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The Probert Encyclopaedia of Medicine

1-CHLORO-3-ETHYL-1-PENTEN-4 YN-3-OL

1-chloro-3-ethyl-1-penten-4 yn-3-ol (Placidyl, ethchlorvynol) is a depressive drug administered orally or injected as a short term treatment for insomnia. It is a sedative hypnotic and a Central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle relaxant.
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2 8-DIAMINOACRIDINIUM

2,8-Diaminoacridinium is another name for proflavine.
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3 6-DIAMINOACRIDINIUM

3,6-Diaminoacridinium is the chemical name for proflavine.
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3 7-DIAMINO-5-AZA-ANTHRACENE

3,7-Diamino-5-aza-anthracene is another name for proflavine.
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7-DEHYDROCHOLESTEROL

7-dehydrocholesterol (desmosterol) is a crystalline steroid alcohol that occurs chiefly in higher animals and man (as in the skin), that is made synthetically from cholesterol, and yields vitamin D3 on irradiation with ultraviolet light.

A-GRAM

A-Gram is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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A68

In medicine, A68 is the symbol for a protein which is found in the brains of foetuses and infants but begins to disappear by the age of two years, but is once more found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
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A:G RATIO

In medicine, the A:G ratio is the ratio of protein albumin to globulin in the blood serum.
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AARON'S SIGN

In medicine, Aaron's sign is a pain and soreness that occurs between the navel and the right hip bone indicating an attack of appendicitis in the patient.
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ABACTIO

In medicine, an abactio is an abortion or labour induced by drugs or surgery.
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ABADIE'S SIGN

Abadie's sign is a twitch of the eyelid that can occur with an over-active thyroid gland. It can also occur when no disease is present.
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ABARTICULAR

In medicine, abarticular refers to not having a joint.
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ABARTICULATION

Abarticulation is the dislocation of a joint.
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ABASIA

Abasia is the inability to walk due to an inability to control and coordinate the muscles of the legs.
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ABBE-ESTLANDER OPERATION

The Abbe-Estlander operation is a type of skin graft which takes place on the mouth in the case of an injured lip. A flap of skin from the healthy lip is attached to the injured lip. Inside the flap of skin is a small artery that sends blood to the graft. After the graft has been accepted by the body the flap is removed.
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ABDIMOX

Abdimox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ABDOMEN

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The abdomen is the area between the chest and the hips. It contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen.
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ABDOMINAL CAVITY

The abdominal cavity extends from the lower border of the ribs to the pelvis. The abdominal wall is made up of muscle, layers of connective tissue, and fat and is lined by a thin double layered membrane called the periosteum. The abdominal cavity contains all of the organs of the digestive system and the genitourinary system.
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ABDOMINAL WALL

Several sets of muscles support and propel the torso. The abdominal wall muscles help transfer force between the upper and lower body, and they also protect the delicate internal organs. Their most important function is to support the back. The muscles of the torso extend in several directions. They help maintain posture and aid the spinal muscles when bending, twisting, and other movements.
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ABDOMINOSCOPY

An abdominoscopy is an examination of the abdomen in order to detect abdominal disease.
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ABDOMINOTHORACIC

Abdominothoracic refers to the abdomen and the thorax, or chest.
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ABDUCENS

The Abducens (or Sixth Cranial Nerve) rises in the medulla oblongata and supplies the external rectus muscle of the eye, which draws the eyeball outward.
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ABDUCTION

In physiology, abduction is the movement which separates a limb or other part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.
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ABDUCTOR

An abductor is a type of muscle which serves to draw a part out (abducts), or form the median line of the body, such as for example the abductor oculi, which draws (abducts) the eye outward.
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ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI MANUS

The abductor digiti minimi manus is the largest of the hypothenar eminence, the muscle mass of the little finger. The hypothenar eminence is located on the outside of the palm and hand. It consists of the abductor digiti minimi, the flexor digiti minimi, the opponens digiti minimi, and the palmaris brevis. The abductor digiti minimi is a superficial muscle that originates from the tip of pisiform bone and from the flexor carpi ulnaris. It wraps around the ulnar side of the hand and up to the side of the metacarpal of the little finger, inserting in the ulnar side of the base of the little finger. It is innervated by the ulnar nerve and supplied the ulnar artery. This muscle abducts and flexes the little finger.
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ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI PEDIS

The abductor digiti minimi pedis (abductor digiti quinti) muscle lies under the outside border of the foot. It originates from the calcaneum and runs along the outer edge of the foot, inserting into the outer side of the base of the first phalanx of the little toe. It is innervated by the lateral plantar nerve and supplied by the plantar artery. This muscle is for the most part concealed by the dense, fibrous fat pad of the sole of the foot. It works to flex and draw the little toe away from the foot.
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ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

The abductor hallucis flexes more than it abducts the big toe. It has an elongated, rectangular form that begins from a wide origin on the bottom of the calcaneous, the edge of the flexor retinaculum, and the plantar aponeurosis (a strong fibrous band of fascia that extends along the bottom of the foot) and inserts on the inside of the base of the first phalanx of the big toe. It is innervated by the medial plantar nerve and supplied by the plantar artery.
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ABDUCTOR OSSIS METATARSI QUINTI

The abductor ossis metatarsi quinti is a foot muscle that extends from the abductor digiti minimi pedis. Its point of insertion is the 5th metatarsal. This small muscle helps abduct the little toe. It is supplied by the lateral plantar artery and is innervated lateral plantar nerve.
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ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS

The abductor pollicis brevis is one of the muscles forming the thenar eminence, the muscle mass of the thumb. The abductor pollicis brevis is the largest of the thenar eminence muscle group and is flat, elongated and triangular in shape. It lies just below the skin and slightly overlaps the flexor pollicis brevis and mostly covers the opponens pollicis. The abductor pollicis brevis originates from the tubercle of the trapezium and from the flexor retinaculum. It inserts in the proximal phalanx of the thumb. This muscle is innervated by the median nerve and supplied by palmar branches of the radial artery. It moves the metacarpal bone of the thumb away from the palm.
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ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS

The abductor pollicis longus muscle, combined with the extensor pollicis brevis, creates a narrow, triangular muscle form which wraps around the lower end of the radius. The abductor pollicis longus originates on the back side of the ulna and radius and inserts at the base of the metacarpal bone of the thumb near the palm. The abductor pollicis longus is innervated by the radial nerve and is supplied by branches of the radial artery. This muscle extends the thumb away from the hand. It also rotates and flexes the hand at the wrist. The combination of the abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis forms the oblique carpal muscle group.
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ABERRATION

In medicine, aberration refers to the passage of blood or other fluid into parts not appropriate for it.
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ABLATION

In medicine, ablation is the removal of something, usually a tumour, buy surgical or other means.
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ABLUTOPHOBIA

Ablutophobia is the fear of washing or bathing.
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ABOULIA

In psychology aboulia is the loss of will.
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ABRASION

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An abrasion (graze) is a type of wound characterised as a sore place on the skin caused by rubbing or scraping. Often superficial, abrasions can be very painful and be disturbing in appearance. The risk from an abrasion is that infection may enter the wound, and it is important that the wound is cleaned.
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ABSCESS

An abscess is any collection of purulent matter or pus formed in some tissue or organ of the body, and confined within some circumscribed area, of varying size, but always painful and often dangerous.
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ABSINTHISM

Absinthism is the condition induced by the excessive and prolonged consumption of absinthe. The symptoms are vertigo and epileptiform convulsions; hallucinations may exist without any other symptoms of delirium-tremens; when tremors co-exist these are confined chiefly to the muscles of the upper extremities. Absinthism acts chiefly on the cervical portions of the spinal cord.
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ABSORBED MEDICATIONS

Absorbed medications come in various forms: ointments which are applied to the skin, such as nitro-glycerine ointment for angina. Transdermal patch. A medicinally impregnated adhesive bandage that gradually releases drug. Examples include nitro-glycerine for angina, scopolamine for motion sickness, nicotine for quitting smoking, and oestrogen for hormone replacement. Implants. These are capsules implanted under the skin that release a drug into the body for an extended period. Norplant, an effective form of long-term birth control, is the only commercially available implant today. Sublingual tablets, in which the drug is held under the tongue for rapid absorption into the bloodstream. For example nitro-glycerine capsules. Buccal tablets in which the drug is placed between the cheek and the gum, where it is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream.
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ABSORPTION

In the human body, absorption is the way nutrients from food move from the small intestine into the cells in the body.
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ACARDIA

Acardia is the condition of a person born without a heart.
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ACAROPHOBIA

Acarophobia is the fear of itching.
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ACCESSORY NERVE

The accessory nerve is a pair of cranial nerves responsible for the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles.
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ACE INHIBITOR

An ACE inhibitor is a type of drug used to lower blood pressure. Studies indicate that it may also help prevent or slow the progression of kidney disease in people with diabetes.
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ACEROPHOBIA

Acerophobia is the fear of sourness.
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ACETABULUM

Acetabulum is an anatomical term applied to any cup-like cavity, as that of a bone to receive the protuberant end of another bone.
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ACETANILIDE

Acetanilide or antifibrine (phenyl-acetamide) was a medicine used as an antipyretic and analgesic in place of quinine. Acetanilide is a neutral chemical product derived from acetate of aniline at an elevated temperature by a dialytic action in which water is set, free. It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, brandy, and strong wines. It has been employed with excellent results as a pain-reliever in neuralgia and rheumatic affections, as a sedative febrifuge and antipyretic.
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ACETOHEXAMIDE

Acetohexamide is a medicine used to lower the level of glucose in the blood given to some people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes in pill form.
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ACETOPHENONE

Acetophenone (phenyl-methyl-ketone) is a medicine formerly used to induce sleep.
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ACETPHENOTIDINE

Acetphenotidine is a compound of acetyle when phenotidine, analogous to the composition of acetanilide, discovered by Hinsbarg and Kast. It was given to reduce temperature in fevers in doses of three to eight grains. It occurs in colourless or faintly reddish needles almost insoluble in water, but easily soluble in alcohol or diluted acetic acid. It is tasteless, and in large doses produces sleepiness, uncertain gait, vomiting and at last blueness of the mucous membranes of the mouth. Acetphenotidine was known to be in use in medicine in Victorian-era America towards the end of the 19th century.
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ACETYLCHOLINE

Acetylcholine (Ach) is a chemical that serves as a neurotransmitter, communicating nerve impulses between the cells of the nervous system. It is largely associated with the transmission of impulses across the synapse between nerve and muscle cells, causing the muscles to contract. ACh is produced in the synaptic knob and stored in vesicles until a nerve impulse triggers its discharge across the synapse. When the ACh reaches the membrane of the receiving cell it binds with a specific site and brings about depolarisation - a reversal of the electric charge on either side of the membrane causing a fresh impulse in nerve cells or a contraction in muscle cells. Its action is short-lived because it is quickly destroyed by the enzyme cholinesterase. Anticholinergic drugs have a number of uses in medicine to block the action of ACh, thereby disrupting the passage of nerve impulses and relaxing certain muscles, for example in premedication before surgery.
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ACHALASIA

Achalasia is a rare disorder of the oesophagus in which the muscle at the end of the oesophagus does not relax enough for the passage to open properly.
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ACHILLES REFLEX

The Achilles reflex, or ankle reflex, is a deep tendon reflex that is produced when the Achilles tendon is firmly tapped at the back of the ankle. The foot should flex downward. The reflex is often absent in diabetics and in people with peripheral neurological damage. A deep tendon reflex is a sudden contraction of a muscle in response to a sharp tap of a rubber hammer on a tendon of insertion of the muscle. Absence of this reflex may indicate neurological damage or damage to the muscle being tested.
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ACHILLES TENDINITIS

Achilles tendinitis is injury of the Achilles tendon.
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ACHILLES TENDON

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The Achilles Tendon is the tendon which connects the heel with the calf of the leg, and is the principal extensor of the foot.
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ACHLORHYDRIA

Achlorhydria is a lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach juice.
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ACHLUOPHOBIA

Achluophobia is the fear of darkness.
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ACHOR

Achor is (was?) a disease of infants, in which the head, face and breast become encrusted with thin, yellowish or greenish scabs.
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ACHROMATOPSIA

Achromatopsia (Aeritochromacy, Colour Blindness, Daltonism, Idioptcy) is the more or less complete inability to distinguish colours from each other. Achromatopsia is due to defects in the cone cells, and is inherited.
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ACIDOPHILUS

Acidophilus is a general used to describe a number of 'good' bacteria which help in both human and animal digestion.
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ACIDOSIS

Acidosis is a condition in which the body fluids tend to have a higher acid content than normal. The body has a variety of ways to compensate for mild acidosis, but prolonged acidosis can produce weakness, headache, and heavy or rapid breathing. Severe acidosis may lead to acidemia (a build-up of acids in the blood) which can result in coma and death. Acidosis itself is not a disease, but it may warn of the presence of a disease. It arises from disorders that cause the body to accumulate excess acid or to lose too much alkali. Most of these disorders are respiratory failures or metabolic failures. Respiratory acidosis results from such disturbances as severe lung disease, blockage of the upper air passages, and chest injury. Metabolic failures involve malfunctioning of the process by which the body changes food into energy and tissue. Metabolic acidosis arises from kidney failure, diabetes, poisoning, and severe diarrhoea. Treatment usually consists of correcting the underlying problem and administering sodium bicarbonate or another alkaline substance through a vein.
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ACIMOX

Acimox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ACNE

Acne is a skin eruption due to inflammation of the sebaceous glands. An individual cyst being properly known as a wen.
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More information about Acne

ACOUSTIC NERVE

The acoustic nerve is the eighth cranial nerve, extending from the ear to the brain. The cochlear portion of the acoustic nerve conveys sound impulses from the inner ear to the brain and the vestibular portions convey the sensations of balance from the semicircular canals in the inner ear to the brain. The acoustic nerve is an important nerve to the sense of hearing and the sense of balance.
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ACOUSTICOPHOBIA

Acousticophobia is the fear of sound.
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ACRIFLAVINE

Acriflavine is an antiseptic powder.
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ACROMEGALY

Acromegaly is a disease due to over activity of the pituitary gland results in excessive bone growth, especially the skull.
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ACROMION

The acromion is the lateral projection from the spine of the scapula. The plough blade-like projection serves as a site of attachment for both the trapezius and deltoid muscles, which assist in giving the shoulder its strength during flexion.
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ACROPHOBIA

Acrophobia is the fear of being at a great height.
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ACROSOME

The acrosome is a thin cap of protoplasm encasing the head of a sperm. The acrosome is believed to contain an enzyme, hyaluronidase, that dissolves the corona radiata, the protective outer coat of the ovum, making sperm penetration easier. The enzyme of the acrosome of one sperm is insufficient to break down the ovum membrane. Therefore, contrary to popular opinion, it takes more than one spermatozoon to produce a baby. Only one sperm, however, will actually penetrate the egg.
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ACTH

ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) or corticotrophin is a polypeptide hormone, secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that stimulates growth of the adrenal gland and the synthesis and secretion of corticosteroids. It is used in treating rheumatoid arthritis, allergic and skin diseases, and many other disorders.
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ACTIMOXI

Actimoxi is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ACTINOMYCOSIS

Actinomycosis or Madura disease (popularly known as lumpy jaw), is a disease due to the ray fungus, and occurs in domestic animals - notably cattle, and occasionally human beings who work with cattle and can become infected. Suppurative swellings develop in certain parts of the body, namely the neck and jaw, the intestines - especially the appendix and large bowel - and the lungs. Secondary abscesses are often formed in other adjacent organs. The pulmonary type of disease resembles chronic bronchitis or tuberculosis and is generally fatal, although the disease runs a long course. In the other types the outlook is more hopeful.
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ACUPRESSURE

Acupressure is a means of arresting bleeding from a cut artery introduced by Sir James Simpson in 1859, and consisting in compressing the artery above the orifice, that is, on the side nearest the heart, with the middle of a needle introduced through the tissues.
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ACUPUNCTURE

Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that has been used in China for several thousands of years. The procedure has its roots in ancient Chinese philosophy, the belief that man is one with the universe and that all life is permeated with the life giving energy of chi. Part of this belief is that all of our experiences have opposites, such as hot and cold, day and night. These opposites are referred to as Yin and Yang. They merge and complement one another through out life, creating a balance. When the forces are in balance a person is in good health. When the forces are not in balance, disease may occur. Acupuncture is a method used to restore the balance in life. In the 1960's a team of doctors from the West were invited by Mao Tse-tung to visit China and investigate the technique of acupuncture. Although it is often thought of as alternative medicine, it has been surprisingly successful in the treatment of many ailments where more conventional methods have not been successful.
Acupuncture is most often used to treat rheumatism, backache, and headaches. Doctors are still unable to explain the mystery of why and how it works, although there are several theories. Although acupuncture can be successful, when not practiced properly it can cause infection and nerve, vessel, or organ damage. It is important to carefully choose your acupuncturist. Inquire whether the acupuncturist has been formally trained and is experienced.
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ACUTE PROSTATITIS

Acute prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate, a condition often heralded by symptoms similar to those of cystitis: frequent, painful urination and nocturia. There may also be a discharge from the urethra. Prostatitis may also be accompanied by fever, chills, and pain in the perineal region behind the scrotum, the lower back, or above the pubic bone. The most common cause of acute prostatitis is bacterial infection, which can result from infected urine.
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ADAM'S APPLE

Adam's Apple is the popular name for the thyroid cartilage. That is the prominence seen in the front of the throat of man. It is small and invisible in females. It is so called from the notion that a piece of the forbidden fruit stuck in Adam's throat.
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ADBIOTIN

Adbiotin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ADDICTION

Addiction is a state of dependence caused by the habitual use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. It is characterised by uncontrolled craving, tolerance, and symptoms of withdrawal when access is denied. Habitual use produces changes in body chemistry and treatment must be geared to a gradual reduction in dosage. Initially, only opium and its derivatives (morphine, heroin, codeine) were recognised as addictive, but many other drugs, whether therapeutic (such as tranquillisers) or recreational (such as cocaine and alcohol), are now known to be addictive. Research points to a genetic predisposition to addiction; environment and psychological make-up are other factors. Although physical addiction always has a psychological element, not all psychological dependence is accompanied by physical dependence. A carefully controlled withdrawal programme can reverse the chemical changes of habituation. A cure is difficult because of the many other factors contributing to addiction.
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ADDISON'S DISEASE

Addison's Disease (also known as adrenal insufficiency) is a dangerous affection of the renal capsules characterised by deep bronzing of the skin, anaemia, and extreme weakness. It was first described by Thomas Addison in 1855.
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ADDUCTOR

An adductor is a muscle which draws one part of the body towards another; the term is applied in zoology to one of the muscles which bring together the valves of the shell of the bivalve molluscs.
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ADDUCTOR BREVIS

The adductor brevis is a muscle of the leg that lies just behind the adductor longus.
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ADDUCTOR LONGUS

The adductor longus is a long triangular muscle, originating with both fleshy fibres and a strong tendon from a small area on the front of the pubic bone of the pelvis and inserts in the femur.
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ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle that forms a dividing wall between the muscles of the inner thigh and those on the back of the thigh. It is located on the inside of the thigh. This long muscle originates from a narrow point on the pelvis bone (ischiopubic ramus), passes between the masses of the hamstring and quadriceps groups and inserts, at its wide apex, in the linea aspera and on the back of the femur. It is a powerful muscle that adducts the thigh. It is innervated by the obturator and the sciatic nerves and is supplied by the profunda femoris artery. The small, flat uppermost portion of the adductor magnus is called the adductor minimus. These muscles are innervated by the obturator nerve and supplied by branches of the femoral artery.
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ADDUCTOR TRANSVERSUS HALLUCIS

The adductor transversus hallucis (adductor hallucis) is a narrow, flat band of muscle tissue that originates from the medial process of the tuber calcanei, the flexor retinaculum, and the plantar aponeurosis. It stretches across the metatarsal bones and lies between the bones and the flexor tendons and inserts in the side of the proximal phalanx of the big toe. The adductor transversus hallucis is innervated by the medial plantar nerve and supplied by the plantar artery. The muscle is named after the direction of its muscle fibres.
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ADDUCTOR TRANSVERSUS POLLICIS

The adductor transversus pollicis (adductor pollicis) is a deep muscle that is flat and triangular in form. It passes from the middle of the palm to the thumb. It originates by two heads. One head (caput transversum) originates from the palmar side of the third metacarpal bone and the other head (caput obliquum) originates from the base of the second metacarpal, the trapezium, and the capitate bones. The two heads join and insert in the base of the thumb on the ulnar side. The muscle is innervated by the ulnar nerve and supplied by branches of the ulnar artery. This muscle works with the first dorsal interosseus to grasp objects between the thumb and index finger.
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ADENITIS

Adenitis is an inflammation of the lymphatic glands. It may be either acute or chronic. As a rule, adenitis is a symptom of some disease process within the area of the body that is drained by the lymphatic channels in which the affected lymphatic glands are situated. In acute adenitis the disease is usually an infected wound or sore, the invading micro-organisms being carried away by the lymphatics and trapped in the glands, where, in turn, they set up inflammation, causing enlargement of the gland, and sometimes suppuration. Chronic adenitis may be due to a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis. Lymphatic glands are also the seat of secondary cancer, the malignant growth cells being carried along the lymphatic channels from the primary cancer. Lymphadenoma or Hodgkin's disease also causes enlargement of the lymphatic glands.
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ADENOIDS

Adenoids is the pathological enlargement of the lymphoid tissue, arranged as a series of folds behind the opening of the auditory tube in the nasopharynx; also known as the pharyngeal tonsils.
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ADENOVIRUS

An adenovirus is a member of a group of viruses that may cause upper respiratory diseases in man.
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ADIPOSE TISSUE

Adipose tissue is one of the many different types of connective tissue found in the human body. Connective tissue composes the dermis of the skin. Unlike the cells of the epithelial layer of the epidermis, which are crowded close together, the cells of connective tissue are scattered far apart with many fibres between them. Adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue that stores fat and releases it in response to a variety of nervous and hormonal stimuli. It also acts as an insulator to help maintain body temperature and acts as a protective padding in certain areas. Adipose tissue is also found in bone marrow.
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ADRENAL GLANDS

The adrenal glands are a pair of glands above the kidneys which secrete adrenaline and other hormones. Each adrenal gland consists of an inner part called the medulla and an outer part called the cortex. The adrenal medulla is the source of epinephrine, also called adrenaline, and norepinephrine, which affect a number of body functions; for example, they stimulate cardiac action, increase the blood pressure, and affect constriction and dilation of blood vessels and musculature. All these actions help the organism deal with acute emergencies more effectively and efficiently. The adrenal cortex elaborates a group of hormones known as glucocorticoids, which include cortisone and hydrocortisone, and the mineralocorticoids, which include aldosterone and other hormonal substances that are essential to the maintenance of life and to adaptation to stress. Adrenal secretions regulate the salt and water balance of the body, influence the blood pressure, affect lymphatic tissue, influence the mechanisms of the immune system, and regulate carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In addition to these functions, the adrenal glands also elaborate male and female hormones.
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AEROACROPHOBIA

Aeroacrophobia is the fear of open high places.
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AEROLIN

Aerolin is a brand name for albuterol.
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AERONAUSIPHOBIA

Aeronausiphobia is the fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.
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AEROPHOBIA

Aerophobia is the fear of draughts.
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AEROTHERAPEUTICS

Aerotherapeutics is a method of treating disease by varying the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere, or by modifying its composition, or by change of climate. Atmospheric pressure may be varied in an air-tight chamber.
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AERUOPHOBIA

Aeruophobia is the fear of flying.
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AESTHESIA

Aesthesia is the state of sensibility, or being capable of feeling. The term is also applied to the state of consciousness. The opposite term to aesthesia is anaesthesia.
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AETIOLOGY

Aetiology or etiology is the study of the causes of diseases. The term is also given in medicine to the cause of a disease.
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AFFERENT ARTERIOLE

The afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole feed blood into and out of the Bowman's capsule. The afferent arteriole transports blood from the interlobular artery to the capsule to be filtered. The efferent arteriole transports the filtered blood from the capsule to the medullary plexus, and then to the interlobular vein.
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AFLATOXIN

Aflatoxin is a toxin produced naturally by the mould Aspergillus flavus commonly found in peanuts, cottonseed, soybeans, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum and nuts such as pistachios, almonds and cacao. Symptoms of poisoning include weight loss, loss of co-ordination, convulsions and death. It also damages the liver and causes liver tumours when consumed at low levels for a long period of time. In the Gambia during the late 20th century, liver cancer attributed to daily consumption of aflatoxins in peanuts and rice, caused ten percent of deaths among men. Aflatoxin, when taken regularly, also damages the immune system causing susceptibility to infectious diseases such as pneumonia. Aflatoxins are found in the blood system of almost all inhabitants of rural Africa.
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AGAR

Agar is a laxative substance obtained from seaweed.
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AGERPEN

Agerpen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AGLIOPHOBIA

Agliophobia is the fear of pain.
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AGONIST

An agonist is a drug that both binds to receptors and has an intrinsic effect; a drug that triggers an action from a cell or a drug.
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AGORAPHOBIA

Agoraphobia is the fear of open spaces.
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AGRAPHIA

Agraphia is the impairment, or the loss of the ability to express in writing.
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AGRAPHOBIA

Agraphobia is the fear of sexual abuse.
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AGRIZOOPHOBIA

Agrizoophobia is the fear of wild animals.
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AGUE

Ague is another name for malaria.
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AGYROPHOBIA

Agyrophobia is the fear of streets or crossing the street.
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AICHMOPHOBIA

Aichmophobia is the fear of needles or pointed objects.
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AICHUROPHOBIA

Aichurophobia is the fear of needles or pointed objects.
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AILUROPHOBIA

Ailurophobia is the fear of cats.
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AINHUM

Ainhum (meaning to saw) was the name given to a peculiar affliction first described by da Silva Lima of Buhia in 1867 and encountered among the natives of the west coast of Africa and Hindus born and raised there. The disease was described as a spontaneous amputation of the little toes of the Negroes unaccompanied by any other affection or constitutional derangement. It was described as not being painful. Dr da Silva Lima claimed that males were more susceptible to the condition than females, but that the cause was entirely obscure.
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ALANINE

Alanine is an amino acid derivative of the pyruvic family of biochemical compounds. Alanine and its isomers have been classified as non-essential to growth based upon laboratory study, but is widely found in proteins.
Alanine is commonly synthesized in laboratories and used for biochemical research.
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ALAR NASAL CARTILAGE

Alar nasal cartilage makes up the apex of the nose. The apex of the nose is made up of paired lateral alar cartilages. Each lateral alar cartilage has a shape similar to a horseshoe and partially encircles the nostril. These make up the large, flat lateral wall and the inferior extension makes up the medial wall. The medial wall forms the movable nasal septum, which divides the nasal cavity. Two to four lesser alar cartilages (sesamoid cartilages) are also found on each side of the nose at the back end of the lateral wall of the alar cartilage.
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ALBUGO

Albugo is an affection of the eye, consisting of a white opacity in the cornea.
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ALBUMIN

Albumin is one of the three main components of plasma. The other two proteins are globulins and fibrinogen. All three proteins are manufactured by the liver. These three proteins circulate in plasma and act as carriers for small molecules. Albumin, the most plentiful, is similar in texture to egg whites and gives blood its gummy texture. It is soluble in water and coagulable by heat. The globulins, three in number: alpha, beta, and gamma. They are divided on the basis of electrophoretic mobility. The globulins transport certain proteins. They number half the albumin proteins found in plasma. The globulin proteins are insoluble in water, soluble in saline solutions, and coagulable by heat. Globulins are also found in cerebrospinal fluid. Gamma globulins are the antibodies of the blood, giving immunity to disease. Only 3% of plasma is made up of fibrinogen. It is an important link in the chain of reactions that leads to blood clotting (coagulation). It uses the enzyme thrombin to form a web of fine protein fibres, called fibrin, that bind blood cells together, creating a bridge over which injured tissue can rebuild itself while blood continues to flow underneath. As an important factor to coagulation, it is often referred to as factor I.
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ALBUMINUROPHOBIA

Albuminurophobia is the fear of kidney disease.
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ALBUTEROL

Albuterol (salbutamol) is a drug used to relieve bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease.
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ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITOR

Aldose reductase inhibitors are a class of drugs believed to prevent eye and nerve damage in people with diabetes. Aldose reductase is an enzyme that is normally present in the eye and in many other parts of the body. It helps change glucose into the sugar alcohol sorbitol. Too much sorbitol trapped in eye and nerve cells can damage these cells, leading to retinopathy and neuropathy. Drugs that prevent or slow the action of aldose reductase are a possible way to prevent or delay these complications of diabetes.
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ALDOSTERONE

Aldosterone is the principal mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. A synthesized form of aldosterone is used in the treatment of Addison's Disease.
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ALEKTOROPHOBIA

Alektorophobia is the fear of chickens.
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ALEXIPHARMIC

In medicine, the term alexipharmic describes something used as an antidote to a poison.
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ALFAMOX

Alfamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ALGOPHOBIA

Algophobia is the fear of experiencing or witnessing bodily pain.
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ALIMENTARY

The alimentary canal is the channel in an animal through which food passes.
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ALKALOSIS

Alkalosis is a condition in which a person's body fluids become too alkaline. The body adjusts to mild alkalosis but severe alkalosis can result in muscular weakness, convulsions, coma, and even death. Most cases of alkalosis arise from disorders or drugs that cause the body to lose too much acid, thus upsetting the normal balance of acid and alkali. Disorders that can result in alkalosis include prolonged vomiting and hyperventilation. Prolonged alkalosis causes excessive loss of hydrochloric acid from the stomach. During hyperventilation, a person exhales too much carbon dioxide, lowering the level of carbonic acid in the blood.
Alkalosis can arise from the prolonged use of such drugs as diuretics. Treatment of alkalosis usually consists of correcting the underlying disorder or reducing the drug intake. A solution containing a weak acid may be administered through a vein to help restore the body's normal acid- alkali balance.
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ALLERGY

An allergy is a hypersensitivity of body tissue to a substance.
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ALLIUMPHOBIA

Alliumphobia is the fear of garlic.
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ALLODOXAPHOBIA

Allodoxaphobia is the fear of opinions.
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ALLOPATHY

Allopathy is the mode of curing diseases by using medicines which produce in the system a condition contrary to that of the disease. The term was first used by Hahnemann to indicate the methods of orthodox medicine.
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ALMODAN

Almodan is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ALOPECIA ADNATA

Alopecia adnata is a technical term for baldness at or soon after birth.
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ALOPECIA AREATA

Alopecia Areata or 'patchy baldness' is a disease in which the hair is lost from small parts of the body resulting in patches of baldness.
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ALOPECIA CICATRISATA

Alopecia Cicatrisata is a rare disease of the scalp which manifests itself in the early stages by tiny areas of baldness.
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ALOPECIA COMPRESSIO

Alopecia Compressio is baldness resulting from straining the hair roots, typically by tying the hair too tightly.
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ALOPECIA DYNAMICA

Alopecia Dynamica is baldness resulting from the destruction of the hair follicles.
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ALOPECIA FOLLICULARIS

Alopecia Follicularis is baldness resulting from the inflammation of the hair follicles.
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ALOPECIA MALIGNA

Alopecia Maligna is a severe form of baldness affecting the entire head, including the eyebrows and beard.
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ALOPECIA NEUROTICA

Alopecia neurotica is a type of baldness resulting from a trauma.
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ALOPECIA PARVIMACULATA

Alopecia parvimaculata is a disease in which hair is lost in very small, irregularly shaped patches.
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ALOPECIA PITYROIDES

Alopecia pityroides is baldness due to pityriasis capitis.
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ALOPECIA PREMATURA

Alopecia prematura is premature baldness, occurring in youth.
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ALOPECIA PREMATURA IDIOPATHICA

Alopecia prematura idiopathica is a slow thinning of the hair prematurely, before middle-age.
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ALOPECIA PREMATURA SYMPTOMATICA

Alopecia prematura symptomatica is premature baldness caused by illness. The baldness is often temporary.
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ALOPECIA PUBERTATIS

Alopecia pubertatis is the loss of hair by teenage girls.
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ALOPECIA PUERPERA

Alopecia puerpera is a woman's loss of hair following confinement.
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ALOPECIA SEBORRHEICA

Alopecia seborrheica is hair loss or baldness caused by a seborrheic condition of the scalp.
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ALOPECIA SENILIS

Alopecia senilis is hair loss or baldness of old age.
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ALOPECIA SYPHILITICA

Alopecia syphilitica is partial baldness of the scalp, beard or eyebrows due to syphilis.
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ALOPECIA TOTALIS

Alopecia totalis is total baldness of the scalp.
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ALOPECIA UNIVERSALIS

Alopecia universalis is complete hair loss from the body.
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ALOXYN

Aloxyn is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN

Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein that forms in the liver of the human foetus. Excessive quantities in the amniotic fluid and maternal blood may indicate spina bifida in the foetus; low levels may indicate Down's syndrome.
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ALPHAMOX

Alphamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ALPROSTADIL

Alprostadil is a synthetic hormone used to induce labour (through ripening the cervix) in pregnant women. It is applied as a gel behind the cervix, which it is absorbed by and causes the cervix to dilate and contractions to occur. It carries with it the risk of distressing the baby which may not be able to cope with the sudden and violent contractions, and may also have the side effect of causing the woman to experience a long and agonising labour of pseudo-contractions before real contractions commence.
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ALTERATIVES

Alteratives are medicines, such as mercury, iodine, etc, which, administered in small doses, gradually induce a change in the habit or constitution, and imperceptibly alter disordered secretions and actions, and restore healthy functions without producing any sensible evacuation by perspiration, purging, or vomiting.
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ALTOPHOBIA

Altophobia is the fear of heights.
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ALVEOLAR PROCESS

The alveolar process is the lower part of the maxilla where the teeth are mounted. At each tooth site on the alveolar process is a rounded bump, showing where the roots of the teeth, their nerves, and the blood vessels which nourish them lie beneath.
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ALVEOLAR SEPTUM

The alveolar septum is the thin wall which separates one alveolus from another in the large alveolar cluster, or sac. The alveolar septum may be fully formed or only partially formed, as alveoli may be completely spherical or partially joined with a neighbouring alveolus. Within the material of the alveolar walls and septa are the capillary networks which bring the oxygen-poor, carbon dioxide- rich blood to be regenerated.
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ALVEOLI

The alveoli are the tiny sacs at the ends of the bronchial tree. Each small bronchiole divides into half a dozen or so alveolar ducts, which are the narrow inlets into alveolar sacs. Each alveolar duct subdivides, leading into three or more alveolar sacs. Each large alveolar sac is like a grape cluster which contains ten or more alveoli. Because the membrane separating the alveolus and the capillary network which carries blood over them is very thin and semi-permeable, oxygen can transfer from the air into the blood cells within the capillaries. Likewise, carbon dioxide and other waste gases can transfer out of the blood and into the air to be exhaled from the lungs. The alveoli are particularly susceptible to infection, as they provide bacteria and viruses a perfect place to grow. This accounts for the tendency for a chest cold or other lung problem to advance into pneumonia and pneumonitis, both potentially dangerous conditions in which the innermost parts of the lungs become infected and inflamed, diminishing air flow and oxygen transport.
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ALVEOLUS

Alveolus are the bone cavities in the mandible or maxilla in which the teeth are anchored. The teeth are anchored in these sockets by the root canals, or cones, of the teeth. The nourishing blood vessels and nerves pass from the tooth socket into the tooth by way of the apical foramina in the bottom of each root cone.
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ALVINE

The term alvine refers to something associated with or pertaining to the abdomen or intestines.
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ALZHEIMERS DISEASE

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the nerve cells in the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The brain actually shrinks in the progressive process of the disease. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. or loss of intellectual function. The dementia eventually becomes so severe that it interferes with an individual's daily functioning and eventually results in death. Although originally classified as a 'pre-senile' dementia, Alzheimer's disease is now known to be responsible for 75 percent of the dementia cases in those over 65 years of age. It is the fourth leading cause of death in adults, after heart disease, cancer and stroke. Men and women are affected almost equally. The features of the disease vary greatly among individuals. General symptoms can include: Gradual memory loss Decline in the ability to perform routine tasks Disorientation Difficulty in learning and remembering Loss of language skills Impairment of judgment and planning Personality changes These are also symptoms of other diseases, some of which are treatable. The rate of progression of this disease varies from person to person. Eventually persons with Alzheimer's may become totally incapable of caring for themselves.
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AM 73

AM 73 is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMAGESEN SOLUTAB

Amagesen Solutab is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMATHOPHOBIA

Amathophobia is the fear of dust.
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AMAUROSIS

Amaurosis is an obsolete term for loss of sight without apparent defect in the eye, usually thought to be a defect with the optic nerve. The term became obsolete around 1900.
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AMAXOPHOBIA

Amaxophobia is the fear of riding in a car, or vehicles.
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AMBLYOPIA

Amblyopia is an impairment of the vision without discoverable disease or change in the tissues of the eye.
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AMBULOPHOBIA

Ambulophobia is the fear of walking.
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AMCILL

Amcill is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMEBIASIS

Amebiasis is a protozoan parasitic infection caused by the ameba Entamoeba histolytica, which lives in the large intestine of humans as part of the resident flora. Humans contract the infection is acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated with faeces. It occurs most often in poor countries where the standards of public hygiene and sanitation are low. Once ingested, the incubation period varies from a few days to several months. In rare cases, the symptoms may not appear for years. Entamoeba histolytica competes with the host for food in the large intestine. It multiples by simple division. Protective cysts develop and the organism is passed out with faeces. The cysts can survive long periods before the next host acquires them. Some strains of the ameba are harmless and the people carrying them show no symptoms. Other strains invade the intestinal wall causing bleeding and mucus secretion and diarrhoea. Ulcers are formed in the intestinal wall where the ameba gain access to the bloodstream and move to the liver and/or brain. Symptoms of severe amebiasis include persistent moderate to severe diarrhoea, jaundice, abdominal discomfort and in severe cases the development of an abscess in the liver or in the brain.
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AMENORRHOEA

Amenorrhoea is a medical condition being the absence or suspension of menstruation.
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AMENTIA

Amentia is a lack of mental development, extreme mental subnormality or feeble-mindedness.
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AMERICOPHOBIA

Americophobia is the fear of American people and things.
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AMETROPIA

Ametropia is a defective condition of the eye in which distant objects are not brought into focus upon the retina when the accommodation of the eye is relaxed.
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AMITOSIS

Amitosis is the anatomical term given to cell reproduction by direct division. The nucleus becomes constricted in the middle, forming an hour-glass shape and then divides into two. This is followed by a division of the whole protoplasmic mass of the cell; two daughter cells are thus formed, each containing a nucleus. Direct division occurs in leukocytes and bone-cells, and in the epithelial cells lining the urinary bladder.
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AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

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Ammonium Chloride (Sal Ammoniac) is a fibrous mass prepared by neutralising ammonia with hydrochloric acid. It is used in medicine, dyeing and soldering. It has the formulae NH4Cl.
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AMNESIA

Amnesia is the loss of memory. The term is especially applied to the inability to remember or understand a familiar word.
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AMNESIPHOBIA

Amnesiphobia is the fear of amnesia.
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AMNIOCENTESIS

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure sometimes performed during pregnancy to help determine the health and maturity of an unborn baby. It involves the withdrawal and study of a small amount of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the foetus in the mother's uterus. Laboratory tests on the fluid, which contains cells shed by the foetus, enable detection of many serious disorders that may affect the foetus. Such disorders include Down's syndrome and spina bifida. Amniocentesis involves little risk to either the mother or the foetus.
Amniocentesis is mostly performed around the 16th week of pregnancy on 'at risk' mothers. These include those more than 35 years of age and those with genetic disorders in the family. If tests reveal serious abnormality, likely to cause death or pronounced handicap, the parents may choose to end the pregnancy. Otherwise, doctors can plan ahead for early treatment, either in the womb or at birth. If there is some medical reason for delivering a baby before it is due to be born, amniocentesis may be performed later in pregnancy. In this case, tests show whether the baby is likely to survive outside the womb. An obstetrician performs amniocentesis with the aid of ultrasound which enables the obstetrician to monitor the position of the foetus while inserting a long hollow needle through the mother's abdominal wall and into the uterus. The obstetrician then withdraws a small amount of amniotic fluid, which is sent away for testing.
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AMNION

The amnion is a membranous sac which surrounds the embryo; it is developed in reptiles, birds and mammals, but not in amphibians or fishes.
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AMO-FLAMSIAN

Amo-flamsian is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOCLEN

Amoclen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMODEX

Amodex is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOEBIC DYSENTERY

Amoebic dysentery is an illness caused by the pathogen Entamoeba histolytica which is transmitted by the faecal-oral route. Cysts are excreted in the faeces of an infected individual or carrier and ingested through faecally-contaminated food, water, objects, etc. After excystation, the trophozoites penetrate the walls of the large intestines causing ulceration and frequently causing the symptoms of dysentery. Involvement of the liver and other organs may occur if the protozoan invades the blood.
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AMOENOMANIA

Amoenomania ('agreeable mania') is a form of mania in which the hallucinations are of an agreeable character.
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AMOFLUX

Amoflux is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOLIN

Amolin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOSINE

Amosine is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOX

Amox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXA

Amoxa is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXAL

Amoxal is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXAPEN

Amoxapen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXAREN

Amoxaren is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXCILLIN

Amoxcillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXI

Amoxi is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXI-BASAN

Amoxi-basan is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIBIOTIC

Amoxibiotic is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXICILINA

Amoxicilina is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXICILLIN

Amoxicillin is a semi-synthetic penicillin, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative micro-organisms. It is used in the treatment of: Gonorrhoea
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AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE

Amoxicillin trihydrate is a drug used to treat systemic infections and acute and chronic urinary tract infections. It has the possible side effects of: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hypersensitivity (rash) and itching.
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AMOXIDAL

Amoxidal is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIDEN

Amoxiden is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIDIN

Amoxidin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIHEXAL

Amoxihexal is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIL

Amoxil is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXILLIN

Amoxillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIN

Amoxin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIPEN

Amoxipen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIPENIL

Amoxipenil is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXISOL

Amoxisol is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIVAN

Amoxivan is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXIVET

Amoxivet is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXTREX

Amoxtrex is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXY

Amoxy is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXY-DIOLAN

Amoxy-diolan is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXYBID

Amoxybid is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXYCILLIN

Amoxycillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMOXYPEN

Amoxypen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMPHETAMINE

Amphetamine is a drug that induces sleeplessness.
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AMPICILLIN TRIHYDRATE

Ampicillin trihydrate is a drug used to treat systemic infections and acute and chronic urinary tract infections. It has the possible side effects of: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), hypersensitivity (rash) and itching.
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AMPIDROXYL

Ampidroxyl is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AMPULLA

The ampulla are small dilatations formed by the lactiferous tubules. They serve as reservoirs for milk at the base of the nipple. These ducts increase in capacity during pregnancy and in breast- feeding the pressure of the baby's gums on the areola stimulates the milk flow.
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AMYCHOPHOBIA

Amychophobia is the fear of scratches or being scratched.
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AMYGDALA

The amygdala is an almond-shaped region of the brain adjacent to the hippocampus, that links the cortex, responsible for conscious thought, with the regions controlling emotions. A 1994 American study showed that it was involved in interpreting fear-provoking information and linking it to fear responses. For example, where the amygdala is damaged patients are unable to recognise fearful expressions.
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AMYL NITRATE

Amyl nitrate is a powerful poison with a specific action on the heart and blood-vessels. It is inhaled in small doses in certain diseases of the heart and in asthma. Nowadays, Amyl nitrite is used as a narcotic and sold under the name 'poppers'. It is popular amongst club goers, and particularly the gay community because of it's supposed property of enhancing sexual pleasure, where it contributes to the high instances of AIDs by its adverse effect upon the immune system.
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AMYLOID

Amyloid is a complex protein resembling starch, which is deposited in tissues in some degenerative diseases.
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AMYOTROPHY

Amyotrophy is the wasting of muscles, caused by disease of the nerves supplying them.
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ANABLEPHOBIA

Anablephobia is the fear of looking up.
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ANACROTISM

Anacrotism is an irregularity of the pulse.
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ANAEMIA

Anaemia is the medical condition of lacking red blood cells or haemoglobin or both. I anaemic conditions the blood can carry less oxygen round the body, and is slower in removing the waste substances such as carbon dioxide from the tissues and organs.
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ANAESTHESIA

Anaesthesia, anesthesia or anaesthesis is a state of insensibility to pain or of unconciousness, Anaesthesia may be due to disease, or artifically induced, formerly by inhaling chloroform, now by the application of other anaesthetic agents, such as morphine. Anaesthesia is the opposite state to aesthesia.
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ANAESTHETICS

Anaesthetics are medical agents employed for the removal of pain, especially in surgical operations, by suspending sensibility either locally or generally.

In ancient writers we read of insensibility or indifference to pain being obtained by means of Indian hemp, (canuabis Indica) either inhaled or taken into the stomach. The Chinese more than 1,500 years ago used a preparation of hemp, or ma-yo, to annul pain. The Greeks and Romans used mandragora for a similar purpose, (poiein, anaisthesian) and as late as the 13th century the vapor from a sponge filled with mandragora, opium, and other sedatives was used. Compression of the nerves and blood-vessels and the inhalation of the vapor of mixtures containing carbonic anhydride were practiced at an early date. In the 16th century ether was probably the active ingredient of a volatile anaesthetic described by Porta. The use of anaesthetics was, however, but little understood and rarely practiced. Even the suggestion of Sir Humphry Davy that nitrous oxide should be used in minor operations not attended by loss of blood was of little practical value, on account of the inefficient apparatus then available.

In 1818 Faraday established the anaesthetic properties of sulphuric ether, but this agent made no advance beyond the region of experiment, until 1844, when Dr. Horace Wells, an American dentist of Hartford, Connecticut, applied the inhalation of sulphuric ether in the extraction of teeth, but owing to some misadventure did not persevere with it an in 1845 Horace Wells inhaled laughing-gas so successfully that he may be said to have introduced the practice; but he appears to have so often failed to produce the desired effect that this agent fell into disuse on the introduction of ether in 1846 by Dr. Morton, a Boston dentist, who also extended the use of ether to other surgical operations. The practice was soon after introduced into England by Mr. Listen, and a London dentist, Mr. Robinson. A few weeks later Sir James Simpson made the first application of ether in a case of midwifery. This was early in 1847. Towards the end of the same year Simpson had his attention called to the anaesthetic efficacy of chloroform, and announced it as a superior agent to ether. This agent was at the start of the 20th century the most extensively used anaesthetic, though the use of ether still largely prevailed in the United States. In their general effects ether and chloroform are very similar; but the latter tends to enfeeble the action of the heart more readily than the former. For this reason great caution has to be used in administering chloroform where there is weak heart action from disease. Local anaesthesia is produced by isolating the part of the body to be operated upon, and producing insensibility of the nerves in that locality. Dr. Richardson's method was to apply the spray of ether, which, by its rapid evaporation, chills and freezes the tissues and produces complete anaesthesia. This mode of treatment, besides its use in minor surgical operations, has recently begun to have important remedial applications. Around 1905 a new valuable local anaesthetic, cocaine was
duced which is now the prevalent local anaesthetic in use.

In 1933 the first barbiturate general anaesthetic was used, hexobarbitone, other barbiturates are now used, most commonly thiopentone and also propofol and ketamine which have effects lasting a shorter period of time and less of a hangover effect on the patient. Chloroform and ether not being used since the introduction of barbiturates due to the reduction of complications, though barbiturates are still dangerous and premedication is widely used with them.
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ANALEPTIC

Analeptic is a term applied to those drugs or other means which are used to restore strength after disease.
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ANALGESIA

Analgesia is the absence of, or insensibility to pain.
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ANALGESIC

An analgesic is a pain reliever, something which dulls the sensibility to pain or induces analgesia.
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ANAPHALACROSIS

Anaphalacrosis is baldness extending to the crown.
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ANAPHASE

Anaphase is the third stage of mitosis cell reproduction. The centromeres split into two halves which repel each other.
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ANAPHRODISIACS

Anaphrodisiacs are medicines which diminish the sexual passions, such as ice, cold baths, bromides, iodides, conium, camphor, digitalis, purgatives, nauseants, and bleeding.
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ANAPHYLAXIS

Anaphylaxis is a severe, allergic reaction, usually to an insect bite or sting, or to a food (for example, strawberries or onions). It is characterised by itching, rash, hives, runny nose, wheezing, paleness, cold sweats, low blood pressure, coma, or even cardiac arrest.
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ANAPLASTY

Anaplasty is another name for plastic surgery.
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ANARCHIC HAND SYNDROME

Anarchic hand syndrome is a condition, linked to brain damage, in which one hand acts on its own accord and against the conscious will of the patient. Anarchic hand syndrome was recognised around 2000, previously sufferers were diagnosed as having split personalities, and can be very embarrassing with the disobedient hand carrying out anti-social actions, picking up objects and dropping objects.
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ANARTHRIA

In anatomy, anarthria is the absence of joints. In psychology, anarthria is the impairment or loss of the ability to speak distinctly without paralysis of the muscles of articulation.
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ANASARCA

Anasarca is an effusion of serous fluid into the subcutaneous tissues, not limited to a particular locality, but becoming more or less diffused.
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ANATOMY

In the literal sense, anatomy means simply a cutting up, but is now generally applied both to the art of dissecting or artificially separating the different parts of an organized body (vegetable or animal) with a view to discover their situation, structure, and economy; and to the science which treats of the internal structure of organized bodies. The branch which treats the structure of plants is called vegetable anatomy or phytotomy, and that which treats of the structure of animals animal anatomy or zootomy, a special branch of the latter being human anatomy or anthropotomy.

Comparative anatomy is the science which compares the anatomy of different classes or species of animals, as that of man with quadrupeds, or that of quadrupeds with fishes; while special anatomy treats the construction, form, and structure of parts in a single animal. The special anatomy of an animal may be studied from various standpoints: with relation to the succession of forms which it exhibits from its first stage to its adult form (developmental or embryotical anatomy), with reference to the general properties and structure of the tissues or textures (general anatomy, histology), with reference to the changes in structure of organs or parts produced by disease and congenital malformations (morbid or pathological anatomy), or with reference to the function, use, or purpose performed by the organs or parts (ideological or physiological anatomy).

According to the parts of the body described the different divisions of human anatomy receive different names; as, osteology, the description of the bones; myology, of the muscles; demology, of the ligaments and sinews; splanchnology, of the viscera or internal organs, in which are reckoned the lungs, stomach, and intestines, the liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, pancreas, etc. Angiology describes the vessels through which the liquids in the body are conducted, including the blood-vessels, which are divided into arteries and veins, and the lymphatic vessels, some of which absorb matters from the bowels, while others are distributed through the whole body, collecting juices from the tissues and carrying them back into the blood. Neurology describes the system of the nerves and of the brain; dermatology treats of the skin.

Among anatomical labours are particularly to be mentioned the making and preserving of anatomical preparations. Preparations of this sort can be preserved (1) by drying them and clearing away all muscular adhesions, etc, as is done with skeletons, the bones of which are sometimes washed with acids to give firmness and whiteness; (2) by putting them into liquids, as alcohol, spirits of turpentine, etc, as is done with the intestines and other soft parts of the body; (3) by injection, which is used with vessels, the course and distribution of which are to be made sensible and the shape of which is to be retained; (4) by tanning and covering with a suitable varnish, as the muscles.

Among the ancient writers or authorities on human anatomy may be mentioned Hippocrates the younger who lived between 460 and 377 BC, Aristotle who lived between 384 and 322 BC, Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria who lived about 300 BC Celsus who lived between 53 BC and 37 AD, and Galen of Pergamus who lived between 140 and 200, the most celebrated of all the ancient authorities on the science. From his time until the revival of learning in Europe in the fourteenth century anatomy was checked in its progress.

In 1315 Mondino, professor at Bologna, first publicly performed dissection, and published a System of Anatomy, which was a text-book in the schools of Italy for about 200 years. In the sixteenth century Fallopio of Padua, Eustachi of Venice, Yesalius of Brussels, Varoli of Bologna, and many others, enriched anatomy with new discoveries. In the seventeenth century Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood, Asellius discovered the manner in which the nutritious part of the food is conveyed into the circulation, while the lymphatic system was detected and described by the Dane T. Bartoline.

Until 1832 the law of Great Britain made very insufficient provision for enabling anatomists to obtain the necessary supply of subjects for dissection. An act of some years previously had, it is true , empowered a criminal court, when it saw fit, to give up to properly qualified persons the body of a murderer after execution for dissection. This, however, was far from supplying the deficiency, and many persons, tempted by the high prices offered for bodies by anatomists, resorted to the nefarious practice of digging up newly-buried corpses, and frequently, as in the case of the notorious Burke and Hare of Edinburgh, to murder. To remedy these evils a statute was passed in 1832, which made provision for the wants of surgeons, students, or other duly qualified persons, by permitting, under certain regulations, the dissection of the bodies of persons who die friendless in alms-houses, hospitals, etc. The act also appointed inspectors of anatomy, regulated the anatomical schools, and required persons practising the operations to obtain a license. Relatives had a right under the law to effectually object to the anatomical examination of a body even though the deceased had expressed a desire for it.
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ANATROFIN

Anatrofin is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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ANAXVAR

Anaxvar is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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ANCONEUS

The anconeus is a small triangular muscle that originates just below the elbow joint at the lateral condyle of the humerus and extends a fourth of the way down the forearm to insert in the olecranon process and back of the ulna. It is located on the outer back corner of the elbow. The anconeus is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the radial artery. It extends and stabilizes the elbow joint.
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ANCRAOPHOBIA

Ancraophobia is the fear of wind.
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ANCYLOSTOMIASIS

Ancylostomiasis (ankylostomiasis, anchylostomiasis) popularly known as hookworm disease, is an infestation of the human intestine by blood-sucking hookworms that causes progressive anaemia.
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ANDROGEN

Androgen is a term embracing any of the male sex hormones, substances that induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics in males. The principal androgens are testosterone and androsterone. They are found in the male testes and adrenal glands, in which they are produced; in the blood, in which they circulate; and in the urine, in which they are excreted. Androgens function principally, beginning at puberty, in the stimulation of such secondary sex characteristics as development of the genital organs and maturation of sperm, growth of body hair, and changes in the larynx that lower the voice. They also account for the growth of muscle mass and bone tissue in the developing male.
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ANDROPHOBIA

Androphobia is the fear of men.
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ANEMOL

Anemol is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ANEMOPHOBIA

Anemophobia is the fear of wind.
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ANEURYSM

Aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge that forms in a weakened area of the wall of an artery or vein. The most dangerous aneurysms are those that form in arteries, especially the arteries of the brain and the aorta. Most aneurysms result from atherosclerosis, a disease caused by cholesterol build-up in artery walls. Other causes of aneurysms include genetic disorders or other defects present at birth. The symptoms of an aneurysm vary with its location and size. There may be no symptoms, or pain may develop at the site of the aneurysm. Shortness of breath occurs if the aneurysm interferes with the heart's pumping ability. Some aneurysms press on nearby structures, producing a cough, hoarseness, or difficulty in swallowing. An aneurysm may worsen without the patient knowing and then suddenly rupture, causing a coma, paralysis, or death. Many strokes result from the rupture of an aneurysm in an artery of the brain.
Aneurysms can be detected with X-rays and, in many cases, can repair them surgically. Surgeons remove the diseased portion of the blood vessel. If it is a minor vessel, they tie off the loose ends. In a major artery or vein, they replace the diseased portion with a plastic tube, a fabric patch, or a piece of another blood vessel.
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ANGINA

Angina is any disease of the throat or pharynx, characterised by spasmodic suffocative attacks.
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ANGINA PECTORIS

Angina pectoris or heart-stroke is sense of suffocating or pain in the chest caused by a lack of blood being supplied to the heart muscle, thereby causing insufficient oxygen to be supplied to the heart. The cause of the pain is suspected to be a build-up of irritant acids in the heart muscle deprived of oxygen, not unlike the ache one feels in other muscles during and after strenuous exercise.
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ANGINOPHOBIA

Anginophobia is the fear of narrowness.
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ANGLOPHOBIA

Anglophobia is the dislike or fear of England (loosely Britain, but properly England).
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ANGOSTURA BARK

Angostura bark is the aromatic bark of a South American tree (Cusparia angostura) formerly used as a tonic and as a remedy for fever.
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ANGROPHOBIA

Angrophobia is the fear of becoming angry.
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ANGST

Angst is an emotional state of anxiety without a specific cause.
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ANGULAR ARTERY

The angular artery begins at the end of the facial artery. It ascends toward the eye, supplying the lachrymal duct and orbicularis palpebrarum muscles. The angular artery also has branches in the cheek.
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ANGULAR VEIN

The angular vein runs down the side of the nose. It is formed by the junction of the frontal vein, which runs down the middle of the forehead, and the supra-orbital vein, which lies near the frontal vein.
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ANIDROSIS

Anidrosis is an absence or want of perspiration.
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ANILISM

Anilisim or aniline poisoning, is a name given to the aggregate of symptoms which often showed themselves in those employed in aniline works at the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century, resulting from the inhalation of aniline vapours. It may be either acute or chronic. In a slight attack of the former kind, the lips, cheeks, and ears become of a bluish colour, and the person's walk may be unsteady; in severe cases there is loss of consciousness. Chronic anilism is accompanied by derangement of the digestive organs and of the nervous system, headaches, eruptions on the skin, muscular weakness, etc.
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ANKLE

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The ankle is the hinge-joint connecting the foot with the leg. The bony surfaces of the ankle are covered with cartilage, and are bound together by ligaments. The movements of the joint are mainly those of flexion and extension, but a certain amount of lateral motion is possible when the foot is extended.. From its position the ankle is a frequent seat of sprains, fractures, and dislocations.

Fractures occur in the immediate vicinity of the ankle joint. The commonest of these is 'Pott's fracture', produced by forcible twisting of the foot, in which the fibula breaks about seven centimeters above the external malleolus.
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ANKYLOPHOBIA

Ankylophobia is the fear of immobility of a joint.
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ANKYLOSIS

Ankylosis or anchylosis is an abnormal adhesion or immobility of the bones in a joint, caused by example by a direct joining of the bones, a fibrous growth of tissues within the joint, or surgery.
It is usually the result of disease, which, having destroyed the articular cartilages, leaves two bony surfaces opposed to each other. The reparative powers of nature cause a union to take place by means of granulations between them. This bond of union may become osseous, so as to render the joint perfectly rigid, or it may continue membranous, allowing of a certain amount of motion. Some joints, especially the elbow, are very apt to become ankylosed, and in the knee or hip joints this osseous ankylosis was formerly reckoned the most favourable termination to disease, the reasoning being that the limb could then afford a rigid support for the trunk.
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ANKYLOSTOMIASIS

Ankylostomiasis is a 'worm disease' to which miners are subject in some localities, is caused by vast numbers of small parasitic worms (Ankylostoma or Anchylostoma duodenale) in the duodenum or upper portions of the intestinal canal. Deriving their sustenance from the system, these worms produce anaemia or bloodlessness (that is, deficiency of the red corpuscles of the blood), the sufferers being pallid, feeble, short-breathed, liable to faint, and unequal to any laborious work, and death may result if a cure is not effected. Fortunately the disease is not difficult to cure using remedies which expel the worms from the system.

The disease is said to be common in tropical and sub-tropical countries all over the world. In Europe it was perhaps first observed in 1879 in the case of workmen engaged in excavating the St Gothard tunnel. Since 1896 it has been well known in some of the German mines; and in 1903 it was detected among the miners engaged in the Dolcoath mine in Cornwall. The eggs of the worms are carried from the body with the fasces; under favourable circumstances develop into larvae, which may gain entrance again into the human body by the mouth (perhaps in drinking-water), to attain full development in the intestine. Careful sanitary arrangements are a preventive of the disease, which is also known as 'miner's worm', 'miner's anaemia', etc.
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ANNADROL

Annadrol is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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ANNULUS

In anatomy, an annulus is a ring-like part.
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ANOREXIA

Anorexia is a want or deficiency of appetite, not accompanied by a disgust for food.
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ANOSMIA

Anosmia is the inability to smell, or the loss of the sense of smell. It is usually the result of a lesion of the olfactory nerve, disease in another organ or part, or an obstruction of the nasal passages.
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ANOXIA

Anoxia (hypoxia) is the lack of a normal supply of oxygen to body tissues, or the inability of the tissues to use the oxygen. Anoxic anoxia occurs when blood flowing through the lungs does not pick up enough oxygen. This can happen when there is a reduced amount of oxygen in the air, such as at altitudes above 3,000 meters. The blood also can fail to pick up sufficient oxygen because of defects in the lungs or because of obstruction of the air passages involved in breathing. Rapid, deep breathing is a common symptom of anoxic anoxia. The condition is often accompanied by cyanosis, a bluish colouration of the skin. Severe cases may lead to loss of consciousness and even death. Anaemic anoxia occurs when the blood cannot carry its normal load of oxygen. This happens when the blood has insufficient amounts of haemoglobin, or when the haemoglobin is altered by carbon monoxide or other poisons. Stagnant anoxia develops when the blood flows so slowly that it loses most of its oxygen before completing its course through a tissue. Part of the tissue thus receives little or no oxygen. An example of stagnant anoxia occurs during cold temperatures when blood vessels under the fingernails and in the lips constrict, causing cyanosis in those body parts. Histotoxic anoxia is caused by poisons that make the tissues incapable of using the oxygen supplied. Cyanide is one such poison.
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ANTACIDS

Antacids are alkali drugs or reagents for neutralizing acids, most commonly used with heartburn. The principal antacids in use are magnesia, lime, and their carbonates, and the carbonates of potash and soda.
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ANTAGONIST

In medicine, an antagonist is a drug which neutralises the action of another drug.
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ANTEFLEXION

Anteflexion is a bending forward of any organ. The term is specially used in relation to the uterus, when this organ is bent forward at the line of junction of its body and cervix.
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ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY

The anterior cerebral artery extends inward and forward from the internal carotid artery across the optic nerve to the longitudinal fissure of the brain. It is connected to the posterior cerebral artery by the anterior communicating artery.
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ANTERIOR COMMUNICATING ARTERY

The anterior communicating artery is a short branch, about five centimetres in length, that connects the two anterior cerebral arteries. Several ganglionic arteries branch from the
anterior communicating artery.
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ANTERIOR FACIAL VEIN

The facial vein is a continuation of the angular vein, beginning at the root of the nose. The vein is divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior veins of the facial structure.
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ANTERIOR MENISCOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

The anterior meniscofemoral ligament extends from the inside of the lateral condyle of the femur, near the anterior cruciate ligament, across to the medial meniscus. This connection provides some of the lateral support for the knee in flexion and extension.
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ANTERIOR NASAL SPINE

The anterior nasal spine is a small protrusion at the base of the nasal cavity, just above the teeth. This spine juts out slightly beyond the plane of the maxilla and serves to anchor the nasal cartilage.
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ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY

The anterior and posterior tibial arteries branch from the popliteal artery and supply blood to the lower leg and foot. The posterior tibial artery is a large artery that runs down the leg to the foot where it branches into the internal and external plantar arteries (arteries of the sole of the foot). The interior tibial artery becomes the dorsal pedis artery at the ankle joint.
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ANTERIOR TIBIAL VEIN

The anterior tibial veins pass between the tibia and fibula along the leg. These veins receive blood from the knee joint, muscles of the thigh, and upper calf and the join the posterior tibial and the popliteal vein. The veins have numerous valves to assist in the transport of blood against gravity up the leg.
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ANTEVERSION

Anteversion is a displacement forward of any organ. The term is particularly applied to a change of position of the uterus, in which the organ is bodily displaced in the pelvic cavity, so that the fundus is directed against the bladder, and the cervix toward the sacrum.
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ANTHELMINTIC

In medicine, something which is anthelmintic is capable of and used for expelling worms, a vermifruge.
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ANTHELMINTICS

Anthelmintics are remedies which kill or expel intestinal worms. Vermicides kill the worms, vermifuges expel them.
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ANTHOPHOBIA

Anthophobia is the fear of flowers.
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ANTHRACOSIS

Anthracosis, popularly known as coal miner's lung, is a lung disease caused by the inhalation of coal dust.
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ANTHRAX

Anthrax (also known as splenic fever, malignant pustule or wool-sorter's disease) is a bacterial disease (a form of pneumonia) of sheep and cattle transmittable to humans, caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax occurs in humans as an acute infection of the skin, causing the so-called 'malignant pustule'. There is also a pulmonary form known as 'wool-sorters' disease', and occasionally intestinal anthrax infection is seen. Anthrax generally attacks persons who work with hides, hair or wool, but may be spread by infected bristles in shaving brushes. The skin lesion is a black ulcerating vesicle, the patient being ill, and developing septicaemia within a few days unless treatment is given. The death rate is comparatively high; the pulmonary and intestinal forms are generally fatal. Anthrax is used in biological warfare as the bacteria can be stored for as much as 25 years before it dies. In September 2000, the USA was attacked by letters infected with anthrax being sent through the post by a CIA agent.
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ANTHROPHOBIA

Anthrophobia is the fear of people.
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ANTHROPOPHOBIA

Anthropophobia is the fear of people.
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ANTIBIOTIC

An antibiotic is a substance that inhibits the growth of micro organisms.
Antibiotics have no effect upon viruses, but can seriously damage the human body's immune system when used excessively, and many bacteria can also evolve very quickly into antibiotic-resistant strains. In 2005 the UK government issued new advice to hospitals and doctors to reduce their excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics after it was found that almost 1000 patients were dying each year from infection by Clostridium difficile, resistance to which is seriously impaired by taking antibiotics. Despite these guidelines, a year later British doctors were still frequently issuing prescriptions for antibiotics without proper examination of patients, and certainly without first establishing the presence of a harmful bacterial infection in the patient.

Among the first widespread use of antibiotics in the United Kingdom was in the treating of syphilis. As patients were still infectious while undergoing treatment, though symptoms had reduced, doctors concerned about patients having sexual intercourse told patients not to drink alcohol lest they become amorous and lose self control. This advice distorted into a widespread myth that all patients, while taking antibiotics, must abstain from consuming alcohol. In reality, the drinking of alcohol has no effect upon antibiotic treatment, nor does the taking of antibiotics have an effect upon the body's reaction to alcohol, though a very few antibiotics may react with the alcohol and make the patient feel nauseous. There is no pharmacological reason not to drink alcohol as usual while taking antibiotics.
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ANTIBODY

An antibody is a bodily protein that inactivates infection.
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ANTIDOTE

An antidote is a drug used to counteract poison.
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ANTIFEBRILE

In medicine, an antifebrile is a drug or medicine used to treat fever, or some substance which relieves fever.
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ANTIFEBRIN

Antifebrin was a trade name for acetanilide.
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ANTIGEN

An antigen is a substance which when present in a living organism have the power to cause the production of antibodies.
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ANTIHELIX

In anatomy, the antihelix is the ridge of cartilage within or in front of the helix, or outside rim, of the ear.
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ANTIHISTAMINES

Antihistamines are drugs used to treat allergies, and are particularly effective against hay fever, but may make cold congestion worse. They dry up secretions, but may also make the mucus too thick and difficult to expel by coughing up. They can also induce drowsiness.
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ANTIPERIODICS

Antiperiodics are medicines which prevent or relieve the paroxysms of certain diseases which exhibit a periodic character. Antiperiodics include cinchona-bark and its alkaloids - quinine, cinchonine, quinidine, and cinchonidine; bebeeru-bark and its active principle, bebeerine; salicine, salicylic acid and its salts; eucalyptus globulus, arsenic, and iodine.
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ANTIPHLOGISTIC

Something which is antiphlogistic reduces or relieves inflammation,
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ANTIPYRETIC

An antipyretic is a drug or medicine used to reduce or prevent fever.
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ANTIPYRETICS

Antipyretics are medicines given for the purpose of reducing fever by lowering the patient's temperature, whether by causing perspiration or otherwise. Quinine, anti-pyrin, phenacetin, are common antipyretics. An aperient or purgative often serves the same purpose.
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ANTIPYRIN

Antipyrin (Phenazone) is a synthetic drug obtained from coal-tar and discovered in 1883 by Knorr. It was formerly used in medicine as an antipyretic and analgesic in place of quinine.
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ANTIPYRINE

Antipyrine is a white, crystalline drug obtained from coal tar and used for the relief of neuralgia, fevers, rheumatism etc.
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ANTISCORBUTIC

An antiscorbutic is something that relieves or counteracts the effects of scurvy; a remedy for scurvy.
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ANTISEPTIC

An antiseptic is a substance which counteracts blood or tissue poisoning caused by bacteria (sepsis).
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ANTISERUM

An antiserum is a serum, or part of an animal's blood, that contains a specific antitoxin. Antiserums are used for inoculation against the poisons set up by certain diseases
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ANTISPASMODICS

Antispasmodics are medicines which prevent or allay spasms. Among traditional antispasmodics may be mentioned valerian, asafoetida. camphor, ammonia, alcohol, ether, chloroform, amyl nitrite, pyridine, nitroglycerine, bromides, conium, lobelia, opium, gelsemium, Indian hemp, belladonna, the essential oils.
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ANTITRAGUS

In anatomy, the antitragus is the lower of the two ridges at the entrance to the shell of the external ear, opposite the tragus.
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ANTLOPHOBIA

Antlophobia is the fear of floods.
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ANUPTAPHOBIA

Anuptaphobia is the fear of staying single.
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ANUS

The anus is the sphincter muscle which regulates the lower orifice of the digestive, or alimentary, tract. This sphincter muscle keeps the anus closed, opening it during excretion to allow faeces to pass through.
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ANXIETY

Anxiety is a condition of mental uneasiness arising from fear or distress, especially concerning possible misfortune of some uncertain future event, desire for some purpose or object.
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ANXIOLYTIC

An anxiolytic is a drug used to reduce anxiety.
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AORTA

The aorta is the body's largest blood vessel. It arches out of the heart and down toward the lower body. It has a diameter of about one inch and blood rushes through it at a speed of about eight inches per second. The aorta is divided into several parts: the ascending aorta, the arch of the aorta, and the thoracic and abdominal portions of the descending aorta.
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AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE

The aortic semilunar valve is situated at the beginning of the aorta. This valve has three delicate cusps, or pockets, which permit blood flow only in one direction, allowing blood to flow out of the left ventricle up into the aorta, but prevents backflow into the ventricle. When the heart refills, the crescent-shaped valve balloons out, sealed along the edge to prevent the blood from flowing backward. The blood's only exit from the ventricle is through the semilunar valves, so named for their crescent shaped cusps.
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APEIROPHOBIA

Apeirophobia is the fear of infinity.
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APHASIA

Aphasia is a symptom of certain morbid conditions of the nervous system, in which the patient loses the power of expressing ideas by means of words, or loses the appropriate use of words, the vocal organs the while remaining intact and the intelligence sound. There is sometimes an entire loss of words as connected with ideas, and sometimes only the loss of a few. In one form of the disease, called aphemia, the patient can think and write, but cannot speak; in another, called agraphia, he can think and speak, but cannot express his ideas in writing. In a great majority of cases, where post-mortem examinations have been made, morbid changes have been found in the left frontal convolution of the brain.
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APHENPHOSMPHOBIA

Aphenphosmphobia is the fear of being touched.
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APHONIA

Aphonia is the greater or less impairment, or the complete loss of the power of emitting vocal sound. The slightest and less permanent forms often arise from extreme nervousness, fright, and hysteria. Slight forms of structural aphonia are of a catarrhal nature, resulting from more or less congestion and tumefaction of the mucous and submucous tissues of the larynx and adjoining parts. Severer cases are frequently occasioned by serous infiltration into the submucous tissue, with or without inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx and of its vicinity. The voice may also be affected in different degrees by inflammatory affections of the fauces and tonsils; by tumours in these situations; by morbid growths pressing on or implicating the larynx or trachea; by aneurisms; and most frequently by chronic laryngitis and its consequences, especially thickening, ulceration, etc.
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APHTHAE

Aphthae are small vesicles formed of the superficial layer of a mucous membrane elevated by fluid secreted by the latter. They are usually whitish in colour, and the fluid may be serous or puriform. At the end of a few hours or days the aplithous vesicle bursts at its summit, and shrivels up, exposing an inflamed and painful patch of the mucous membrane. It was not until 1842 that the precise nature of these white patches was ascertained. In that year it was shown by Gruby that they depend on the presence of a microscopic fungus. Subsequently this fungus was called by Robin oidium albicanus. The most common site of aphthae is the mucous membrane of the lips and mouth, but they occasionally appear wherever mucous membrane approaches the skin. Infants are liable to an aphthous eruption termed thrush Aphthae in adults are generally the consequences of fevers and other diseases, or a symptom of disturbance of the digestive system. In some cases of pulmonary consumption they form a painful addition to the patient's sufferings. In ordinary cases of aphthae a preparation of borax or some astringent wash generally effects a rapid cure.
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APICAL FORAMINA

The apical foramina is a small opening at the bottom, or apex, of each root cone of the teeth. These apical foramina allow nerves and blood vessels to pass through the dentin of the tooth to nourish the pulp and its odontoblasts and lymphatic tissues within.
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APIPHOBIA

Apiphobia is the fear of bees.
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APITART

Apitart is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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APO-AMOXI

Apo-Amoxi is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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APOPHYSIS

An apophysis is a process or outgrowth on a bone.
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APOPLEXY

Apoplexy is a sudden interference with consciousness and sensation, and the power of voluntary motion, as a result of a burst blood vessel in the brain, usually associated with high blood pressure.
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APOSTEME

In pathology, an aposteme is an abscess, a collection of pus in a swelling.
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APOTEMNOPHOBIA

Apotemnophobia is the fear of persons with amputations.
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APPENDICITIS

Appendicitis is a disease which became well-known during the 19th century. It consists in inflammation of the vermiform appendix of the large intestine, a somewhat wormlike hollow body, several inches long, projecting from and opening into the intestine, but closed at the opposite extremity. In appendicitis proper the inflammation begins in the appendix and spreads to neighbouring parts, and thus the disease is sometimes included under the term perityphlitis, which more strictly belongs to inflammation connected with the caecum, and not necessarily with the appendix.

Appendicitis is usually set up by more or less hard bodies that become lodged in the appendix, especially particles of food that have not been sufficiently masticated. The disease may be very slight, lasting for a day or two, and accompanied with some pain and sickness; or it may take a severe and violent form, the result being death in a few hours. Death may also occur at a longer interval, when an abscess forms, which bursts into the abdominal cavity. There are also cases of chronic and of relapsing appendicitis, and in these removal of the organ is necessary. Some surgeons resort to removal of the appendix in all cases of the disease. The usual symptoms are such as pain in the belly, especially low down on the right side, fever, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Early remedies were such as rest in bed, hot fomentations or poultices applied to the belly, with opium to relieve pain, food being given in small quantities, in the fluid form and hot. During the 20th century surgery became the preferred treatment, the appendix being cut out by a surgeon.
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APPENDIX

The appendix is sometimes referred to as the 'abdominal tonsil' because it is composed largely of lymphoid tissue and is very susceptible to infection. It varies greatly in size, the average length being 75 mm. Normally it is a hollow tube lined with mucous membrane, with a muscle wall similar to that of the caecum with which it communicates. Its tip may hang down over the brim of the pelvis to make contact with the bladder, the rectum, or in the female with the ovary, uterine tube or uterus. It may on the other hand, turn upwards behind the caecum pointing out towards the groin-the retro-caecal position. It may lie on the front of the caecum immediately under the anterior abdominal wall.
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APPERCEPTION

In psychology, apperception is the process by which past sensory experiences , attitudes of attention and feeling etc modify immediate sensory experience resulting in perception.
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APRAXIA

In psychology, apraxia is the loss or impairment of the ability to exercise purposeful movements, without paralysis of the parts affected.
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AQUA SAMBUCI

Aqua sambuci is the scientific name for Elder Flower Water, prepared with one part of elder flower to five parts of water. It is used in medicine as an eye and skin lotion.
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AQUAPHOBIA

Aquaphobia is the fear of water, especially because of the possibility of drowning.
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AQUEOUS HUMOUR

The Aqueous humour is the watery fluid found in the space between the cornea and the lens of the eyes of vertebrates.
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ARACHIBUTYROPHOBIA

Arachibutyrophobia is the fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.
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ARACHNOID

In anatomy, the arachnoid or arachnoid membrane is the middle membrane of the three which envelope the brain and spinal cord.
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ARACHNOPHOBIA

Arachnophobia is the fear of spiders.
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ARCUATE ARTERY

The arcuate arteries are small curved branches of arteries supplying the brain with fresh blood. Blood supply to the brain, about 250 millilitres every second, is constant. The brain is more sensitive to lack of oxygen than any other organs in the body. Brain cells suffer permanent damage if their blood supply stops for more than two minutes. For this reason, the body has developed a safety system, called autoregulation, by which various nerves act to maintain the flow of blood to the brain even if the flow to the rest of the body falls dramatically, as in the case of a severe haemorrhage.
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ARDINE

Ardine is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AREA CELSI

Area celsi is a type of baldness that leaves a growth of hair only on the crown of the head.
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AREOLA

In anatomy, an areola is a space between the fibres of tissue. The name areola is also given to the inflamed spot around a pustule and to the pigmented ring around the nipple. It can be from one centimetre to five or more centimetres in diameter, and changes from a delicate pink colour to brown early in pregnancy and never quite returns to its original colour. The areola is spotted with small buds called areola glands. The oil-producing glands are also known as Montgomery's glands (named after the obstetrician William Fetherston Montgomery who identified them). The glands sometimes rise like pimples over the skin and may enlarge during pregnancy.
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AREOLAR TISSUE

Areolar tissue is an assemblage of fibres in bundles, pervading almost every part of the animal structure, and connected with each other so as to form innumerable small cavities, the whole serving as a means by which the various organs and parts of organs are connected together. It is called also Cellular Tissue and Connective Tissue. The fibres are of two kinds: white fibrous tissue and yellow elastic fibrous tissue, and interspersed among the bundles or occupying the cellular cavities are cells and corpuscles of several kinds. It is a tissue found in large quantities under the skin, covering the muscles, the blood-vessels and nerves, and in various parts forming a kind of protective covering for delicate and important organs. It is because of its general distribution, and because of its binding various structures together, that it is called connective.
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ARGININE

Arginine is an amino acid which is essential to growth. Found in many proteins of plants and animals,
arginine is readily obtained from these proteins by hydrolysis.
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ARGYRIA

Argyria is a greyish-blue discolouration of the skin due to the use of silver hair dyes.
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ARGYROL

Argyrol is an organic compound of silver formerly used as an antiseptic.
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ARIBOFLAVINOSIS

Ariboflavinosis is the technical term for a deficiency of vitamin B2.
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ARITHMOPHOBIA

Arithmophobia is the fear of numbers.
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ARM

The arm is the upper limb in man, connected with the thorax or chest by means of the scapula or shoulder-blade, and the clavicle or collar-bone. It consists of three bones, the arm-bone (Humerus), and the two bones of the forearm (radius and ulna), and it is connected with the bones of the hand by the carpus or wrist. The head or upper end of the arm-bone fits into the hollow called the glenoid cavity of the scapula, so as to form a joint of the ball-and-socket kind, allowing great freedom of movement to the limb. The lower end of the humerus is broadened out by a projection on both the outer and inner sides (the outer and inner condyles), and has a pulley-like surface for articulating with the fore-arm to form the elbow-joint. This joint somewhat resembles a hinge, allowing of movement only in one direction. The ulna is the inner of the two bones of the fore-arm. It is largest at the upper end, where it has two processes, the coronoid and the olecranon, with a deep groove between to receive the humerus. The radius - the outer of the two bones - is small at the upper and expanded at the lower end, where it forms part of the wrist-joint. The muscles of the upper arm are either flexors or extensors, the former serving to bend the arm, the latter to straighten it by means of the elbow-joint. The main flexor is the biceps, the large muscle which may be seen standing out in front of the arm when a weight is raised. The chief opposing muscle of the biceps is the triceps. The muscles of the fore-arm are, besides flexors and extensors, pronators and supinators, the former turning the hand palm downwards, the latter turning it upwards. The same fundamental plan of structure exists in the limbs of all vertebrate animals.
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AROMATIC VINEGAR

Aromatic Vinegar is a very volatile and powerful perfume made by adding the essential oils of lavender, cloves, etc, and often camphor, to crystallizable acetic acid. It is a powerful excitant in fainting, languor, and headache.
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ARRECTOR PILI

The arrector pili is a smooth muscle of the skin. It is attached to a hair follicle just below its oil gland and extends upward on a slant to attach to the skin. The muscle reacts in response to cold or other stimuli. When it contracts, the muscle pulls the hair erect causing 'goose bumps'. At the same time, it squeezes the oil gland releasing a small amount of oil onto the skin.
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ARRHENPHOBIA

Arrhenphobia is the fear of men.
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ARRHYTHMIA

Arrhythmia is a disturbance of the normal rhythm of the heart. There are various kinds of arrhythmia, some benign, some indicative of heart disease. In extreme cases, the heart may beat so fast as to be potentially lethal and surgery may be used to correct the condition. Extra beats between the normal ones are called extrasystoles; abnormal slowing is known as bradycardia and speeding up is known as tachycardia.
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ARSONPHOBIA

Arsonphobia is the fear of fire.
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ARSPHENAMINE

Arsphenamine is an organic compound of arsenic. It was discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1909 and used to treat syphilis. It was given the proprietary name Salvarsan. Neoarsphenamine (neosalvarsan) followed arsphenamine and was used until 1945, when penicillin superseded it.
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ARTANE

Artane is a trade name for trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride
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ARTERIAL

Arterial means pertaining to the arteries.
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ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE BRAIN

The brain is supplied by a dense network of blood vessels. Brain cells suffer permanent damage if their blood supply stops for more than two minutes. The consequence of ruptured or blocked blood vessels in the brain can be a stroke. The seriousness of paralysis or loss of faculties following a stroke depends on how much brain tissue has been starved of oxygen.
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ARTERIALISE

Arterialise means to add oxygen to the blood, and thus change venous blood into arterial blood, as occurs within the lungs when blood devoid of oxygen but containing carbon dioxide arrives carried in the veins, and the carbon dioxide is removed and replaced in the blood by oxygen ready to be carried to the parts of the body through the arteries.
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ARTERIOGRAPHY

Arteriography is a method of examining the interior of an artery by injecting into it a radiopaque solution, which is visible on an X-ray photograph. It is used for the arteries of the heart (coronary arteriogram), for example.
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ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

Arteriosclerosis is a hardening of the arteries, with thickening and loss of elasticity. It is associated with smoking, ageing, and a diet high in saturated fats. The term is used loosely as a synonym for atherosclerosis.
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ARTERIOTOMY

Arteriotomy is the opening or cutting of an artery for the purpose of blood-letting, as, for instance, to relieve pressure of the brain in apoplexy.
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ARTERY

Arteries are muscular and elastic-walled vessels that form a network to carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to all parts of the body. Smaller branches called arterioles extend from the arteries and connect to even smaller branches called metarterioles which deliver the blood to the capillaries. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood and body cells takes place through the thin walls of the capillaries.

There are two principal arteries or arterial trunks: the aorta, which rises from the left ventricle of the heart and ramifies through the whole body, sending off great branches to the head, neck, and upper limbs, and downwards to the lower limbs, etc; and the pulmonary artery, which conveys venous blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, to be purified in the process of respiration.
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ARTHRALGIA

Arthralgia is pain in a joint. The term is more particularly applied to articular pain in the absence of objective disease.
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ARTHRITIS

Arthritis generally refers to the condition of inflamed joints that are stiff and painful. Heredity and physical stress to joints and bones seem to be the leading factors in the development of arthritis. Damage to joints and the cartilage surrounding them that fails to heal properly will usually lead to an arthritic condition. Although everyone feels stiffness and soreness in their joints from time to time, people with arthritis usually are in almost constant pain, and the condition tends to get progressively worse. In the worst cases, an arthritic condition can be crippling and cause deformities. By the age of 70, 85% of the population will suffer from arthritis to some degree. Even though there is no cure or prevention for arthritis, there are a wide variety of treatments to reduce the pain and impact of the condition.
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ARTHRODESIS

Arthrodesis is the surgical fixation of joints.
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ARTHROPATHY

Arthropathy is any disease of the joints.
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ARTHROPLASTY

Arthroplasty is the surgical repair of a diseased joint.
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ARTHROTOME

An arthrotome is a strong scalpel used by surgeons in the dissection of joints.
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ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

Articulated bones feature a cartilaginous covering at the joints known as articular cartilage. This cartilage facilitates the articulation or movement by protecting the bones from shock and providing a softer bed to which the synovial membrane may be attached. Osteoarthritis is a common disease among middle-aged and elderly people in which the articular cartilage becomes inflamed making movement of the bones at the affected joints painful.
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ARTICULARIS GENUS

The articularis genus is an upper leg muscle that pulls back the bursa of the knee as the leg is extended. It is one of the quadriceps muscles and sometime considered a part of the vastus medialis. This muscle originates from the anterior portion of the femur just below the vastus medialis muscle and inserts in the tip of the patellar bursa. It is innervated by the femoral nerve.
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ARTICULATION

In anatomy, articulation describes a joint; the joining or juncture of the bones. This is of three kinds: (1) Diarthrosis, or a movable connection, such as the ball-and-socket joint; (2) Synarthrosis, immovable connection, as by suture, or junction by serrated margins; (3) Symphysis, or union by means of another substance, by a cartilage, tendon, or ligament.
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ARTIFICIAL LIMBS

The manufacturing of artificial limbs has received the attention of surgeons and mechanics from a very early date. In the great work on surgery, by Ambrose Pare, 1579, he refers to, and gives detailed illustrations of, an artificial arm and leg, and although the construction was of a crude character, they showed a very good attempt to conceal the mutilation. In an article of May 30th, 1860, in Le Bulletin General de Therapeutique, Paris, was published an account of an artificial limb invented in 1696 by Verduin, a Dutch surgeon. This model for an amputation below the knee was composed of a wooden foot, to which were fastened two strips of steel extending up to the knee. To the strips was riveted a copper socket to receive the stump; a leather for lacing round the thigh was connected to the socket by two steel side-joints, thus dividing the points of support between the thigh and stump. The construction of this leg was improved later by Professor Serre, of Montpellier.

Improvements and new limbs were later introduced into England and France by Fred Martin, Charriere, Mathieu and Bechard. These were mostly unprotected by patents. Thomas Mann issued patents for artificial legs in January 20th, 1790, and later in 1810 James Potts, of England, patented a new leg on November the 15th, 1800. This soon became celebrated as the Anglesey leg, because it was so long worn by the Marquis of Anglesey. All improvement on this leg was patented by William Selpho, who was the first manufacturer of note in New York, where he established himself in 1839. Other inventors and manufacturers soon took a great interest in the business - so many, in fact, that the American Patent Office in 1892 showed a record of about 150 patents on artificial limbs or more than double that of all European patents on limbs at the same time.

The American Civil War which caused the mutilation of so many soldiers and sailors, and the liberality of the American government in supplying their losses with artificial limbs, naturally stimulated the efforts of American inventors in producing such substitutes as would be accepted - contemporary accounts speak of persons fitted with two artificial legs walking so naturally as it was not noticeable they had artificial limbs. These soldiers and sailors were supplied once in every five years, and to this demand was added that of those who had lost limbs from disease or accident, making in all about 100,000 in the USA who had to be supplied with new limbs on an average of about once in every five to eight years at the end of the 19th century. The manufacturing of these articles therefore became quite an enterprise, and the number of manufacturers was very numerous throughout the whole USA.

At the end of the 19th century Frees, of New York made important developments in artificial legs with the movements of the knee and ankle joints, by which the whole limb was strengthened and made more durable. An important feature of Frees mechanism consisted of the introduction of a universal motion at the ankle-joint. Most of the leading manufacturers had previously experimented quite extensively on this movement with comparatively little success, which is probably owing to the fact that a single joint was invariably used, while Frees copied from nature, imitating the astragalus movement with an additional joint, and thus produced the most perfect artificial substitute then in use. Another of his improvements, which was of equal importance, was in the knee-joint of the leg for thigh amputation, which could be readily adjusted in case of wear, and was so arranged that, when in a sitting position, the cord and spring were entirely relaxed, thus relieving all strain and pressure; and when rising to an upright position the cord and spring were again brought into their proper position without any strain or unnatural movement, and no extra attachments were required.
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ARYEPIGLOTTIS

During swallowing, the aryepiglottis muscle draws the epiglottis downward to close the larynx, preventing food and drink from being inhaled. It originates from the arytenoid cartilage and inserts in the epiglottic cartilage near the thyroepiglotic ligament. It is innervated by the laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve.
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ARYTENOID CARTILAGES

The arytenoid cartilages are two small, upward protrusions located at the back of the larynx. They pivot on the ring-like cricoid cartilage and are attached to it by the cricoarytenoid muscles. The vocal cords are attached to the arytenoid cartilages, from which they span across the larynx to part of the thyroid cartilage on the other side. By flexing or relaxing the cricoarytenoid muscles, the arytenoid cartilages are forced to pivot, causing the vocal cords to be brought together for speech or separated, for breathing. The vocal and cricothyroid muscles then control their tension. This variable tension in the vocal cords allows a wide range of tones to be produced from them.
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ASBESTOSIS

Asbestosis is a chronic disease of the lungs allegedly caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres, sometimes leading to lung cancer. Asbestosis is one of the pneumoconiosis group of occupational diseases.
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ASCARIASIS

Ascariasis is an infection caused by a parasitic worm, ascarsis lumbricoides. This parasite is a pale, cylindrical, tapered roundworm that grows to between fifteen and forty centimetres in length. It lives in the small intestine of its host. The infection is common worldwide, especially in the tropics. It affects 80% to 90% of the population in poorer countries where standards of public hygiene and sanitation are low. One or several worms may be present in the infection, but symptoms generally only appear when there is multiple infestation. The eggs of the worm are carried by the wind in drier climates. In most cases, however, they are transmitted through water, food, and hands. The eggs are swallowed via the mouth of the new host and then hatch into larvae in the small intestine. The larvae travel through the wall of the intestine and are carried by the lymphatic vessels and the bloodstream to the lungs, up the trachea, and are swallowed back to the small intestine where they mature in the jejunum.
The worms reach maturity about two months after ingestion. The adult worms release eggs which are passed out through faeces to be acquired by a new host and start the cycle over. The lifespan of the worm is under 18 months, however, female worms produce up to 200,000 eggs per day. The eggs can remain viable for months or years. The condition is diagnosed by the presence of the eggs in an infected person's faeces during microscopic examination. Light infestation generally causes no symptoms or may cause slight nausea. Early symptoms of the passage through the respiratory system include coughing, wheezing, and a slight fever. Heavy infestation of the parasites compete with the host for food, leading to malnutrition and anaemia. In children, migration of the worms to the liver, gall bladder, or peritoneal cavity may cause death.
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ASCITES

Ascites is an accumulation of fluid within the cavity of the peritoneum, more or less serous in character, the accumulation being of the nature of a local dropsy, and not originating in inflammation. The amount of fluid, varies much in different cases. The causes are: (1) Direct mechanical obstruction affecting the portal circulation. (2) Cardiac or pulmonary diseases obstructing the general venous circulation. (3) Diseases of the kidneys. (4) Morbid conditions of the peritoneum. (5) Miscellaneous causes, as exposure to cold or wet, extreme anaemia and debility, etc.
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ASEPSIS

Asepsis is a condition of freedom from living germs, disease or fermentation.
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ASEPTIC

Aseptic is an adjective which describes something as being clinicaly clean, that is free from living germs of disease and decay. The word is also applied to something which cleans, which secures something as being free from germs of disease, decay etc.
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ASPENIL

Aspenil is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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ASPERGER'S SYNDROME

Asperger's Syndrome is a supposed severe developmental disorder characterised by major difficulties in social interaction, and restricted and unusual patterns of interest and behaviour, similar to autism, the syndrome is still under debate (in 2003) with some researchers arguing that it is a form of autism. The condition was originally described by Hans Asperger in Vienna in 1944, but didn't receive much attention until the 1980's, and was officially defined in 1994 following field trials by Volkmar et al who studied a group of 1000 children and adolescents diagnosed as having autism and related disorders. The clinical features of Asperger's syndrome are generally described as: 1) little or no empathy; 2) naive, inappropriate, one-sided social interaction, with little ability to form friendships and consequential social isolation; 3) pedantic and monotonic speech; 4) poor nonverbal communication; 5) intense absorption in circumscribed topics such as the weather, facts about television stations, railway tables or maps, which are learned in rote fashion and reflect a poor understanding, conveying the impression of eccentricity; and 6) clumsy and ill-coordinated movements and an odd posture.
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ASPHYXIA

Asphyxia is the suspension of breathing and animation due to a failure of the supply of oxygen, as in drowning or suffocation for example.
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ASPHYXIATE

Asphyxiate means to cause death to by depriving of oxygen, for example by gassing or suffocation.
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ASPIRATION

Aspiration is a procedure used to obtain eggs from ovarian follicles for use in in-vitro fertilization. The procedure may be performed during laparoscopy, using a long needle and ultrasound to locate the follicle in the ovary. For the procedure, the woman is given hormone medications to stimulate the ovaries so that several mature eggs develop. After 36 hours, an ultrasound scan is used to view and locate the eggs. Special software allows the health care provider to view one ovum at a time and helps guide the needle through the vaginal wall towards the eggs, called ova, for removal. Usually several ova are removed at one time.
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ASPIRATOR

In medicine, the aspirator is an explorative Instrument, invented and introduced by Dieulafoy in 1869, for the evacuation of the fluid contents of tumours, serous and synovial effusions, collections of blood, pus, etc. It is also used for diagnostic purposes. The original aspirator consisted of a glass syringe, having at its lower end two openings provided with stop-cocks. When the cocks were closed and the piston is raised a vacuum was produced, which could be maintained by fixing the piston in the withdrawn position. An India-rubber tube, having a coil of wire inside to prevent collapse, was fitted to each opening. At the end of one tube was fitted a very fine hollow needle. After producing a vacuum the needle was introduced into the part to be operated on. As soon as the opening of the needle was beneath the skin the stop-cock leading to it was opened. The vacuum then extended to the point of the needle, and consequently, if it encountered fluid, this would jet up into the glass syringe, where its nature could be ascertained. It was impossible to pass the needle through a collection of fluid without discovering it.
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ASPIRIN

Aspirin is a trade name for an analgesic drug derived from salicylic acid that can relieve fever and muscle aches. Aspirin was originally marketed as a relief from the pain of rheumatism and headaches, etc . Following the death of Jonathon Denny in England during the 1980s, and the and subsequent campaigning by his mother, children under the age of 16 are no longer given aspirin, which can cause the fatal Reye's Syndrome. Tragically, Jonathon, a young child living at Pyrford in Surrey, was involved in a minor accident on his bicycle. Subsequently, a medical official gave him a large quantity of aspirin without first consulting his medical notes and seeing that Jonathan was allergic to aspirin. His death followed quickly, and for many years his mother campaigned until finally - despite the disinterest of the mainstream media, the medical profession in England and America agreed to stop supplying aspirin to children.
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ASTHENIA

Asthenia (from the Greek meaning without strength) is a loss of strength, weakness, debility.
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ASTHENOPHOBIA

Asthenophobia is the fear of weakness.
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ASTHENOPIA

Asthenopia is an old general term for weakness of sight.
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ASTHMA

Asthma is a disease characterised by breathing difficulties. Incidents of asthma in children have risen sharply in the west since the introduction of extremely clean homes which prevent children from coming into contact with minor infections, and thus deprive the developing immune system from developing to its full potential, as would happen in nature.
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ASTHMATIC

Asthmatic is an adjective describing something as pertaining to asthma. The word is also used to describe a person suffering from asthma.
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ASTIGMATISM

Astigmatism is a malformation or imperfection, congenital or accidental, of the globe of the eye, in consequence of which the individual does not see objects clear and distinct, but with a blurred outline. It is due to the cornea or transparent outer coat of the eye not being regularly spherical, but having different degrees of curvature in different directions. Usually the degree of convexity is not the same horizontally as it is vertically, so that the rays from an object, instead of converging into one focus, meet in more than one. If a person with this defect is looking at vertical lines crossed by horizontal ones he will see the one set more distinctly than the other, though a slight movement will enable him to see the other distinctly also, but not at the same time. Almost all eyes are more or less astigmatic, but persons only become aware of it when it is excessive. Special lenses are required to correct it - usually lenses plane in one direction, and concave or convex in the other. Short-sight or long-sight is often associated with astigmatism, so that the necessary spectacles may not be very easily provided.
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ASTRAGALUS

The astragalus is the upper bone of the foot supporting the tibia; the huckle, ankle, or sling bone. It is a strong irregularly-shaped bone, and is connected with the others by powerful ligaments.
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ASTRAMORPH

Astramorph is a trade name for morphine sulphate.
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ASTRAPHOBIA

Astraphobia (or astrophobia) is the fear of thunder and lightning.
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ASTRINGENT

An astringent is a substance which contracts tissues, chiefly by coagulating albumin. When applied in the form of lotions or ointments, they reduce the congestion of mucous membranes and thus assist in the healing of wounds and ulcers. The chief natural astringents are the mineral acids, alum, lime-water, chalk, salts of copper, zinc, iron, lead, silver; and among vegetables catechu, kino, oak-bark, and galls.
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ASYMMETRIPHOBIA

Asymmetriphobia is the fear of asymmetrical things.
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ASYNERGIA

Asynergia is a lack of coordination between muscles or parts, such as occurs in cerebella disease.
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ATAXIA

Ataxia is a lack of co-ordination in the muscles. It is a symptom of damage to part of the central nervous system. Locomotor ataxia involves a lack of balance, or equilibrium. Patients must stand on a broad base, eyes open, or they will sway or even fall. The swaying increases if they shut their eyes. Ataxia has many causes, locomotor ataxia may be due to syphilis for example. Many diseases that damage the central nervous system may cause ataxia, including tumours of the cerebrum or cerebellum, some deficiency diseases, and diseases of the spinal cord. Ataxia may also result from overuse of such drugs as barbiturates or alcohol.
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ATAXIOPHOBIA

Ataxiophobia is the fear of ataxia (muscular incoordination).
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ATAXOPHOBIA

Ataxophobia is the fear of disorder or untidiness.
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ATELOPHOBIA

Atelophobia is the fear of imperfection.
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ATEPHOBIA

Atephobia is the fear of ruin.
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ATHAZAGORAPHOBIA

Athazagoraphobia is the fear of being forgotten or ignored.
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ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries caused by cholesterol plaque deposits. It can occur in the coronary arteries, the carotid arteries, the aorta, and the leg arteries. Healthy arteries are flexible, strong, and elastic. The inner layer, the tunica interna, is smooth, enabling blood to flow freely. As a person ages, the arteries normally become thicker and less elastic, and their calcium content increases. This natural ' hardening' process occurs throughout the artery system.

Atherosclerosis, by contrast, affects only the larger arteries. As the plaque builds up, the inner layers of the artery walls become thick and irregular. Fat, cholesterol, and other materials accumulate in certain areas. This gradual build-up over a long period of time reduced the circulation of blood and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other serious arterial diseases. A person having atherosclerosis will often experience symptoms of angina, stroke, and claudication. All of the symptoms are caused by insufficient blood flow due to atherosclerosis. Initially, the deposits of fat-containing cells that lead to atherosclerosis are only slight streaks, and are called fatty streaks. As the fatty streaks enlarge, they invade the deeper layers of the artery walls, causing scarring and calcium deposits. Large deposits are called athermas or plaques. The plaques calcify into a chalky substance. The plaque consists of a firm shell that contains calcium with areas of fatty material, and a centre consisting of soft cholesterol. As the plaque deposits grow the cardiac muscle beyond the blockage becomes deprived of blood, a condition known as myocardial ischemia. The healthy elastic wall of the artery changes into dead and unresponsive scar tissue. If insufficient blood flow continues, the cardiac muscle dies, causing myocardial infarction. As the degeneration of the endothelial lining of the arteries continues, the lining may be damaged. Blood platelets stick to the site of injury, and a chemical signal is activated that promotes an influx of cholesterol.

The symptoms of atherosclerosis develop slowly as the development of the occlusion of the arteries progresses. Symptoms include angina, stroke, and claudication. The specific symptoms depend on which artery or arteries are occluded. If the leg arteries are affected, symptoms usually include numbness, fatigue, or pain in the leg. Occlusion of the coronary arteries may lead to angina or even a heart attack. When atherosclerosis occurs in the coronary arteries, it can lead to myocardial ischemia, an insufficient flow of blood to the heart. If the duration of ischemia is brief, the damage is reversible. However, if the duration of ischemia is longer than 40 to 60 minutes, irreversible damage may occur, and the parts of the heart muscle deprived of blood become permanently damaged, leading to myocardial infarction. Other commonly affected large arteries include the carotid arteries and the abdominal aorta. Initially, the symptoms of atherosclerosis are more likely to occur during exercise or strenuous activity than at rest. The symptoms develop during exercise because the arteries cannot supply the muscles with enough oxygen and nutrients. This process results in the build-up of by-products in the muscle that cannot be removed efficiently because of the occluded blood flow. This build-up of waste products, such as lactic acid, causes pain. It is similar to the build-up of lactic acid in muscles due to overexertion. As the narrowing of the arteries increases, the symptoms become prevalent with less and less exertion. The symptoms generally disappear after a few minutes of rest. However, the occlusion can be so severe that even the resting muscle does not get enough blood flow and the symptoms may be experienced even when sitting still.
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ATHLETE'S FOOT

Athlete's foot is a fungal infection that causes itching, cracking and peeling of the skin on the foot, especially between the toes. The condition is highly contagious and can be easily contracted by contact with an exposed surface such as a swimming pool deck, shower floor, locker room floor, bathroom, etc. Contact with the fungus, however, is usually not enough to bring on athlete's foot. The fungus can only thrive in a warm, moist environment, so tight fitting shoes and moist, sweaty socks will greatly increase the risk of becoming infected. There are three main kinds of athlete's foot: chronic, seasonal and ulcerative. Chronic athlete's foot is characterised by small cracks, scaling and softening of the skin, mainly between the toes, and can spread to the sole and even under the toenail. Seasonal athlete's foot occurs mostly in the summer months and causes small, fluid filled bumps on the instep and sole, and this skin can become scaly. Ulcerative athlete's foot is a severe form of the condition which produces scaling and softening of the skin and weeping ulcerations on the sole which can be painful, odorous and disabling.
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ATLAS

In anatomy, the first cervical vertebrae is called the atlas because it supports the globe of the head. It is connected with the occipital bone in such a way as to permit of the nodding movement of the head, and rests on the second vertebra or axis, their union allowing the head to turn from side to side.
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ATOMOSOPHOBIA

Atomosophobia is the fear of atomic explosions.
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ATRIOVENTRICULAR

In anatomy, atrioventricular refers to something relating to, or affecting both the atria and the ventricles of the heart.
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ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE

Embedded in the wall of the heart are four structures that conduct impulses through the cardiac muscle to cause first the atria then the ventricles to contract. These structures are the sinoatrial node (SA node), the atrioventricular node (AV node), the bundle of His, and the Purkinje fibres. On the rear wall of the right atrium is a barely visible knot of tissue known as the sinoatrial, or SA node. This tiny area is the control of the hearts pacemaker mechanism. Impulse conduction normally starts in the SA node. It generates a brief electrical impulse of low intensity approximately 72 times every minute in a resting adult. From this point the impulse spreads out over the sheets of tissue which make up the two atria, exciting the muscle fibres as it does so. This causes contraction of the two atria and thereby thrusts the blood into the empty ventricles. The impulse quickly reaches another small specialized knot of tissue known as the atrioventricular, or AV node, located between the atria and the ventricles. This node delays the impulse for about 0. 07 seconds, which is exactly enough time to allow the atria to complete their contractions. When the impulses reach the AV node, they are relayed by way of the bundle of His and Purkinje fibres to the ventricles, causing them to contract. The electrical current races across the two ventricles within 0.06 seconds, causing the squeezing, thrusting motion of these powerful pumping chambers. The heart also has its own built in safety factors. The AV node, in an emergency situation, can take over the functions of the SA node by becoming the generator of the impulses. It is not quite as efficient, generating only a rate of 40 or 50 beats per minute.
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ATRIUM

The left atrium is a small upper cavity of the heart. Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins into the smooth chamber of the left atrium. The chamber is constructed of two overlapping layers of muscle: a superficial layer and an inner layer, composed of many small bundles. The wall of the chamber is slightly thicker and more powerful than the right atrium. As the heart contracts (ventricular systole), blood flows into the ascending aorta through the aortic arch. As the heart relaxes (ventricle diastole), the blood flows through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. The right atrium is a small upper cavity of the heart that holds about three-and-a-half tablespoons of blood. It serves as the receiving chamber for all the venous blood (short of oxygen and laden with carbon dioxide) returning through the superior and inferior vena cava, and from many minute blood vessels that drain blood from the walls of the chamber itself. The right atrium is slightly larger than the left atrium, which is slightly more powerful. The walls of the right atrium are less than an eighth of an inch thick. Two layers of muscle form the wall. The superficial layer spans both atria, and the inner layer, composed of many small bundles, arches over the atrial cavity at right angles to the superficial layer. As the heart contracts (ventricular systole), the blood is pushed through the pulmonary valve into pulmonary circulation. As the heart relaxes (ventricular diastole), the blood exits the right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. In the upper part of the right atrium there is a small patch of special heart tissue called the sinus node or the sinoatrial node. It is the hearts pacemaker, triggering the heartbeat and establishes its rate.
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ATROPHY

Atrophy is a wasting of the flesh due to some interference with the nutritive processes. It may arise from a variety of causes, such as permanent, oppressive, and exhausting passions, organic disease, a want of proper food or of pure air, suppurations in important organs, copious evacuations of blood, saliva, semen, etc, and it is also sometimes produced by poisons, for example arsenic, mercury, lead, in miners, painters, gilders, etc. In old age the whole frame except the heart undergoes atrophic change, and it is of frequent occurrence in infancy as a consequence of improper, unwholesome food, exposure to cold, damp, or impure air, etc. Single organs or parts of the body may be affected irrespective of the general state of nutrition; thus local atrophy may be superinduced by palsies, the pressure of tumours upon the nerves of the limbs, or by artificial pressure, as in the feet of Chinese ladies.
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ATRULINE

Atruline is a brand name for sertaline.
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ATTACHMENT DISORDER

Attachment disorders are various psychological conditions generally originating in early childhood. Attachment disorder is common among adopted people who feeling rejected or the loss of their natural parents subsequently have difficulty with inter-personal relationships. Symptoms of attachment disorders typically include:


  • Intense anger or hostility
  • Unusual sensitivity to blame and criticism
  • Lack of empathy
  • Lack of affection
  • Viewing others as untrustworthy ('trust no one')
  • Self loathing
  • Passive withdrawal
  • Difficulty getting along with co-workers, often preferring to work alone
  • Fear of closeness in relationships
  • Avoidance of intimacy
  • Tendency toward Introjective depression
  • Compulsive care giving
  • Feelings of being over involved and under appreciated
  • Rapid relationship break-ups
  • Extreme emotions and mood swings
  • Jealousy
  • Possessiveness

Sufferers frequently form relationships, but then unconsciously destroy the relationship by saying or doing things to upset the other party or parties, thereby maintaining control of the inevitable rejection which the sufferer has been waiting for since the relationship started. It should be stressed that sufferer is usually unaware of what they are doing to upset the other party. Persons suffering from attachment disorder find it difficult to remain in employment, friendships, marriages, clubs and associations and even have difficulty with their own parents and siblings, all of which in turn feeds their feelings of self worthlessness and reinforces their condition.
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ATYCHIPHOBIA

Atychiphobia is the fear of failure.
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AUDILE

In psychology, the word audile is used to describe mental images of sounds.
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AUDIOMETER

An audiometer is a device for measuring the power and acuteness of hearing or the intensity of sounds. The audiometer was invented by Professor Hughes in 1879.
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AUDITORY OSSICLES

The auditory ossicles (the incus, malleus, and stapes) are the bones of the middle ear. The incus is shaped like an anvil. The malleus is shaped like a hammer and the stapes is shaped like a stirrup. They are the smallest bones in the human body. The three bones are connected to each other by hinges and act as mechanical levers to carry and push the vibrations of the ear drum forward to the flexible membrane of the oval window. When sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, the vibrations move the malleus, which in turn moves the incus. The incus moves the stapes which is attached to the oval window. The sound is then passed to the inner ear. The leverage of the middle ear bones increases the intensity of the sound wave by five decibels before the wave is funneled toward the oval window.
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AUDUMIC

Audumic is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AULOPHOBIA

Aulophobia is the fear of flutes.
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AURA

Aura is a peculiar sensation, subjective in origin, immediately preceding an epileptic or hysterical convulsion, and named respectively Aura Epileptica, and Aura Hysterica. The sensation is described as that of the passage of cold air or light vapour from the trunk or extremities to the head.
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AURICLE

In anatomy, the auricle is the outer or external ear. The word is also used for the two upper cavities of the heart which receive blood from the great blood vessels and transmit it to the ventricles.
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AURICLES

The auricles are reservoirs within the heart which receive blood from the veins.
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AURICULAR REGION

The Auricular region, or the muscles of the ear, consists of three small, fan-shaped muscles: attrahens auriculam, retrahens auriculam, and attolens ariculam. The Attrahens auriculam, also referred to as the auricularis anterior, is the smallest of the three muscles and is located just in front of the ear. It originates from the galia aponeurotica and inserts in the cartilage of the ear. Some anatomists consider this muscle to be a part of the temporoparietalis. The Attollens auriculam, also referred to as the auricularis superior, is the largest of the three muscles and is located just above the ear. It originates from the galia aponeurotica and inserts in the cartilage of the ear. This muscle is also considered to be a part of the temporoparietalis. The Retrahens auriculam is also referred to as the auricularis posterior and is located just behind the ear. It originates from the mastoid process and inserts into the root of the ear. All three muscles are innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by branches of the facial artery. These muscles have very little action, the Attrahens auriculam draws the ear upward and forward. The Attollens auriculam slightly raises it and the retrahens auriculam draws it back. As a general rule, they cannot be contracted by an individual voluntarily.
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AURORAPHOBIA

Auroraphobia is the fear of northern lights.
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AUSCULTATION

Auscultation is a method of distinguishing the state of the internal parts of the body, particularly of the thorax and abdomen, by observing the sounds arising in the part either through the immediate application of the ear to its surface (immediate auscultation), or by applying the stethoscope to the part, and listening through it (mediate auscultation). Auscultation may be used with more or less advantage in all cases where morbid sounds are produced, but its general applications are: the auscultation of respiration, the auscultation of the voice; auscultation of coughs; auscultation of sounds foreign to all these, but sometimes accompanying them; auscultation of the actions of the heart; obstetric auscultation. The parts when struck also give different sounds in health and disease.
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AUTISM

Autism is a serious, supposed mental disorder seen in children characterised by a lack of empathy and understanding for the environment outside of the self. Autism was first proposed by Kanner in 1943, previous to then the symptoms associated with the condition were diagnosed as a form of schizophrenia or of social behavioural difficulties. Frequently persons diagnosed with autism exhibit quite brilliant memory retention, mental mathematical skill, or artistic creativity bordering on genius, and yet paradoxically most are classified as being of 'low intelligence' and having lerning difficulties. The precise manner of autism, and its causes are highly controversial and at best unknown at this time.
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AUTODYSOMOPHOBIA

Autodysomophobia is the fear of one that has a vile odour.
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AUTOEROTIC

In psychology, autoerotic describes something as pertaining to, or tending to bring about, sexual excitement aroused from within oneself without the presence or thought of another.
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AUTOGRAFT

In surgery an autograft is a tissue graft obtained from one part of a patient's body for use on another part.
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AUTOIMMUNE

Autoimmune describes a disease that is caused by the action of antibodies produced against substances normally present in the body.
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AUTOINFECTION

Autoinfection is infection from bacteria previously present in the body but previously harmless because they were isolated from susceptible tissue.
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AUTOMATONOPHOBIA

Automatonophobia is the fear of ventiloquist dummies or wax statues.
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AUTOMYSOPHOBIA

Automysophobia is the fear of being dirty.
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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the self-controlling aspects of the body's nervous network, and is under the control of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalmus, and the medulla oblongata. Working in tandem with the central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system features two subsystems which regulate body functions such as involuntary smooth muscle movement and heart rate. These two subsystems are called the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, and their functions operate in opposition to one another, delicately balancing the bodily functions which they control. The sympathetic nervous causes fight or flight responses in moments of stress or stimulus, such as increased heart rate, saliva flow, and perspiration. The parasympathetic system counterbalances these effects by slowing the heart rate, dilating blood vessels, and relaxing involuntary smooth muscle fibres. Viewed individually, the sympathetic nervous system, also referred to as the thoracolumbar system, features a series of nerves which branch out of the spinal cord between the first thoracic vertebra and the second lumbar vertebra. These nerve fibres join into a long trunk of fibres, called the sympathetic trunk, on each side of the spinal cord. Along the sympathetic trunk are enlarged clusters of nerve fibres, called ganglia.

From these ganglia, a number of nerve fibres extend throughout the body's tissues. Many of these nerves create additional ganglia, such as the celiac ganglia and the mesenteric ganglia. The sympathetic nerves are responsible for contracting involuntary smooth muscle fibres, viscera, and blood vessels, speeding up the heart rate, and dilating the bronchial tubes in moments of stress. The parasympathetic nervous system, also referred to as the craniosacral system, features ganglia in the midbrain, in the medulla oblongata, and in the sacral region. The first two, the cranial ganglia of the parasympathetic system, give pass impulses to the facial, oculomotor, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. The sacral group of parasympathetic nerves originate at the second, third, and fourth vertebrae and extend nerves to the bladder, the distal colon, the rectum, and the genitals. The nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system are responsible for conserving and restoring energy in the body following a sympathetic response to stress.
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AUTOPHOBIA

Autophobia (ermitophobia) is the fear of loneliness.
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AUTOPLASTY

Autoplasty is the operation by which wounds and diseased parts are repaired with healthy tissue taken from other parts of the same person's body. Autoplasty was practised in India a long time before it was adopted into Western medicine.
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AVIOPHOBIA

Aviophobia is the fear of flying.
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AVITAMINOSIS

Avitaminosis describes any disease caused by a vitamin deficiency in the diet.
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AXILLA

The axilla is the cavity beneath the junction of the arm with the shoulder (popularly known as the armpit). It contains many important vessels and nerves.
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AXILLARY ARTERY

At the edge of the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery, which continues to descend to the tendon of the teres major muscle and becomes the brachial artery. The artery divides into three branches around the pectoralis minor muscle, one above the muscle, one behind the muscle and one below the muscle. This artery brings a fresh blood supply to the upper arm and chest area.
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AXILLARY LYMPH NODES

The axillary lymph nodes are located in the armpit. They are divided into two sets: superficial and deep. These lymph nodes receive lymph from the vessels of the arm and the upper nodes receive lymph from vessels in the upper chest area near the pectoralis muscles (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles) and the mammary glands. There are about 35 lymph nodes in the breast and armpit area. Most of the lymph nodes are located in or near the armpit. If cancer forms in the breast area it often spreads to the nodes because the lymph, along with other debris, can carry cancerous cells. Lymph flows in all directions, but about three- quarters of lymphatic vessels in the breast empty into the axillary nodes, which often become the first site of the cancer spread beyond the breast.
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AXILLARY VEIN

The axillary vein is a continuation of the basilic vein from the arms. It is a large vein extending along the chest to the first rib, where it becomes the subclavian vein. The cephalic vein merges with it just before it becomes the subclavian vein.
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AXIS

In anatomy, the 2nd cervical vertebrae is called the axis. It provides the pivot for the atlas and the head.
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AXON

The axons are the long processes of the neuron which carry nerve impulses from the body of the neuron to the synapse. A collection of axons all lying alongside each other in the peripheral nervous system is termed a nerve. The axons are distinguished from the dendrites, which carry nerve impulses toward the body of the neuron. The axon terminals allow the nerve impulses to pass through a synaptic connection into another neuron, for the continuous transmission of an impulse, or into a nerve-muscle junction, to cause contraction of the muscle tissue. Other types of peripheral nerve terminals include vascular, articular, and cutaneous endings.
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AYURVEDA

Ayurveda is a sacred system of medicine, originating in ancient India around 5000 BC. The system sees good health as a state of harmony or balance between Air which governs movement, fire which governs digestion and warmth, and water which governs cohesion, growth and lubrication. Ayurveda is holistic, with practicioners taking astrological assessments of the patient, and placing emphasis on the prevention of disease in addition to its cure.
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AZATHIOPRINE

azathioprine is a synthetic drug that suppresses the normal immune responses of the body and is administered orally during and after organ transplantation and also in certain types of anaemia and rheumatoid arthritis. It has the formula C9H7N7O2S.
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AZEDARACH

Azedarach is the astringent bark of the chinaberry tree. It was formerly used in medicine as an emetic and cathartic.
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AZILLIN

Azillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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AZOOSPERMIA

Azoospermia is the absence of spermatozoa in the semen.
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