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The Probert Encyclopaedia of Sumerian Mythology

AA

In Babylonian mythology, Aa is the Great-Mother. The Mother of all things; Goddess of dawn; She Who inspired the invention of letters.
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ADAD

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In Sumerian mythology and in Babylonian mythology, Adad is a storm god, son of Anu. He holds a lightning bolt in his right hand and an axe in his left. He is partially responsible for the helpful annual flooding of the rivers which brought fertility to the land. He relates to the Canaanite god Hadad.
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ADAMU

In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology, Adamu was the first man. The gods tricked Adamu and his descendants out of immortality - not wanting man to be immortal like the gods - by telling him that the magic food of eternal life was poisonous to him, and as such Adamu didn't eat it and so didn't become immortal.
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AGDISTIS

In Phrygian and Sumerian mythology, Agdistis was a hermaphrodite monster. He was drugged by the gods by wine added to the pool where he bathed, and while he slept his genitals were tied to a tree. Upon waking he castrated himself and a tree (some say a pomegranate tree others an almond tree) grew from his genitals.
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AIA

In Sumerian mythology, Aia is a consort of Utu.
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AN

In Sumerian mythology, An was the personification of heaven. An relates to the Babylonian god Anu. In the early days he carried off heaven, while Enlil carried away the earth.
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ANSHAR

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In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology Anshar is the male principle. The father of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu. He is often paired with Kishar, and his qualities were assimilated with Ashur.
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ANTU

In Sumerian mythology, Antu is a colorless female being who was the first consort of Anu. They produced the Anunnaki and the utukki. She was replaced by Isthar who is sometimes her daughter.
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ANU

In Babylonian mythology, Anu (An in Sumerian mythology) is the god of the sky. He is the son of Anshar and Kishar. Anu was the supreme god and ruled the heavens. He had the power to judge those who had committed crimes. The stars were Anu's soldiers whom he had created to destroy the wicked.
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ANUNNAKI

In Sumerian mythology the Anunnaki are the underworld gods.
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ANZU

In Sumerian mythology, Anzu is a demonic being with lion paws and face and eagle talons and wings. It guards Enlil's bath chamber.
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APSU

In Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Apsu is the sweet-water ocean. It is the union of Apsu with Tiamat which brings forth the first gods.
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ARURU

In Sumerian mythology, Aruru (also known as Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursaga, Belet- ili or Mami) was the almighty gentle mother goddess of the earth and birth. She Who first created humanity from clay.
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ASHNAN

In Sumerian mythology, Ashnan was the goddess of grain. She was created by Enlil to provide food and clothes for the gods.
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ASHUR

In Sumerian mythology, Ashur (A-sir, Arusar, A-shar, Assur) is the god of Assyria and war. He is a King of the Igigi. He was depicted as having the head of an eagle, the body of a man, four wings and shooting an arrow with his upper body enclosed by a winged disk.
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AYA

In Babylonian mythology, Aya was the wife of Shamash.
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BEL

In Sumerian mythology, Bel is the cleverest of the clever and sage of the gods, he is the child of Ea and Dumkina.
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BELIT-TSERI

In Sumerian mythology, Belit-tseri is the tablet-scribe of the underworld. She kneels before Ereshkigal.
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DAGAN

In Babylonian and Assyrian mythology, Dagan was an earth god.
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DUMKINA

In Sumerian mythology, Dumkina is Ea's lover and the mother of Bel and Marduk.
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DUMUZI

In Sumerian mythology, Dumuzi is the shepherd god.
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EA

In Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, Ea was the god of wisdom and magic. He relates to the Sumerian god Enki
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EMESH

In Sumerian mythology, Emesh was the god of agriculture. He was Created by Enlil.
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ENKI

Enki was the Sumerian water god, son of An and Nammu. He lives in the Apsu, the watery depths below the earth. Enki supplied clear drinking water to the town of Dilmun at the request of Ninhursag. The Sumerian god Enki relates to the Babylonian god Ea.
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ENKIMDU

In Sumerian mythology, Enkimdu was the farmer god.
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ENLIL

In Sumerian mythology, Enlil (Ellil) was the son of Ki and An. He was the god of the sky and separated the earth from the heaven. He guards the tablets of destiny, which allow him to determines the fate of all things animate or inanimate.
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ENMESHARRA

In Sumerian mythology, Enmesharra is an Underworld god.
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ENTEN

In Sumerian mythology Enten was a farmer god, and is Enlil's field worker and herdsman.
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ERESHKIGAL

In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal was the queen of the underworld. She was a compassionless and violent goddess of gloom, death and the dead. She who is full of rage.
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ERRA

In Sumerian mythology, Erra is a form of Erragal as a hunter god, a god of war and plague.
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ERRAGAL

In Sumerian mythology, Erragal was god of the underworld, husband of Ereshkigal and a lover of Mami.
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GERRA

In Sumerian mythology, Gerra is the god of fire, son of Anunitu.
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GILGAMESH

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Gilgamesh was a hero of Sumerian, Hittite, Akkadian and Assyrian legend. He was one-third mortal and two-thirds divine. Gilgamesh was Lord of the Sumerian city of Uruk.
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GUSHKIN-BANDA

In Sumerian mythology, Gushkin-banda is the goldsmith god and the creator of god and man.
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HANISH

In Sumerian mythology, Hanish is servant to the weather god.
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HUMBABA

In Sumerian mythology, the Humbaba is a monster appointed by Enlil to guard the cedar forest.
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INANNA

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In Sumerian mythology, Inanna is the sister of Utu. She is a dual deity, the goddess of warfare, aggression and lust for power and also childbirth and erotic attraction. In Sumerian mythology she must choose as a husband between Enkimdu and Dumuzi. Both gods were keen to marry her, but she eventually married Dumuzi.
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IRRA

In Sumerian mythology, Irra is a plague god.
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ISHTAR

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Ishtar was the Sumerian goddess of love and war, worshiped by the Babylonians and Assyrians, and personified as the legendary queen Semiramis.
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ISHUM

In Sumerian mythology, Ishum is a god of fire, and is adept at using weapons. He lights the way in front of Erra and the Sebitti.
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IZDUBAR

Izdubar was a hero of ancient Babylonia. He has feats similar to those of Hercules ascribed to him.
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KABTA

In Sumerian mythology, Kabta is the god of bricks, he is the god who lays foundations and builds houses.
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KALKAL

In Sumerian mythology, Kalkal is Enlil's doorkeeper in Nippur.
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KI

In Sumerian mythology, Ki was the personification of the earth.
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KISHAR

In Sumerian and Babylonian mythology, Kishar is the mother of Anu and the child of Tiamat and Apsu. she is the female principle.
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LAHAR

In Sumerian mythology, Lahar was the god of cattle. He was created by Enlil to provide cattle for the earth.
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LAHMU

In Sumerian mythology, Lahmu and Lahamu were the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. They have three pairs of curls, and are naked except for a triple sash.
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LAMASHTU

In Sumerian mythology, Lamashtu is a dreaded female demon known as 'she who erases'.
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MAMMETUM

In Sumerian mythology, Mammetum is the maker or mother of fate.
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MARDUK

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In Sumerian mythology, Marduk is the son of Ea and Dumkina. He is depicted as having four eyes.
Marduk was the Babylonian sun god, creator of Earth and humans.
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MUMMU

In Sumerian mythology, Mummu is the craftsman god. He is attendant to Ea and Apsu's vizier.
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MYLITTA

In Babylonian and Assyrian mythology, Mylitta was the goddess of beauty, carnal love and fruitfulness, corresponding to a degree to the Roman goddess Venus.
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NABU

In Sumerian mythology, Nabu is the god of writing and wisdom.
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NAMMU

In Sumerian mythology, Nammu was the goddess of the watery abyss, the primeval sea. She gave birth to the heavens and the earth.
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NAMTAR

In Sumerian mythology, Namtar is the Fate-Cutter, Ereshkigal's messenger and vizier, the herald of death. He commands sixty diseases, which are grouped by the part of the body which they affect. Offerings to him may stave off diseases.
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NANA

In Sumerian mythology, Nana was a virgin mother goddess of the Spirit of vegetation and fertility. A beloved consort of kings.
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NANNA

In Sumerian mythology, Nanna (Sin, Suen, Ashgirbabbar) is the moon god. He was the product of Enlil's rape of Ninlil. He travels across the sky in his gufa, with the stars and planets about him. Nanna was married to Ningal and they produced Inanna and Utu.
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NANSHE

In Sumerian mythology, Nanshe is a goddess of the city of Lagash who takes care of orphans and widows. She also seeks out justice for the poor and casts judgement on New Year's Day. She is supported by Nidaba and her husband, Haia.
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NEBO

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In Assyrian and Babylonian mythogy, Nebo or Nabu was the ruler of the hosts of heaven and earth.
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NEDU

In Sumerian mythology, Nedu is the guardian of the first gate of the underworld.
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NERGAL

Nergal was the Babylonian god of the underworld. He was represented by the figure of a winged lion with a human head. In Mesopotamian mythology, Nergal was amorality personified and symbolized the unpredictability and risk in mortal life, and in particular brought death. In Assyrian mythology,
Nergal was the god of hunting and warfare. It was the Assyrians who first assigned the planet Mars to this god.
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NIDABA

In Sumerian mythology, Nidaba was the goddess of writing and the patron deity of the 'edubba' (palace archives) . She was an assistant to Nanshe.
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NIN-AGAL

In Sumerian mythology, Nin-agal is the god of smiths. He chews copper and makes tools.
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NIN-ILDU

In Sumerian mythology, Nin-ildu is the carpenter god. He carries the pure axe of the sun.
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NINGAL

In Sumerian mythology, Ningal was the wife of Nanna.
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NINGIZZIA

In Sumerian mythology, Ningizzia is a god of the Underworld and a guardian of the gate of heaven.
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NINISINNA

In Sumerian mythology, Ninisinna (Nininsinna) was the patron goddess of the city Isin. She is the 'hierodule of An'.
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NINKASI

In Sumerian mythology, Ninkasi ('The Lady who fills the mouth') was the goddess of brewing or alcohol, born of 'sparkling-fresh water'. She was one of the eight healing children born by Ninhursag for Enki. She was born in response to Enki's mouth pain and Ninhursag declares that she should be the goddess who 'sates the heart'.
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NINKURRA

In Sumerian mythology, Ninkurra was a goddess. She was the daughter of Enki and his daughter Ninsar.
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NINLIL

In Sumerian mythology, Ninlil was the intended bride of Enlil and the daughter of Nunbarshegunu, the old woman of Nippur. Enlil raped her and was then banished to the nether world (kur).
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NINSAR

In Sumerian mythology, Ninsar was the goddess of plants. She was the daughter of Enki and Ninhursag.
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NINSUN

In Sumerian mythology, Ninsun is the great queen, Gilgamesh's mother and Lugalbanda's mate. She is wise, ' knows everything' and interprets Gilgamesh' s dreams.
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NINURTA

In Sumerian mythology, Ninurta was originally an agricultural and rain god, he later became the god of the south wind, chamberlain of the Anunnaki. He is the child of Enlil and Mami. He is a messenger between Ninurta and other beings. At the beginning of time, when there was no agriculture to feed the people, Ninurta defeated a demon and on his body built a giant stone dyke to stop the waters of the Tigris from flowing.
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NUSKU

In Sumerian mythology, Nusku is the god of fire and Enlil's vizier.
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OANNES

In Babylonian mythology, Oannes was the god of the sea. He was described as having the head and body of a fish, to which were added a human head and feet. In the daytime he lived with men to instruct them in the arts and sciences, but at night retired to the ocean.
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ORMUZD

In Persian mythology, Ormuzd was the supreme deity. According to the doctrine of Zoroaster he was the lord of the universe and the creator of earthly and spiritual life, the source of light, wisdom, and intellect, and the giver of all good. He rewards the good and punishes the wicked.
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PYRANUS

In Babylonian mythology, Pyranus was a Babylonian youth who loved a maiden called Thisbe. Finding her garments befouled with blood by a lioness, he concluded that she had be eaten and killed himself beneath a mulberry tree, the fruit of which was ever after red as blood. Thisbe, returning saw his corpse, and killed herself upon it.
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QINGU

In Sumerian mythology, Qingu is Tiamat's battle leader. He is eventually killed by Marduk.
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SEBITTI

In Sumerian mythology, the Sebitti are the seven warrior gods led by Erra. In the sky they are the Pleadies. They are the children of Anu and the Earth- mother.
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SEMIRAMIS

Semiramis was a mythical queen of Assyria, and the wife of Ninus. She was the daughter of the Syrian fish-goddess Derceto by a Syrian youth. Being abandoned by her mother, she was miraculously fed by doves until discovered by the chief of the royal shepherds, who adopted her. Attracted by her beauty, Onnes, governor of Nineveh, married her. She accompanied him to the siege of Bactra, where, by her advice, she assisted the king's operations. She became endeared to Ninus, the founder of Nineveh (about 2182 BC), but Onnes refused to yield her, and being threatened by Ninus, hanged himself. Ninus resigned the crown to Semiramis, and had her proclaimed queen of Assyria. She built Babylon, and rendered it the mightiest city in the world. She was distinguished as a warrior, and conquered many of the adjacent countries. Having been completely defeated on the Indus, she was either killed or compelled to abdicate by her son Ninyas, after reigning forty-two years. According to popular legend she disappeared or was changed into a dove, and was worshipped as a divinity.
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SHAMASH

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In Babylonian mythology, Shamash was the sun god and god of justice and divination. His light enable to see every misdeed and also see into the future. Every morning the scorpion men opened a gate in the vast mountain of Mashu and Shamash slowly climbed the mountain and as evening approached he rode his chariot towards another great mountain and disappeared inside. During the night Shamash travelled through the depths of the earth back to Mashu. Together with his wife, Aya, he had two children: Kittu, justice and Misharu, law and righteousness. Shamash relates to the Sumerian god Utu.
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SHARA

In Sumerian mythology, Shara is a son of Anu and Ishtar.
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SHARRU

In Sumerian mythology, Sharru is the god of submission.
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SHULLAT

In Sumerian mythology, Shullat is Shamash's servant.
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SIDURI

In Sumerian mythology, Siduri- the barmaid is a manifestation of Ishtar who dwells at the lip of the sea, beyond which is the Land of Life, where Utnapishtim lives.
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SUMUQAN

In Sumerian mythology, Sumuqan is the cattle god, he resides in the underworld, in Ereshkigal's court.
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TAMMUZ

In Sumerian mythology, Tammuz was a god of agriculture. He died in midsummer, and was brought back from the underworld by his lover Ishtar. Tammuz was also worshipped as a sun-god by the Akkadians, Babylonians and Phoenicians. He was also known as Adoni, and was adopted by the Greeks as Adonis.
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TIAMAT

In Babylonian mythology, Tiamat is the salt water Ocean. In the beginning there was only Apsu and
Tiamat.
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UTTU

In Sumerian mythology, Uttu was the goddess of the goddess of weaving and clothing. She was the daughter of Enki and Ninkurra. Her mother warned her to avoid the advances of her father Enki. When Enki made advances on her she demanded cucumbers, apples and grapes as a gift. Enki supplied the fruits and as a result of their union eight plants spring forth. Enki ate the plants and was cursed by Uttu, subsequently becoming ill in eight different parts of his body.
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UTU

In Sumerian mythology, Utu was the sun god and god of justice. He was the son of Nanna and Ningal. He goes to the underworld at the end of every day setting in the mountain of the west and rising in the mountain of the east. While in the underworld he decrees the fate of the dead. Utu relates to the Babylonian god Shamash.
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UTUKKI

In Sumerian mythology, the Utukki are the seven evil demons.
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ZAKMUK

Zakmuk was the ancient Babylonian celebration of the new year associated with Marduk, lasting about twelve days.
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ZU

In Babylonian mythology, Zu is an evil lesser-god who steals the tablets of destiny from Enlil while he was washing, and flies away to his mountain. He was killed by Lugalbanda who was sent by the gods to retrieve the tables of destiny.
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