bury St Edmunds) grew up round the place of his sepulture.
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ST ELIZABETH

St Elizabeth was a Hungarian queen and later saint. She was born in 1207 at Pressburg and died in 1231. She was the daughter of Andrew II and the wife of Louis IV and in 1221 married to Ludwig, landgrave of Thuringia. She erected hospitals, fed a multitude of poor from her own table, and wandered about in a humble dress, relieving the wretched. Louis IV died on a crusade, and her own life terminated on November the 19th, 1231, in a hospital which she had herself established. The church over her tomb at Marburg is one of the most splendid Gothic edifices in Germany. She became a patron saint of bakers. Her feast day is November 17th.
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ST EPIPHANIUS

St Epiphanius was a Palestinian saint. He was born in about 310 at Palestine and died in 403. About 367 he was consecrated Bishop of Salamis or Constantia, in Cyprus. He was a zealous denouncer of heresy, and combated the opinions of Arius and Origen. His work Panarion gives the history, together with the refutation, of a great number of heresies. His festival is on the 12th of May.
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ST ETHELBERT

St Ethelbert was the first Christian king of the Heptarchy in 560.
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ST FELICITY

St Felicity is the patron saint of heirs. Her day is the 10th of July.
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ST FILIPPO DE NERI

St Filippo de Neri was the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory in Italy. He was born in 1515 at Florence and died in 1595. At an early age he devoted himself to the study of theology and the canon law, established hospitals for the relief of pilgrims and the destitute sick, and founded the order of 'Priests of the Oratory,' which was approved by Gregory XIII in 1595. He was canonized in 1622.
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ST FILLAN

St Fillan the leper or St Faolan the leper is a saint whose annual festival is the 20th of June. His principal church in Scotland was at the lower end of Loch Earn, in Perthshire, where 'St. Fillan's Well' was long believed to have wonderful healing properties.

St Fillan the abbot was the son of St. Kentigerna in Inchcailleach, in Loch Lomond, had his chief church also in Perthshire, in Strathfillan, the upper part of Glen Dochart. The silver head of this abbot's crozier, intrusted by King Robert Bruce to the Dewar family, is now in the Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh.
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ST FLORIAN

St Florian is the patron saint of Poland. He was born about 190 and died in 230 by drowning during the Diocletian persecution. He is represented as pouring out flames from a vessel, and his protection is sought against fire.
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ST FRANCIS OF PAULA

St Francis of Paula was born in 1416 in the city of Paula, in Calabria and died in 1507. He was brought up in a Franciscan convent, and in 1436 founded a new order, which, when the statutes were confirmed by Alexander VI, received the name of the Minims (Latin, minimi, the least). To the three usual vows Francis added a fourth, that of keeping the Lenten fast during the whole year. The fame of his miraculous cures reached Louis XI of France, who invited him to France, in the hope that Francis would be able to prolong his life. After the death of Louis, Charles VIII built him a monastery in the park of Plessis-les-Tours and also at Amboise, and loaded him with honour and tokens of veneration. Twelve years after his death he was canonized by Leo X, and his festival is April the 2nd.
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ST FRANCOIS DE SALES

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St Francois de Sales was Bishop of Geneva. He was born in 1567 at the castle of Sales near Savoy and died in 1622. The son of noble he received his higher education at a Jesuit college in Paris, and finally devoted some years to the atudy of jurisprudence at Padua. At an early age he showed a. decided predilection for the clerical life, and, against his father's desire, took orders in 1593. Geneva became the scene of his ecclesiastical work, and here, as dean, coadjutor bishop (1598), and bishop (1603), he spent the best part of his life. His eloquent, yet simple and persuasive sermons, and his exemplary life, exercised a powerful influence for the benefit of his church. His writings were much valued, and some of them have been translated into all the leading languages of Europe. The best known is his Introduction to a Religious Life. In 1665 he was canonized by Pope Alexander VII.
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ST GENGULF

St Gengulf was an eighth-century cuckolded Burgundian knight. He was formerly invoked to remedy marital disharmony and in cases of cuckoldry.
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ST GEORGE

St George is the tutelary Saint of England, Portugal and Aragon, and was the patron Saint of chivalry in Europe in medieval times. His origin is obscure, but some writers claim he was a native of Cappadocia and rebuked Diocletian for his persecution of Christians. By this story he was arrested, tortured and executed at Nicomedia in 303. He was canonized in 494 or 496 by Pope Gelasius. The tradition of St George with a Dragon dates from the 6th century. In 1222 the Council of Oxford declared that his day, April the 23rd should be observed as a national holiday in England, and in 1350 he was made the patron of the Order of The Garter by Edward III.
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ST GEORGE MIVART

St George Mivart was an English naturalist and scientist. He was born in 1827 and died in 1900. Educated at Harrow; King's College, London; and the Roman Catholic College at Oscott, he was called to the bar, but devoted himself chiefly to science. He was professor of biology at the Roman Catholic College, Kensington, lecturer at St Mary's Hospital Medical School, etc. Among his works are The Genesis of Species (combating the Darwinian 'natural selection'), Man and Apes, Contemporary Evolution, The Cat, Nature and Thought, Origin of Human Reason, Types of Animal Life, etc.
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ST GILES

St Giles was a native of Greece, who, according to the legend, lived in the 6th century, and was descended from an illustrious family. He is said to have worked miracles, and founded a convent in France. He became the patron saint of Edinburgh. His festival falls on the 1st of September.
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ST HILARY

St Hilary was one of the early fathers of the Christian church. He was born at Poitiers, of which city, after his conversion he became the bishop about 350. His contests with the Arians caused his banishment to Phrygia, whence be returned after some years, and continued to distinguish himself as an active diocesan until his death in 367 or 368.
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ST HILDA

St Hilda was a grand-niece of Edwin, King of Northumbria. She was born about 614 and died in 680. At the age of fourteen she was baptized along with her royal kinsman by Paulinus. She was consecrated by Bishop Aidan, and was successively head of the abbey of Hartlepool and of the famous monastery at Whitby. Caedmon, the Anglo-Saxon poet, was attached to the monastery during her rule.
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ST HONORATUS

St Honoratus was a French patron saint of millers.
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ST HUBERT

St Hubert is the Apostle of Ardennes, a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, the patron of huntsmen and patron saint of cheese. He was of a noble family of Aquitaine, While hunting in the forests of Ardennes he had a vision of a stag with a shining crucifix between its antlers, and heard a warning voice. He was converted, entered the church, and eventually became Bishop of Maestricht and Liege. He was alleged to have worked many miracles, and is said to have died in 727 or 730. He is buried at the Abbaye de Maroilles in northern France.
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ST IGNATIUS

St Ignatius was bishop of Antioch and one of the apostolic fathers, said to have been a disciple of the apostle John. His life and death are wrapped in fable. According to the most trustworthy tradition he was appointed Bishop of Antioch in 69, and was thrown to wild beasts in the circus of Antioch by the command of Trajan, the date being given by some as 107, by others as 116. By the Greek Church his festival is celebrated on December the 20th, by the Latin on February the 1st.

In the literature of the early Christian church Ignatius holds an important place as the reputed author of a number of epistles. These have come down to us in three forms. In the longest text they are thirteen in number, but since the discovery of a shorter text containing only seven the first has been universally recognized as in great part spurious, some of the letters entirely so, and others containing interpolations. But even in this shorter form their genuineness has been disputed by numerous scholars. Both of these texts are in Greek, but a still shorter text in the Syriac language, containing only three letters, exists. Some maintain that the Syriac text was the earliest, though not earlier than the middle of the 2nd century. Others hold the genuineness of the shorter Greek text.
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ST IGNATIUS II

St Ignatius was patriarch of Constantinople. The son of the Emperor Michael I he was born about 798 and died in 878. When his father was deposed he entered a monastery, assuming the name of Ignatius. In 846 he was raised to the patriarchate. He was opposed to the Iconoclasts, and his refusal to admit Bardas, brother of the Empress Theodora, as a communicant, on account of his reported immorality, led to his deposition in 857. The schism between the Greek and Roman Churches began while Photius, his successor, was in office, and has con tinued ever since. He was reinstated in 867, and at an ecumenical council assembled, at Constantinople in 869 Photius and his party were condemned.
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ST JANUARIUS

St Januarius was Bishop of Benevento and a Christian martyr. He was beheaded at Puzzuoli in the beginning of the 4th century, and is honoured as the patron saint of the people of Naples, where his body lies buried in the crypt of the cathedral. His head, with two phials of his blood, are preserved in a separate chapel. These phials are brought near the head of the saint on three festivals each year, notably September the 19h, the anniversary of the martyrdom. On these occasions, if the blood becomes of a clear red colour and moves briskly in the phial, the patron saint is said to be propitious, but by remaining congealed it betokens disaster.
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ST JEROME

St Jerome (full name Eusebius Hieronymus Sophbonius) was a Dalmatian divine. He was born sometime between 331 and 345 in Dalmatia and died in about 420. Of wealthy parents, he was baptized in Rome, and went in 373 to Antioch in Syria, and in 374 retired to the desert of Chalcis, where he passed four years in severe mortifications and laborious studies. He left his solitude to be ordained presbyter at Antioch, went to Constantinople (Istanbul) to enjoy the instruction of Gregory of Nazianzen, and in 382 returned to Rome, where his expositions of the Holy Scriptures gained many adherents, especially amongst the rich and noble ladies, two of whom, St Marcella and St Paula, became celebrated for their piety. St. Paula accompanied him in 386 to Bethlehem, where she founded four convents, in one of which Jerome remained until his death. His Latin version of the Old Testament from the original language was the foundation of the Vulgate. He took an active part in many controversies, notably those regarding the doctrines of Origen and Pelagius.
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ST JOHN CHRYSOSTOM

St John Chrysostom was a Greek missionary. He was born in 344 at Antioch and died in 407. Secundus, his father, who had the command of the imperial troops in Syria, died soon after the birth of his son, whose early education devolved upon Anthusa, his mother. Chrysostom Studied eloquence with Libanius, the most famou's orator of his time, and soon excelled his master.

After having studied philosophy with Andragathius he devoted himself to the Holy Scriptures, and determined upon quitting the world and consecrating his life to God in the deserts of Syria. He spent several years in solitary retirement, studying and meditating with a view to the church. Having completed his voluntary probation he returned to Antioch in 381, when he was appointed deacon by the Bishop of Antioch, and in 386 consecrated priest. He was chosen vicar by the same dignitary, and commissioned to preach the Word of God to the people.

He became so celebrated for the eloquence of his preaching that the Emperor Arcadius determined, in 397, to place him in the archiepiscopal see of Constantinople (Istanbul). He now exerted himself so zealously in supressing heresy, paganism, and immorality, and in enforcing the obligations of monachism, that he raised up many enemies, and Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, aided and encouraged by the Empress Eudoxia, caused him to be deposed at a synod held at Chalcedon. The emperor banished him from Constantinople, and Chrysostom purposed retiring to Bithynia; but the people threatened a revolt. In the following night an earthquake gave general alarm. In this dilemma Arcadius recalled his orders, and Eudoxia herself invited Chrysostom to return. The people accompanied him triumphantly to the city, his enemies fled, and peace was restored, but only for a short time.

A feast given by the empress on the consecration of a statue, and attended with many heathen ceremonies, roused the zeal of the archbishop, who publicly exclaimed against it; and Eudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysostom was condemned and exiled to Armenia. Here he continued to exert his pious zeal until the emperor ordered him to be conveyed to a town on the most distant shore of the Black Sea. The officers who had him in charge obliged the old man to perform his journey on foot, and he died at Comana, by the way. Here he was buried; but in 438 his body was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople, and there interred in the Church of the Apostles, in the sepulchre of the emperor.

At a later period his remains were placed in the Vatican at Rome. The Greek Church celebrates his feast on the 13th of November, the Roman on the 27th of January. His .works, which consist of sermons, commentaries, and treatises, abound with information as to the manners and characteristics of his age.
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ST JOSEPH OF ARIMATHAEA

St Joseph of Arimathaea was a first-century patron saint of gravediggers, pallbearers and undertakers. His feast day was March the 17th.
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ST KILDA

Saint Kilda was a bogus saint erroneously invented during the 1970's from the name of St Kilda island in the western Isles of Scotland. In reality, the name derives from old Viking word for shields (skildar), reflecting the outline of a neighbouring group of islands whose outline resembles a shield.
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ST KUNIGUNDE

St Kunigunde was a daughter of Siegfried of Luxembourg. She married Henry of Bavaria, afterwards Henry II of Germany and died as a nun in 1031. Accused of adultery she is said to have vindicated herself by walking over red-hot ploughshares barefooted. She was canonized in 1200, her feast being March the 3rd.
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ST LAWRENCE

St Lawrence was a Roman deacon and martyr. During the Valerian persecution the saint was commanded to reveal the treasures of the church. For an answer he collected the poor and the sick and presented them as the treasure which secured heaven. For this he is said to have been roasted on a gridiron, in 258 AD. His day in the calendar is August the 10th.
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ST LEOPOLD

St Leopold is a patron saint of winemakers. His feast day is November the 15th.
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ST LINUS

St Linus was the second pope, according to the Roman Notizie. He reigned as pope from 66 until 78 and was succeeded by St Anacletus.
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ST LUCIA

St Lucia was a Christian virgin-martyr of Syracuse who lived in the reign of Diocletian. She is the patroness of the labouring poor, and is invoked for eye disease.
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ST LUKE

St Luke the evangelist was the author of the Gospel which bears his name and of the Acts of the Apostles. He was probably born at Antioch in Syria; was taught the science of medicine, but the tradition that he was also a painter is doubtful. The date of his conversion is uncertain; he is supposed to have been one of the seventy disciples, and also one of the two who journeyed to Emmaus with the risen Christ. He was for several years a companion of the apostle Paul in his travels, so that in the Acts of the Apostles he relates what he himself had supposedly seen and participated in. Luke is apparently mentioned three times in the New Testament. He lived to an advanced age, but whether he suffered martyrdom or died a natural death it is impossible to determine. The Gospel of St. Luke was written probably about 58-60. It is addressed to a certain Theophilus, and records various 'facts' connected with the early life of Jesus which were probably furnished to the writer by Mary herself. It is first quoted by the church writers Justin Martyr and the author of the Clementine Homilies, and at the time of Irenaeus and Tertullian the gospel in its present form was fully accepted by the church.
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ST MARGARET

St Margaret was the elder sister of Eadgar Aetheling. After the Norman Conquest she took refuge with her brother at the court of Malcolm Canmore of Scotland, whom she shortly afterwards married. She is said to have introduced into Scotland the higher culture of the English court, and to have effected many reforms in the Scottish church. She died in 1093. Her daughter Matilda married Henry I.
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ST MARK

St Mark, the Evangelist, was according to the old ecclesiastical writers, the person known in the Acts of the Apostles as 'John, whose surname was Mark' and for many years the companion of Paul and Peter on their journeys. His mother, Mary, was generally in the train of Jesus, and Mark was himself supposedly present at a part of the events which he relates in his gospel, and received his information partly from eye-witnesses. He was the cousin of Barnabas and accompanied Paul and him to Antioch, Cyprus, and Perga in Pamphylia. He returned to Jerusalem, whence he afterwards went to Cyprus, and thence to Rome. He was the cause of the memorable 'sharp contention' between Paul and Barnabas. Of the close of his career nothing is known; and it is by no means certain even that the various passages, on which the church has based the biographical notes already cited, uniformly refer to the same individual.
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ST MARTIN

St Martin of Tours was born of heathen parents in Pannonia about the year 316. He served under Constantius and Julian, and went to Gaul. Among other virtuous and benevolent acts he supposedly divided his cloak with a poor man whom he met at the gates of Amiens (Ambianum). The legend says that Christ appeared to him in the following night covered with the half of this cloak. Soon after this vision Martin was baptized, in 337. After living many years in retirement he visited his native place, and converted his mother. About the year 375 he was chosen against his will Bishop of Tours. In order to withdraw himself from the world he built the famous convent of Marmoutiers, and is said to have died about the year 400. He was the first saint to whom the Roman Church offered public adoration. His festival takes place on the 11th of November.
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ST MATTHEW

St Matthew was a Palestinian evangelist and apostle. The son of Alpheus, he was previous to his call a publican or officer of the Roman customs. After the ascension of Christ we find him at Jerusalem with the other apostles, but this is the last notice of him in Scripture. Tradition represents him as preaching fifteen years in Jerusalem, then visiting the Ethiopians, Macedonians,Persians, Syrians, etc, and finally suffering martyrdom in Persia. His Gospel has been supposed by some critics to have been originally written in Hebrew, or rather Aramaic, but it is only found in Greek. The chief aim of this Gospel is evidently to 'prove' the Messianic character of Jesus.
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ST MONICA

St Monica was the mother of St Augustine. She was born in 332 in Africa and died in 387. Born of Christian parents, the grief of her life was the worldliness and long heresy of her great son; but she was miraculously assured by a dream of his conversion, and was informed by an aged bishop that the child of so many tears could not be lost. With her other son, Navigins, she followed Augustine to Italy, where she died on the 4th of May, 387, at Ostia. Her festival is the 4th May.
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ST MUNGO

St Mungo or St Kentigern is the patron saint of Glasgow. He was an early apostle of the Christian faith in Britain, and is said to have been the son of St Theneu and a British prince. He was born about 514 at Culross and brought up by St Serf, the head of a monastery there, whose favourite pupil he became. His name, Kentigern, was exchanged by the brethren of the monastery for Mungo, the beloved, on account of the affection they bore him. On leaving Culross Kentigern founded a monastery on the banks of a small stream flowing into the Clyde, subsequently the site of Glasgow Cathedral. Having some troubles with the king of the Strathclyde Britons, he afterwards took refuge with St David in Wales, and while in this country he founded a religious establishment under a follower named Asaph, which afterwards became the seat of the bishopric of St Asaph. He returned to Glasgow, where he acquired a character of great sanctity, and died about 601. Numerous miracles were ascribed to him, and several legendary biographies are preserved.
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ST NICHOLAS

St Nicholas was Bishop of Myra, in Lycia. He is believed to have lived under Diocletian and Constantine, and to have suffered persecution under the former; but little is known of his life. His feast-day in the Roman calendar is December the 6th; he is the patron saint of poor maidens, sailors, travellers, merchants, and children (Santa Klaus), and is one of the most popular saints in the Greek Church.
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ST NINIAN

St Ninian was a missionary preacher who spread Christianity among the Picts in the beginning of the 5th century. He was ordained bishop of the Southern Picts by Pope Siricius in 394. Ninian selected Candida Casa, or Whithorn (Wigtownshire), as his chief seat, but prosecuted his labours in all parts of southern Scotland, and even as far north as the Grampians. He died in 432. His festival is the 16th September.
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ST OLAF

St Olaf was one of the most celebrated of the Norwegian kings. He was born about 995 and died in 1030. The great-great-grandson of Harald Haarfager, and son of Harald, chief of the district of Granland, he was a friend of the Normans, and fought as an ally of Ethelred's in England. He afterwards established himself on the throne of Norway, and was a zealous supporter of Christianity. Canute the Great having landed in Norway with an army, Olaf fled to Russia, and in attempting to recover his dominions he was defeated and killed at the battle of Stiklestad in 1030. Since 1164 he has been honoured as the patron saint of Norway. The order of St Olaf, a Norwegian order given in reward for services rendered to king and country or to art and science, was founded in 1847.
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ST PANCRAS

St Pancras was a noble Roman youth martyred by Diocletian in 304 aged 14.
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ST PATRICK

Saint Patrick (Paatricius) was the apostle of Ireland. He was born about 396 in the British Roman province of Valentia, probably at Nemthur on the Clyde where Dumbarton now is and died about 469. His father, a decurion in the Roman army, retired to a farm on the Solway, whence, at the age of sixteen, Patrick was carried off by a band of marauders and sold as a slave to the Irish Picts of county Antrim. After six years he made his escape, and, resolving to devote himself to the conversion of Ireland, prepared himself for the priesthood, probably at the monastic institution founded by St Ninian at Candida Casa (Whithorn) in Galloway. Having been ordained a bishop and received the papal benediction from Celestine I, he went over to Ireland about the year 432. Here he is said to have founded over 360 churches, baptized with his own hand more than 12,000 persons, and ordained a great number of priests. After his death his relics were preserved at Downpatrick until the time of the Reformation. His authentic literary remains consist of his Confessions and a letter addressed to a Welsh chief named Corotic. Many points connected with the life of St Patrick are doubtful, and regarding his position in the history of Irish Christianity different views are held. Some authorities identify him with Palladius.
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ST PAUL

St Paul, originally called Saul, had his name changed to Paul in honour of Sergius Paulus whom he converted. He was supposedly born at Giscalis in Judaea and moved with his family to Tarsus and inherited the rights of a Roman citizen. He received a learned education, and early went to Jerusalem to study under Gamaliel, one of the most celebrated Jewish rabbins. Thus prepared for the office of teacher, he joined the sect of the Pharisees, and became a persecutor of the Christians, to crush whom the sanhedrim employed him both in. and out of Jerusalem. He was present at and encouraged the stoning of Stephen, and it was only when he was overtaken by a vision on his way to Damascus that he became a convert to Christianity.

He engaged in the work of an apostle with an ardour that overcame every difficulty. Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and the islands of the Mediterranean were the scenes of his labours. The churches of Philippi in Macedonia, of Corinth, Galatia, and Thessalonica, honoured him as their founder; and he wrote epistles to these churches, and to the churches in the chief cities of Greece and Asia Minor. By admitting the Gentiles to the church he incurred the hatred of the Jews, who persecuted him as an apostate. Undismayed, the apostle went to Jerusalem, and was there arrested and brought to Caesarea, where he was kept a prisoner for two years by the Roman governors Festus and Felix. He appealed, as a Roman citizen, to the emperor; and on his way to Rome, where he arrived in the year 62, he was shipwrecked on the island of Melita. At Rome he was treated with respectful kindness, and there is reason to believe that he for some time regained his liberty. He was beheaded in the 14th year of the reign of Nero.
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ST PETER

St Peter was the first pope, according to the Roman Notizie. He reigned as pope from 42 until 66 and was succeeded by St Linus.
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ST SEBASTIAN

St Sebastian was a Christian martyr. He was born at Narbonne, and under Diocletian was captain of the praetorian guard at Rome. He rose to high favour at court, but declaring himself a Christian, and refusing to abjure, he was tied to a tree and shot with arrows. A Christian woman named Irene, who came by night to inter his body, finding signs of life in him, took him home, and nursed him until he recovered. He then presented himself before Diocletian, and remonstrated with him on his cruelty; whereupon the emperor ordered him to be beaten to death with rods on January the 20th 288, and his body to be thrown into the cloaca. His protection was invoked against pestilence, and his martyrdom has been a favourite subject with painters.
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ST STEPHEN

St Stephen was the first king of Hungary. He was born in 969 and died in 1038. He was originally called Vaik and was converted to Christianity in 995 and crowned king in 1000. He established Christianity during his reign through Hungary.
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ST STEPHEN 2

St Stephen was a martyr whose death is recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, chapters VI and VII, and whose festival is held on December the 26th
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ST STEPHEN 3

St Stephen was a pope from 253 to 257. His feat day is the 2nd of August.
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ST SWITHIN

St Swithin (St Swithun) was a British saint and bishop of Winchester. He died in 862. He was probably an English noble, and was in favour with Egbert, king of the West Saxons whose son Ethelwulf made him bishop of Winchester in 852. He was instrumental in the building of bridges and churches. After his death the cathedral at Winchester was dedicated to him.
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ST THERESA

St Theresa was a Christian religious fanatic. She was born in 1515 at Avila, Spain and died in 1582. She took the veil among the Carmelites at the age of twenty-four. Being dissatisfied at the relaxation of discipline in the order to which she belonged she undertook to restore the original severity of the institute. The first convent of reformed Carmelite nuns was founded at Avila in 1562, and was speedily followed by a number of others. She was canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1621. She was the author of several works, all of a devotional nature, among them a very curious autobiography.
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ST THOMAS

St Thomas, also called Didymusm was one of the twelve apostles. He was said to have been a native of Antioch. The particulars of his life are unknown, the chief fact known regarding him being his doubts as to the living reality of Christ after the resurrection. He figures largely in the apocryphal gospels, and tradition has it that he acted as a Christian missionary in Ethiopia, Egypt, India, and even America.
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ST VALENTINE

Saint Valentine is the name of several saints. Two of the name, a priest and a bishop, are said to have been martyred near Rome on the same day, February the 14th, about 270 or 306. The custom of choosing valentines on his day has been accidentally associated with his name. On the eve of St. Valentine's day young people of both sexes used to meet, and each of them drew one by lot from a number of names of the opposite sex, which were put into a common receptacle. Each gentleman thus got a lady for his valentine, and became the valentine of a lady. The gentlemen remained bound to the service of their valentines for a year. A similar custom prevailed in the Roman Lupercalia, to which the modern custom has, with probability, been traced. The day is now celebrated by sending anonymously through the post sentimental or ludicrous missives specially prepared for the purpose. Although this practice weas on the decline during the Edwardian period, it was revived strongly by the greetings card manufacturers later in the 20th century.
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ST VERONICA

Saint Veronica is a female saint who, according to legend, met Jesus bending under the weight of the cross, and offered him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow, after which the divine features were found miraculously impressed on the cloth. This veil was brought from Palestine to Rome, where it is still preserved by the canons of St. Peter's.
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ST VINCENT DE PAUL

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St Vincent de Paul was a French priest. He was born in 1576 and died in 1660. He was educated at Dax and Toulouse; ordained a priest in 1600; in 1605 he was captured by pirates; remained in slavery in Tunis for two years, and finally escaped to France. He afterwards visited Rome, from whence he was sent on a mission to Paris, where he became almoner to Queen Margaret of Valois. In 1616 he began the labours which occupied so large a portion of his life, and which included the foundation of the institution called the Priests of the Mission or Lazarists, the reformation of the hospitals, the institution of the Sisterhood of Charity, the instruction of idiots at his Priory of St. Lazare, etc. Among the last acts of his life was the foundation of an asylum for aged working people of both sexes, and a hospital for all the poor of Paris, which was opened in 1657. He was canonized in 1737.
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ST WALBURGA

St Walburga (Walpurga, Walpurgis) was an eighth century English female saint. She was for many years a nun in a Dorset convent. As a niece of St Boniface, and sister of St Willibald, first bishop of Eichstadt, Bavaria (741-786), she was induced to proceed to Germany to found convents, and in 754 she became abbess of Heidenheim, a convent within her brother's bishopric. She died at the latter place, but was buried at Eichstadt, and her shrine was visited by many pilgrims and was the scene of many miracles. The eve of the 1st of May, associated with some of the most popular witch superstitions of Germany, is called Walpurgis night, but her feast falls properly on the 25th of February.
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STADTHOLDER

A stadtholder was a government official in the Low Countries between the 15th and 18th centuries. Initially, stadtholders were noblemen appointed by the ruling dukes as viceroys in each province of the Low Countries. In the late 16th century, when the provinces that later became the Netherlands won their independence from Spain, the stadtholderates were recognized as belonging to the house of Orange. In 1747 Prince William IV was elected to all the stadtholder positions, effectively making him ruler of the Netherlands. The system of stadtholder rule was replaced in 1795 by the so-called Batavian Republic, which was modelled on the revolutionary French republic.
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STAFFORD CRIPPS

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Sir Richard Stafford Cripps was a British economist, chemist, patent lawyer and Labour MP. He was born in 1889 at London and died in 1952. An opponent of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement, he was expelled from the Labour party and served as an independent MP during the Second World War, being appointed British ambassador to Moscow in 1940. He signed the Anglo-Russian pact in July 1941. Following the Second World War in 1945 he was readmitted to the Labour Party and was chancellor of the exchequer in post-war Britain.
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STAFFORD HENRY NORTHCOTE

Stafford Henry Northcote, first Earl of Iddesleigh, was an English statesman. He was born in 1818 and died in 1887. He was educated at Eton and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he gained high honours. He became private secretary to William Gladstone in 1842, and was called to the bar in 1847. In 1851 he succeeded his grandfather in the family baronetcy. He held various offices, and represented several constituencies as a Conservative, being for a long time member of parliament for North Devon. He published a treatise, Twenty Years of Financial Policy, in 1862.

He was one of the commissioners to the United States in 1871 to arrange the Alabama difficulty. After being secretary for India from 1867 to 1868 and chancellor of the exchequer from 1874 to 1880, under Benjamin Disraeli, upon the elevation of the latter to the peerage he became leader of the Lower House, his task being all the more difficult owing to parliamentary obstruction, etc. He was elected lord rector of Edinburgh University in 1883. In 1885, when William Gladstone was succeeded by Lord Salisbury, he was created Earl of Iddesleigh, and became first lord of the treasury, being foreign secretary in the next Salisbury cabinet.
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STAN STEPHENS

Stan Stephens was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Montana from 1989 until 1993.
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STANHOPE

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Stanhope is the name of a noble English family.
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STANISLAS CLERMONT-TONNERRE

Count Stanislas Clermon-Tonnerre was a French noble. He was born in 1747 and died in 1792. At the outbreak out of the French Revolution in 1789 he endeavoured to promote the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, founding with Malouet the Monarchical Club, and with Fontanes the Journal des Impartiaux. In 1791 he was charged with assisting the king in his attempt to escape, but was set free on swearing fidelity to the assembly. In 1792, however, he was murdered by the mob at the house of the Countess de Brissac.
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STANISLAS I

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Stanislas I was king of Poland. He was born in 1677 at Lemberg, Galicia and died in 1766. The son of Raphael Leszczynski, he was made palatine of Pose by Augustus II. When Charles XI of Sweden declared war against Poland, Stanislas I was elected as a representative at the congress of Warsaw, in 1704. Charles XII supported his claims to the throne of Poland, and he was crowned on October the 7th 1705. In 1712 he was forced to flee to Bessarabia, but was recalled in 1733. By the treaty of Vienna of 1738, he renounced all claims to the throne of Poland, although he was permitted to keep the title of king. He was given the duchies of Bar and Lorraine.
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STANISLAS II

Stanislas II was king of Poland. He was born in 1732 and died in 1798. A son of Stanislas Poniatowski, he spent some of his early days at St Petersburg, where he was one of the lovers of the empress Catherine. In 1764 Catherine secured his election as king of Poland. He ruled until he was compelled to abdicate in 1794. After spending some years in prison at St Petersburg he headed the army of the duchy of Warsaw, and as an ally of Napoleon fought against Russia until he was drowned in the Elster.
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STANISLAS-AIGNAN JULIEN

Stanislas-Aignan Julien was the leading Chinese scholar of his day. He was born in 1799 at Orleans and died in 1873. Possessed of an extraordinary linguistic faculty, he taught himself Greek, English, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and German, and in 1823 commenced the study of Chinese under Abel Remusat. At the end of twelve months he published a Latin translation of the philosopher Mencius. Henceforth ancient and modern Chinese, Mantchu, the Mongolian tongues, and latterly Sanskrit, were the subjects of exact and profound study.

In 1832 he became professor of Chinese at the College de France; librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale, 1839; president of the college, 1855; commander of the Legion of Honour, 1863. His most important work was entitled Voyages des Pelerins Boudhistes which was published at Paris, between 1853 and 1858.
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STANISLAUS I

Stanislaus Leszczynski (Stanislaus I) was a King of Poland. He was born in 1677 and died in 1766. His father was grand treasurer to the Polish crown, and he himself was voivode of Posen, when he was recommended to the Warsaw assembly by Charles XII of Sweden as a candidate for the vacant throne of Poland. He was accordingly elected and crowned in 1705, but after the disastrous battle of Poltava in 1709, when his patron Charles XII was defeated, he had to flee from Poland. He found refuge in France ultimately, where his daughter Maria became wife to Louis XV. Assisted by the French king he sought to establish his claim to the throne of Poland in 1733, but, opposed by the united powers of Saxony and Russia, he again had to retire into France, where he held possession of the duchies of Lorraine and Bar until his death. His writings were published under the title of OEuvres du Philosophe Bienfaisant in 1765.
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STANISLAUS II

Stanislaus Augustus (Stanislaus II) was a king of Poland. He was was born in 1732 and died in 1798. The son of Count Stanislaus Poniatowski, he was sent by Augustus III of Poland on a mission to St Petersburg, he became a favourite with the grand-princess (afterwards the Empress Catherine), by whose influence he was crowned king of Poland at Warsaw in 1764. The nobility, however, objected, and compelled the king to abdicate in 1771. He protested against the various partitions of Poland, formally resigned his sovereignty in 1795, and finally died in St Petersburg as a pensioner of Paul I.
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STANLEY BALDWIN

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Stanley Baldwin was an English statesman. He was born in 1867 and died in 1947. He was Prime Minister three times.
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STANLEY C. WILSON

Stanley C Wilson was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Vermont from 1931 until 1935.
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STANLEY K. HATHAWAY

Stanley K Hathaway was an American politician. He was a Republican governor of Wyoming from 1967 until 1975.
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STANLEY LANE-POOL

Stanley Lane-Poole was an English scholar, numismatist, and writer. He was born in 1854 at London. He graduated from Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in 1878 and for eighteen years he was employed in the coin department of the British Museum, where he compiled several catalogues of coins. In 1886 he visited Russia, Sweden, and Turkey in connection with his work on Oriental numismatics for the British Museum trustees. On the death of his uncle, Edward William Lane, in 1876, he prepared for the press the last three parts of that scholar's great Arabic Lexicon, and in 1877 he issued a short account of Lane's career. In 1898 he was appointed professor of Arabic at Trinity College, Dublin. Among his works on Oriental history and allied subjects are included: Egypt (1881); Arabian Society in the Middle Ages (1883); The Moors in Spain (1887), Turkey (1888), The Barbary Corsairs (1890), the last three in the Story of the Nations Series; Cairo: Sketches of its History, Monuments, and Social Life (1892); Medigeval Egypt (1900); and History of Saracenic Egypt (1900). He also wrote various biographies and memoirs, and contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography, etc.
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STANLEY MATTHEWS

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Sir Stanley Matthews is an English Association Football player. He was born in 1915 at Hanley. The son of boxer Jack Matthews. Stanley Matthews started as a sprinter switching to Association Football and playing for Stoke City where he had worked as ground staff since he left school, as a winger in 1931. He left Stoke City to play for Blackpool in 1947, leaving Blackpool and returning to Stoke City in 1961. He played in 701 league and 86 FA Cup matches and played 54 times for England.

Stanley Matthews was an American politician. He was born in 1824 and died in 1889. He commanded a brigade at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and Lookout Mountain in the American Civil War. He represented Ohio in the US Senate as a Republican from 1877 to 1879. He was a Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1881 to 1889.
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STANLEY MILGRAM

Stanley Milgram was an American psychologist. He was born in 1933 and died in 1984. He carried out controversial research into the subject of obedience, seeking to show that German concentration camp guards during the Second World War were responsible for their actions.
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STANLEY SPENCE