The Babinski reflex, named after the French neurologist Josef Babinski, is produced by firmly stroking the lateral border of the sole of the foot. This action causes the dorsiflexion of the big toe and the fanning of the other toes. The reflex is normal in newborns. If it exists in children or adults, it may indicate neurological damage, usually a lesion in the pyramidal tract. An opposite reflex, the plantar reflex, is a superficial reflex that occurs in older children and adults. It is easily evaluated. Using a moderately sharp object, the lateral border of the sole of the foot is stroked, starting at the heel and continuing to the ball of the foot, and then proceeding across the ball of the foot toward the big toe. This stimulus should cause all five toes to bend downward.
Research Babinski Reflex
Bacampicillin hydrochloride is a drug used to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections; urinary tract infections and skin infections. It has the possible side effects of: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), hypersensitivity (rash) and itching.
Research Bacampicillin Hydrochloride
Bacillophobia (microbiophobia) is the fear of microbes.
Bactamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Bacteriophobia is the fear of bacteria.
Bactrachophobia is the fear of reptiles.
Balantidiasis is an infection caused by cysts of the protozoan Balantidium coli. Balantidium coli is the largest and only ciliated protozoan that is pathogenic to humans. The protezoa is a normal inhabitant of the domestic pig. Cysts are excreted in the faeces of pigs and are transmitted to humans through the food or water that comes in contact with the faeces. The incubation period of the cysts is unknown, but is believed to be only a few days. The cysts are swallowed by the new host and carried to the large intestine of humans where they cause diarrhea. In severe cases, the protozoa inhabit the intestinal wall causing painful ulcers and abscesses. In extreme cases, the protozoa then cause dysentery and death. In underdeveloped countries with poor sanitation habits and poor hygiene methods epidemics may arise from faecally contaminated water. The infection is diagnosed by the presence of the cysts in fecal samples of the infected host.
Ballistophobia is the fear of bullets.
Balm of balsam is a resinous, fragrant substance obtained from certain shrubs and plants and used as a healing or soothing medicine, usually a healing ointment. By extension, the term balm is applied to anything that heals or soothes pain, whether physical or mental.
Balneotherapy is the treatment of disease by bathing. Balneotherapy is especially used to improve limb mobility in arthritic and neuromuscular disorders.
Balsam of tolu or tolu balsam, is a substance that exudes from incisions in the bark of the Myroxylon balsamum (formerly Myroxylon toluferum) tree grown in Central and South America. It is used in perfumery and in cough medicine as an expectorant.
Research Balsam of Tolu
A bandage is a strip of material, often cotton, used in dressing and binding up wounds and the like.
The Barant test (named after Robert Barany the Austrian physician who devised it) is a test which detects diseases of the semicircular canals of the inner ear.
Research Barany Test
Barophobia is the fear of gravity.
The basilar part of the occipital bone is that part which forms the floor of the cranial cavity, housing the brain. The basilar part meets the vomer and sphenoid bone in the anterior, and the temporal bones at the sides. The most apparent characteristic of the basilar part of the occipital bone is the large foramen magnum, a round opening in the bone which allows the spinal cord to pass through the skull.
Research Basilar Part
The basilar artery is a single artery located at the base of the skull. It is formed by the junction of two vertebral arteries. It supplies blood to the internal ear and parts of the brain. The basilar plexus is a network of small arteries between the layers of membrane that protect the brain (the dura mater) over the base of the skull. Blockage, or occlusion, of the basilar artery causes many serious problems, ranging from blindness to paralysis.
Research Basilar Posterior Cerebral Artery
The basilic vein is one of the larger veins in the body extending upward along the inner side of the forearm to the elbow. It continues to about the middle of the upper arm and joins the brachial vein. The basilic vein and the brachial vein merge and continue as the axillary vein.
Research Basilic Vein
Basilicon was formerly a name of several ointments, the chief ingredients of which were wax, pitch, resin, and olive-oil.
Basophobia is the fear of the inability to stand.
Bathophobia is the fear of depth.
Batonophobia is the fear of plants.
Batophobia is the fear of high buildings.
Batrachophobia is the fear of reptiles.
Becker's muscular dystrophy is a chronic generative disease of the muscles that occurs in childhood between 8 and 20 years of age. It produces the same symptoms as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is sometimes referred to as benign pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. It is transmitted by an X- linked recessive trait. Symptoms of the disorder include slow, but progressive weakening of the pelvic and leg muscles, resulting in frequent falls, difficulty in climbing stairs, difficulty in getting up from the floor, and an awkward gait. Although there is no cure, treatment of physical therapy and orthopaedic devices are much more successful than with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Patients often survive to reach middle to late adulthood.
Research Becker's Muscular Dystrophy
Beclomatosone dipropionate is a dangerous corticosteroid (steroid) used as a nasal spray to counter the symptoms of sinusitis, asthma and rhinitis caused by allergies, such as an allergy to sulphites. Like all prescription drugs, beclomatosone dipropionate is dangerous and causes growth retardation in children, and can, ironically, damage the nose and cause pain in the nose and throat, skin rashes, thinning of the skin, glaucoma, cataracts, osteoporosis, increased intraocular pressure, blurred vision hallucinations and in some cases severe allergic reactions such as respiratory difficulties, as well as potentially lethal Addisonian crises and Cushing's syndrome.
Research Beclomatosone Dipropionate
Beconase is a trademark brand of beclomatosone dipropionate.
A bed sore is a sore place or an ulcer which occurs on the body of a patient through lying in bed for a prolonged period.
The development of bed sores in a patient in hospital, is usually considered to indicate bad nursing. Bed sores occur from interruption of the nutrition of areas of skin where the blood supply has been impaired by pressure. Bed sores are almost inevitable in some patients. The very thin, the very heavy, the incontinent and those who through some injury to the spine have lost the sensation of the skin at these points are most likely to develop pressure sores. Common sites for bed sores are the sacral area and the heels. In patients with septic conditions, nutrition is impaired by prolonged fever and there is frequently anaemia. Their toxic condition renders them less likely to move about and the greatest care needs to be taken to prevent the development of these pressure ulcers. Frequent change of position and massage of pressure points with spirit followed by powder is the best method of prevention. Early post-operative mobilisation of all patients who are fit to get up has done much to prevent this distressing complaint.
In unconscious patients or those who have had some injury to the spinal cord, a large pressure sore can develop as soon as twelve hours after the injury or onset of the illness. A bed sore on the sacral area may even develop from the patient's position on the operating table during a long operation. Although pressure sores rarely develop over the scapulae or the elbows, these points are subject to soreness and require similar preventive treatment when a patient is washed. An ulcer may develop on the shin from the weight of the other leg, if the legs of an unconscious patient are left crossed.
Research Bed Sores
Bell's paralysis or Bell's Palsy (paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve or 'facial nerve') occurs in both sexes equally and at all ages, though it is commonest in early adult life. It comes on rapidly, generally after exposure to wet or cold, or to draughts on the side of the face. An exactly similar type of facial paralysis may occur in cases of acute inflammation of the middle ear, or after operations on the mastoid.
The onset is usually sudden, and the paralysis is generally complete from the first. If it is incomplete, the lower part of the face is more affected than the upper. The first symptom is that the patient feels one side of the face to be stiff when he attempts to move it. The paralysed side of the face shows a striking contrast with the normal side. It is smooth and free from wrinkles, and devoid of any form of expression, so that the patient cannot laugh or weep or frown or express any feeling or emotion, while the features of the normal side are in full play. The eye cannot be closed because of the drooping of the lower eyelid, and the mouth cannot be moved on the affected side so as to expose the teeth. Speaking becomes difficult, and fluids may escape from the mouth on drinking, and saliva dribbles away.
The duration of the paralysis varies within wide limits. Quite slight cases may recover in ten to fourteen days. Others remain unaltered for many weeks or months, but recovery always occurs finally, and as a rule within two years. The recovery always appears first in the upper part of the face. In cases associated with some underlying disease of the brain or bones of the ear, recovery may be uncertain.
Research Bell's Paralysis
Belonephobia is the fear of needles.
In medicine, benign means not endangering life. Thus a benign tumour is one which does pose a threat to life.
Benylin DM is a trade name for dextromethorphan hydrochloride
Research Benylin DM
Benzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotic drugs that are structurally similar and include widely used drugs such as chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and oxazepam. The different
benzodiazepines are absorbed at different rates, and the timing of their psychoactive effects varies with the absorption rate. Benzodiazepines are usually taken orally and are metabolised in the liver. Some benzodiazepine metabolites are pharmacologically active.
Benzodiazepines potentiate the effect of other central nervous system depressants, such as ethyl alcohol.
Benztropine mesylate is a synthetic Anticholinergic used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Research Benztropine mesylate
Beriberi is a disease, endemic in east and south Asia, caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine. It affects the nerves to the limbs, producing pain, paralysis, and swelling. Beriberi was discovered in the early 20th century to be caused by eating refined rice from which the essentuial vitamins had been removed.
Berlthyrox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
Betaloc is a brand name for Metoprolol tartrate.
Bibliophobia is the fear of books.
A bicep is a muscle, one end of which has two heads or places of attachment. The term biceps is especially used to refer to the large flexor muscle on the front of the upper arm opposing the triceps. The term is also used loosely to refer to the strength of the arm.
The biceps brachii (biceps flexor cubiti) is a two-headed arm muscle that consists of the long head (caput longum), and the short head (caput breve). The long head originates from the supraglenoid tuberosity of the scapula and the short head originates from the coracoid process. The muscle extends from the shoulder to the elbow where the biceps tapers into a flat, strong tendon that inserts in the tuberosity on the upper end of the radius. It is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerves (5th and 6th cervical nerves) and is supplied by branches of the brachial artery. This muscle is the main flexor of the elbow joint. When working with other nearby muscles, it can also move the shoulder, since its upper ends are attached to the scapula. In addition it can twist the lower arm so that the palm faces outward, a movement called supination. The biceps and the triceps work together to control the up and down movement of the forearm.
Research Biceps Brachii
The biceps femoris (biceps flexor cruris) muscle is included with the hamstring muscle group. The biceps femoris is a large muscle comprised of two heads (two points of attachment to the bone), the long head (caput longum) and the short head (caput breve). The long head originates from the tuberosity of the ischium near the semitendinosus muscle and the short head originates from the linea aspera between the adductor magnus and the vastus lateralis muscles. The two muscles converge to a single tendon and insert in the fibula. This common tendon is located on the outer back corner of the knee and forms the outer hamstring. The long head of the biceps femoris is innervated by the tibial nerve and the short head is innervated by the peroneal nerves. This muscle is supplied by a deep branch of the femoral artery, the profunda femoris. Both heads of the muscle flex the lower leg at the knee joint and rotate the tibia outward. The long head also assists with the extension and outward rotation of the thigh at the hip joint, making it a two-joint muscle, while the short head is a single-joint muscle.
Research Biceps Femoris
The biceps femoris tendon connects the patella to the femur. It is responsible for extension of the knee joint and is given its name because it features two muscular heads, one at the femur and one at the patella.
Research Biceps Femoris Tendon
The biceps reflex is produced when the tendon of the biceps muscle is firmly tapped with a rubber hammer. This causes the biceps muscle to contract and brings the forearm up sharply. It is a form of deep tendon reflex. A deep tendon reflex is a sudden contraction of a muscle in response to a sharp tap of a rubber hammer on a tendon of insertion of the muscle.
Research Biceps Reflex
In anamtomy, bicipital refers to having two heads or points of attachment. The term is applied to certain muscles such as the biceps.
The bicuspid valve or mitral valve is a flap of tissue in the left side of the heart that prevents blood flowing back into the atrium when the ventricle contracts.
Research Bicuspid Valve
Bile (formerly known as choler) is a yellow, bitter, liquor, secreted from the liver stored in the gall bladder. After secretion, bile is collected by the biliary ducts, which unite to form the hepatic duct, whence it passes into the duodenum, or by the cystic duct into the gall-bladder to be retained there until required for use.
Biliary means pertaining to bile.
Bilious means of or pertaining to bile. The term is often used to describe the condition of having a damaged liver.
Bimox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Bintamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Biomox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
A biopsy is the examination, usually under a microscope, of tissue from a living body to determine the cause or extent of a disease.
Bioxidona is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Bioxyllin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Bipolar is a later term for the condition formerly known as manic-depression, in which the patient exhibits episodes of both mania and depression.
Bird Flu (avian influenza) is a common viral infection widespread in wild birds the world over where it rarely manifests itself as a dangerous disease. Around 2005 widespread international panic ensued following irresponsible reporting by a few scientists - presumably sponsored by drug companies eager to reap valuable governmental contracts developing vaccines of dubious worth - that bird flu would cause millions of human deaths world wide. In reality about 100 people in parts of Asia who had died over a period of several years had been found to have been infected with a strain of avian influenza - an insignificantly small number compared with the millions who had died from diseases and who were not infected with bird flu in the same area over the same period. Some reports in 2006 even sought to draw parallels with the great flu epidemic of 1918 which coincided with 20 million deaths world wide mainly from pneumonia blamed on immune deficiency caused by the influenza infection.
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Black vomit is the dark substance thrown up in yellow fever, and hence a name of this disease.
Research Black Vomit
A black-eye is an eye discoloured by bruising.
A blackhead (comedo) is dirt blocking a pore that often causes acne.
Blackwater fever is a rare and serious complication of chronic malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum following quinine treatment and characterised by massive destruction of the red blood cells, producing dark red or blackish urine. The patient has fever, rigors, jaundice, vomitting, pain in the loins and thirst. Recovery may follow, or death may occur from exhaustion, high fever or suppression of urine.
Research Blackwater Fever
The bladder is a sac-like organ composed of musculomembranous fiber. Located in the pelvis, the bladder stores urine until it is excreted. The urine is passed to the bladder through ureters from each kidney in peristaltic waves. During excretion, the urethral orifice below the bladder is opened and the urine passes through the urethra. Though the urge to void the bladder of urine generally occurs when it has about 250 - 300 milliliters in it, the average human bladder can hold almost twice this amount. An average human excretes one to two liters of urine per day, though this is greatly dependent upon the health, diet, and level of activity of the adult. Ingested water usually is excreted within four hours of ingestion. Urine is usually clear or yellow, though this depends upon the diet and health of the individual. Urine has a distinct, ammonia-like smell which is primarily due to the nitrogenous wastes which make up 5% of the urine. The chief constituent of these wastes is urea, though ammonia, uric acid, creatinine, and a host of other waste products also are present.
A blade-bone or blade is a flat bone. The name is especially applied to the scapula or shoulder blade.
A blain is a blister or an inflammed sore or swelling.
To bleed is to shed one's blood.
Blennophobia is the fear of slime.
In medicine, blennorghoea is a copious discharge from a mucous membrane.
A blister is a thin, bladder-like swelling on the skin filled with a watery matter. Blisters may be caused by burning, or friction etc. The term is also extended to similar swellings on plant leaves, painted surfaces etc.
Blood is one of the three main fluids in the body (the other two are the fluid around cells and the fluid inside the cells). It supplies oxygen, transports nutrients, waste, and hormonal messengers to each of the sixty billion cells in the body, as well as defending the body against foreign material. There are close to 30 trillion blood cells in an adult. Each cubic millimeter of blood contains from 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 million red blood cells and an average total of 7,500 white blood cells.
Blood has four main components: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and liquid plasma. Since both red and white blood cells are continually being destroyed, the body must continue to produce new ones. About 2 1/2 million red blood cells die every second, at the same time, about 2 1/ 2 million new ones are created.
Normal red blood cells are of four main groups in relation to their behaviour when mixed with blood plasma (or serum) of another individual. Similarly the plasma (and serum) of each individual belongs to one of four groups. If cells of one group meet plasma of an 'incompatible' group, the cells stick together in blocks. These clumps obstruct blood vessels and may cause death. The interaction of the incompatible cells and plasma is called 'agglutination'. The provocative substance in the cells is called the agglutlnogen, while the defensive substance in the plasma is the agglutinin. A similar mechanism develops in relation to our immunity to infections by certain bacteria and viruses. In blood transfusion, the amount of plasma administered is small in relation to the large amount of plasma in the recipient's circulation. On the other hand, even a small quantity of cells given to a patient whose plasma will not tolerate that particular type of cell, will lead to clumping of the donor's cells in the recipient's blood vessels. The importance therefore lies in the cells of the donor and the plasma of the recipient.l Plasma and serum for this purpose are identical and the serum obtained when a small quantity of blood is allowed to clot is used for testing against the donor's red cells. In order to determine a patient's blood group, a small quantity of blood is obtained from a finger or ear prick and immediately mixed with citrate to prevent clotting; the cells are then tested against special serum of known groups. To obtain the patient's serum for cross-matching, 5 ml of blood is taken, by vein puncture, and allowed to clot.
The four common groups have been numbered variously. The Moss classification I, II, III, and IV was used extensively until the adoption of the International A, B, O classification, which describes the groups according to the presence or absence of the specific cell factors, which are of two types, A and B. Thus we have four blood groups in the international system. In the first of these, both cell factors are present but no serum factors. The serum factors are called anti-A and anti-B, and obviously the cell factor A and the serum factor anti-A could not exist in the same person. The second group contains cell factor A and serum factor anti-B. The third group contains cell factor B with serum factor anti-A, and the fourth group contains neither cell factor but both serum factors. The fourth group could therefore be given to any of the other groups and the cells, having no clumping factors, would be tolerated in any recipient. On the other hand, the first group with both cell factors could not be given to any other group. The terms universal donor, Group O (Moss IV), and universal recipient, Group AB (Moss I), were used to amplify the earlier grouping system. Transfusion with the wrong group of blood is usually fatal so that very great care has to be taken in the determination of the blood group, both of donor and recipient.
Since the 1950s hitherto unexplained incompatability was found to be due to the presence of other factors than the A, B, O, agglutinogens. The most important of these is the rhesus cellfactor. Certain monkeys (Rhesus species) have this factor naturally, but it is present in only 85 per cent of white people in England and America. The other 15 per cent - Rh negative - may become sensitized to Rh positive cells by repeated transfusion of Rh positive blood. A rhesus negative mother whose husband is ph positive may produce an Rh positive baby. A battle occurs between the unborn baby's cells and the mother's plasma. The baby may die before birth (miscarriage) or be born with very severe anaemia and jaundice. If born alive, the baby is treated by complete replacement of its blood to get rid of the mother' s sensitized Rh negative plasma. This is 'exsanguination-transfusion'. During the 1950s blood grouping in preparation for transfusion became a complex and very responsible task. In most hospitals it is undertaken by specialists - perhaps a pathologist or transfusion officer. During the 1980s as HIV paranoia spread, even more testing started to be done.
Research Blood Groups
Blood poisoning is a general term for a toxic condition of the blood due to uraemic poisoning or to the presence of bacterial poisons introduced from or without or absorbed from a focus of infection within the body.
Research Blood Poisoning
Arterial blood pressure is the result of the cardiac output times the resistance the blood encounters while it flows. Blood pressure is defined in terms of systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the maximum pressure produced in the arteries by each heartbeat. Diastolic pressure is the constant pressure maintained in the arteries between heartbeats. Many factors can affect blood pressure: age, exercise, stress, obesity, and medications.
Blood pressure is measured by means of a sphygmanometer and is expressed in millimeters of mercury. Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120 millimeters for systolic pressure and 80 millimeters for diastolic pressure. It is usually expressed in abbreviated form as 120/80.
Research Blood Pressure
The transfer of blood from one individual to another first became a practical proposition during the Great War. The recognition of four major blood groups indicated that there were limitations on blood transfusion which necessitated very careful examination of the blood of the two individuals concerned. In the early days of transfusion after preliminary grouping, the blood was transferred from the donor to the recipient by the ' direct' method, using a two-way tap and syringe, so that the blood was not exposed to the air and had no opportunity for clotting. The 'indirect' method was later introduced in which the donor's blood was received into a solution of sodium citrate which prevented it from clotting by inactivating the calcium. Within an hour or so the blood was then injected into the veins of the recipient. Prior to the second World War, most large hospital centres in Great Britain maintained a panel of blood donors who were willing to come to the hospital at any hour of the day or night for emergency transfusion. The relatives of patients also were called upon, if with the right blood group, to give their blood.
The necessities of war, and the greater demands of surgery for blood transfusion led to the establishment of ' blood banks', in which are stored large quantities of blood taken at a convenient time from thousands of volunteers. With suitable refrigeration, blood may be stored for three weeks with safety and such blood is quite suitable for the treatment of shock and conditions of blood loss. Certain other disorders, mainly medical conditions affecting the formation of red cells in the bone marrow, are preferably treated with the transfusion of fresh blood: this seems to possess properties which become lost in storage. Blood transfusion performs a double purpose. It replaces the oxygen-carrying red cells and its fluid fraction, the plasma, contributes protein which maintains the circulating blood volume, thus preventing the escape of water into the tissues. Plasma or serum may be separated from the whole blood and dried. In this form it was used extensively during the Second World War because it could be stored indefinitely and could be reconstituted by the addition of distilled water when infusion was needed in the treatment of shock. By the extraction of the fluid portion of the whole blood, the cell content may be concentrated. Such a preparation is known as packed cells. This has become of particular value if it is necessary to raise the haemoglobin rapidly without raising the blood volume unduly. Such a procedure may be required in the treatment of severe anaemia arising from toxaemia.
Europe's first successful blood transfusion occurred in 1667 in France. Jean-Baptiste Denis performed the operation in which blood from a calf was flowed into the vein of a fifteen year-old boy with a temperament for setting fires - the theory being that the innocent and docile calf's blood would calm the boys violent temperament. Despite going into severe shock, the boy miraculously survived and his body expelled the invading blood cells in a frenzy of black urine. It should be noted, that despite the popularity of blood transfusions, there is no evidence that blood transfusions are necessary, rather the belief is based upon hearsay rather than any scientific study.
Research Blood Transfusion
Bloodletting is the surgical removal of blood, controlled bleeding.
Bloodshot means red with suffused blood or inflamed. The term is usually applied to the eyes.
Formerly, blue mass was a drug prepared by rubbing mercury with certain other substances to form a mass which was then made into pills.
Research Blue Mass
Formerly (certainly as late as 1905), a blue-pill was a preparation of mercury for medicinal use. It consisted of two parts by weight of mercury triturated with three parts of conserve of roses until it lost its globular form. This was mixed with one part by weight of liquorice root powder, so that 5 grains of the mixture contained 1 grain of mercury.
Body Dismorphic Disorder (BDD) formerly known as 'Imagined Ugliness Syndrome' is a psychological condition which was first noticed after the introduction of photography and cosmetic surgery in the late 19th century. Sufferers of BDD imagine that they are physically deformed in some way, and become obsessed with some aspect of their appearance, perhaps their hair, the size of their breasts or the shape of their chin for example. Onset of the disorder generally follows social phobia, and suggests general neurosis on the part of the sufferer. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as Prozac are often prescribed by psychiatrists to treat the anxiety of BDD, who wrongly infer from brain chemical scans that the BDD condition is caused by the brain activity, where as in reality the brain is reacting to the condition, making the sufferer anxious and depressed. Not suprisingly BDD is more prevalent in the USA where personal appearance and vanity are at the forefront of society.
Research Body Dismorphic Disorder
Body temperature is the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body. In humans, as other mammals, the core temperature of the body remains constant despite the temperature of the surrounding environment. For the body to function optimally, the temperature must be maintained within narrow limits. There are two kinds of body temperature: core temperature and surface temperature. Core temperature is the temperature of the deep tissues of the body. It normally remains constant at about 98. 6 degrees Fahrenheit (37.0 degrees Celsius). However, body temperature varies from person to person and is affected by factors such as exercise, sleep, eating and drinking, and time of day.
The body's surface temperature rises and falls in response to the environment. Body temperature is maintained by the hypothalamus, which constantly monitors blood temperature and activates mechanisms to compensate for changes. When the body's surface temperature falls, the hypothalamus sends nerve impulses to the skin to stimulate shivering, which generates heat by muscle activity, and to restrict the blood vessels in the skin, which limits heat loss. When the surface temperature rises, the hypothalamus stimulates the sweat glands in the skin to produce sweat and dilates the blood vessels in the skin to increase heat loss. There is a danger to life should the body temperature drop and remain below 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius) or rise and remain at or above 106 degrees Fahrenheit (41 degrees Celsius). Chemical reactions in the body increase an average of about 120% for every 10 degree rise in temperature.
Research Body Temperature
Bogyphobia is the fear of the bogeyman.
A boil is an inflammed nodule beneath the skin, formed by the infection of the root of a hair or a sebaceous gland by a staphylococcus.
Bolasterone is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
Bolshephobia is the fear of Bolsheviks.
A bolus is a soft round mass of some medicinal substance larger than a pill, intended to be swallowed at once.
Bones (or osseous material) serve a number of diverse purposes in the human anatomy. In addition to providing structure, protection, and support for the organs of the body, bones also house marrow, which produces blood cells. Within the bones are also stored the calcium deposits which the body may access, via resorption, when needed. Additionally, bones detoxify the system, by removing heavy metals, such as lead and arsenic, as well as other toxins, from the bloodstream. Osseous tissue itself is made of water (about 1/4 of the bone weight), organic material (about 1/3 of the bone weight, most of which is the protein, ossein) and inorganic minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium predominate, though iron, sodium, potassium, chlorine, and fluorine are also present in small amounts). Most bones (with the exception of those of the skull) are initially pre-formed in cartilage and are then ossified as the newborn develops.
Two basic classification methods exist to categorize the bones of the body. These two classification systems are based upon anatomical location (axial or appendicular), and shape (long, short, flat, and irregular). Axial bones are the eighty bones which lie along the central, vertical axis of the body and support and protect the head and torso and include the skull and the spinal column.
Appendicular bones include the one hundred twenty-six bones which comprise the appendages, including the shoulders and hips, arms and legs, hands and feet, and fingers and toes. The shape classifications include long bones (such as the radius, humerus, and femur), the short bones (such as the carpals, tarsals, and manual and pedal phalanges), flat bones (such as the sternum, cranium bones, and scapulae), and irregular
bones (such as the vertebrae).
Each foot is made up of twenty-six bones which form the ankle, top and bottom of the foot, and toes. These bones are articularly specialized, allowing a wide range of flexibility, while being able to withstand the incredible amounts of stress placed upon them. It is estimated that each stride of an adult places 900 pounds per square inch on the bottom of the foot. Seven of these bones form the compact arrangement of the ankle, or tarsus, and the heel. These tarsal bones include the navicular, the three cuneiform, the cuboid, the talus, and the calcaneus bones.
These tarsal bones are arranged generally in two rows, the proximal and distal. The distal tarsals articulate with the five metatarsals. The long metatarsals form the broad, long structure of the foot, as seen in the superior view. These, in turn, articulate with the proximal phalanges. The proximal phalanges join with the middle phalanges, which articulate with the end sections of the toes, called distal phalanges. The large toe is the exception, as it lacks a middle phalanx. Ligaments connect the bones of the foot together and allow the muscles of the calf to remotely influence these bones.
Research Bones of the Foot
Bonjela is a numbing gel used for treating teething pains and mouth ulcers. It is primarily choline salicylate and ethanol.
Bornholm disease is an epidemic virus infection characterised by pain round the base of the chest. It is named after Bornholm where the infection was first described.
Research Bornholm Disease
Botanophobia is the fear of plants.
Botulism is a potentially fatal poisoning caused by the bacillus Clostridium botulinum, which is especially found in improperly sterilized tinned meats and other preserved foods.
A bougie is a long, thin, flexible surgical instrument inserted into passages of the body for dilating, removing obstructions etc.
Bougies are surgical instruments of a cylindrical rod fashion, introduced into the canals of the body in order to widen them. They differ from a catheter in being solid.
Bovine Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of cattle characterised by the formation of tubercules or nodules - small greyish yellow bodies which may exist in almost every organ and give rise to numerous disease processes which vary according to their situation.
Research Bovine Tuberculosis
The bowels is a popular term for the division of the alimentary canal below the stomach, that is the intestines.
The Bowman's capsule contains the primary filtering device of the nephron, the glomerulus. Blood is transported into the Bowman's capsule from the afferent arteriole. Within the capsule, the blood is filtered throught the glomerulus and then passes out via the efferent arteriole. Meanwhile, the filtered water and aqueous wastes are passed out of the Bowman's capsule into the proximal convoluted tubule.
Research Bowman's Capsule
Bowssening was a former treatment for 'madness' employed in Cornwall during the Middle Ages. The supposedly mad person was thrown or pushed into a lake or pond, and repeatedly dragged under the water until half-drowned and incapacitated by some strong men, before then being taken to a local church and masses sung over the patient. Bowssening met with the approval of the doctors of the time and it seems to have continued until the early 19th century.
The brachial artery conveys blood to the upper arm. It begins at the tendon of the teres major and extends to just below the elbow joint. It then branches into the radial and ulnar arteries. You can feel your pulse by placing your fingertips along the brachial artery at the bend of the elbow along the inner margin of the biceps muscle.
Research Brachial Artery
The Brachial Plexus is the network of nerves which supply the arm. It is formed by the four lower cervical nerves and part of the first dorsal, and lies between the root of the neck and the axilla or armpit, where it breaks up into several branches.
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The brachialis is a slender, flat muscle that lies under the biceps along the front of the lower half of the humerus and in front of the elbow joint. It originates from the front of the humerus and inserts in the coronoid process of the ulna. The brachialis is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve. It is supplied by the brachial artery and radial artery. This muscle protects the elbow, and helps flex and rotate the forearm.
The brachioradialis (supinator longus) originates two-thirds of the way down the humerus between the triceps and the brachialis. The muscle begins wide and flat and twists toward the front of the arm as it descends. It then widens and flattens again before ending in a flat tendon, which inserts on the thumb side of the radius. It is innervated by branches of the radial nerve and supplied by radial recurrent artery. Unlike most of the long tendons of the forearm, the tendon does not cross the wrist joint, but rather ends at the distal end of the radius. This muscle bends the forearm at the elbow. It does not assist in turning the forearm.
In anatomy, the brachium is that part of the arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
In pathology, bradycardia is an abnormally low rate of heartbeat.
In pathology, bradykinesia is an abnormal slowness of physical movement, especially as a symptom of Parkinson' s disease.
Bradykinin is a peptide in blood plasma that dilates blood vessels and causes contraction of smooth muscles. It has the formula C50H73N15O11.
The brain is the primary component of the nervous system, occupying the cranial cavity. Without its outermost protective membrane, the dura mater, the brain weighs an average of 1.4 kilograms, comprising about 97% of the entire central nervous system. The brain is connected to the upper end of the spinal cord (which connects through the foramen magnum of the skull) and is responsible for issuing nerve impulses, processing nerve impulse data, and engaging in the higher order thought processes. The brain is divided into three parts: the large cerebrum, the smaller cerebellum, and the brainstem leading to the spinal cord. The brainstem is also descriptively divided into the medulla oblongata, the midbrain, and the pons. The right hemisphere of the brain is a part of the cerebrum. The cerebrum, or forebrain, forms the bulk of the brain, formed of a large mass of white and grey neural fiber in the upper cranium. It is responsible for the higher thought processes (memory, judgement, reason), processing sensory data, and with initiating willful motor processes, such as voluntary muscle flexion. The cerebrum is composed of two lateral halves, or hemispheres, which feature a number of folds (gyri) and furrows (sulci) and which are connected in the middle at the medulla. Containing about a trillion neurons, the human brain is the most complex mechanism known, and its many functions are still largely a mystery.
The brain stem operates automatically to control vital body functions such as breathing and blood pressure. It is a eight centimeter long stalk of nerve cells and fibres that joins the upper part of the spinal cord with the brain. The medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the brain stem and serves as the site of connection between the brain and the spinal cord. The pons is located in the brainstem, vertically between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata, and sagittally between the cerebellum and the pituitary gland. It is responsible for serving as a bridge between the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. The brain stem is an extension of the spinal cord and acts as a highway for messages traveling from other parts of the brain to the spinal cord. The spinal cord and the brain form the central nervous system (CNS), which controls all of the body's basic functions such as breathing, the rate of your heart beat, and body temperature.
Research Brain Stem
Brainpan is a popular term for that part of the skull which encloses the brain. The cranium.
Braxy is a disease of sheep being a plethora of the blood resulting from a change from poor to rich pasturage, usually fatal in a few hours.
Breast is a general term for the fore part of the body between the neck and the abdomen, that is the chest.
Breast is a popular term for either of the glands found on the chest of humans and other mammals which in the female secret milk for feeding the young.
Breastbone is a popular name for the sternum, the blade-like bone located at the centre of the chest.
Bridopen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Bright's disease (named after the British physician Richard Bright) is a chronic inflammation of the kidneys (chronic nephritis).
Research Bright's Disease
Bristamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
In medicine, broma is an old word for solid food.
Bromidrosiphobia is the fear of body odour.
Brompton's Mixture is a trade name for opium sold as a relief for intestinal cramps and diarrhea.
Research Brompton's Mixture
The bronchi are the tubes which carry air from the trachea to the inner recesses of the lungs, where it can transfer oxygen to the blood in the alveoli. Two main bronchi, the right and left bronchus, branch off of the low end of the trachea in what is called the tracheal bifurcation. One bronchus extends into each of the right and left lung. The bronchi continue to divide into smaller passageways, called bronchioles, forming a tree- like network of branches which extends throughout the spongy lung tissue. The exterior of the bronchi are composed of elastic, cartilaginous fibres and feature annular reinforcements of smooth muscle tissue. The bronchi are able to expand during inspiration, to allow the lungs to expand, and contract during expiration as air is exhaled.
The bronchia are the group of tubes into which each of the bronchi divides forming the larger air passages of the lungs.
Bronchial is an adjective describing something as pertaining to, or situated in, the bronchi or the bronchia. Hence the bronchial tubes is a term for the bronchi and their branches.
The bronchial arterioles and venules supply blood to the alveolar sacs for regeneration and carry the regenerated blood back to the heart, respectively. The arterioles branch off of the pulmonary artery, which originates at the heart. These arterioles lead to smaller vessels called metarterioles which, in turn, lead to tiny capillaries in the alveolar tissue. The semipermeable membrane of the capillary wall allows oxygen to transport from the air to the blood cells (binding to the hemoglobin in blood), while allowing excess carbon dioxide and other waste gases to transport from the blood to the air to be exhaled. The capillaries then carry the blood cells to larger vessels, called metavenules, which lead to venules and then to the pulmonary vein. The pulmonary vein returns this regenerated blood to the heart to be pumped throughout the body. It is worthwhile to note that, in most graphic representations, as in the body itself, oxygen-poor blood is blue or dark purple, while oxygen-rich blood is bright red. In the lungs, however, the reverse is true. Blood passing through the pulmonary artery and arterioles is oxygen-poor, while the blood passing back to the heart through the pulmonary vein and venules is oxygen-rich.
Research Bronchial Arterioles
The bronchioles are the intermediate air passages within the lungs. They branch off of the large bronchi and extend to the smaller branches of the alveolar ducts. Each respiratory bronchiole subdivides into five or more alveolar ducts. The structure of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli is often called the ' pulmonary tree' because its extensive branching resembles the limbs and leaves of a tall deciduous tree.
Bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial mucous membrane.
Broncho-Spray is a brand name for albuterol.
A bronchoscope is an instrument (a species of endoscope) used for inspecting the interior of the bronchi, or larger divisions of the windpipe, for the removal of foreign bodies from them, and for treatment of the diseases of the lungs.
The bronchus is a pipe connecting the trachea to the lung.
Broncovaleas is a brand name for albuterol.
Brontophobia (tonitrophobia, keraunophobia) is the fear of thunder.
Brucellosis (Malta fever, Undulant Fever, Mediterranean Fever) is an infectious disease of cattle, goats, and pigs, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and transmittable to man, usually being conveyed by infected goat's milk. The disease causes long-continued irregular fever, with headache, muscular pains, joint pains, arthritis, anaemia, constipation and swelling of the spleen. It is common in the coastal districts of the Mediterranean, but occasionally occurs in England and elsewhere. The incubation period is about fifteen days, or up to twenty days, and the established disease often persists for six months or up to two years. The patient becomes much weakened and depressed, but the mortality rate is low.
A bruise is the result of lacerations of subcutaneous tissues, the skin itself being unbroken. They commonly result from direct violence, such as a blow with a blunt weapon, a crush or a pinch but are also produced by sudden violent muscular efforts. The softer the flesh the more easily it is bruised and fatty tissues bruise easily.
In general terms, to bruise means to crush or injure by a blow or pressure which does not cut.
BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) popularly known as Mad Cow Disease, is a fatal slow-developing virus disease of cattle that affects the nervous system. It can be transmitted to man through eating infected beef, and manifests itself as CJD.
Bubo is an inflammatory swelling of a lymphatic gland in any part of the body. The term is usually confined to swelling of the glands of the groin.
Bubonic means pertaining to a bubo. The term is mostly associated with bubonic plague.
Bubonic plague (black death) is a specific infectious disease, usually appearing in epidemic form, of extraordinary virulence and very rapid course with a tendancy to linger and recur once it has attacked a community. It is characterised by inflammation of the lymphatic glands, by parenchymatous changes in the cerebal membranes, the lungs, kidneys, and other organs, by carbuncles, and often by haemorrhages. It is caused by the organism Bacillus pestis. In 1665 the bubonic plague killed over 70,000 inhabitants in London.
Research Bubonic Plague
In anatomy, buccal refers to the mouth or cheek.
The buccal artery is a small artery that originates from the maxillary artery and runs along the ramus of the jaw to the outer surface of the buccinator. The branches of the buccal artery, along with branches of the facial artery, supply the buccinator muscle, the mucosa of the maxillary gums, and the mucosa and skin of the cheeks.
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The buccal cavity is the region into which the mouth opens. The tongue is found on the floor of the buccal cavity.
Research Buccal cavity
The buccinator is a flat thin muscle of the cheek. It compresses the cheeks and retracts the angle of the mouth, thereby assisting mastication and regulating the expulsion of air in whistling or playing a wind- instrument.
Bufonophobia is the fear of toads.
In males, the bulbospongiosus originates from the bulb of the penis and inserts in the perineal membrane and dorsal penile aponeurosis. It aids in the emptying of urine and ejaculation from the urethra. In the female, the bulbospongiosus closes the vaginal orifice. It originates from the bulb of the vestibule and inserts in the clitoral aponeurosis. The bulbospongiosus is innervated by the perineal branch of the pudendal nerve.
The bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands are two pea-sized lobes connecting to the side of the male urethra, responsible for secreting a lubricant into the urethra to facilitate the transport of spermatozoa during ejaculation.
Research Bulbourethral Glands
Bulimia is a disorder in which the patient has a morbidly voracious appetite. It is certainly not a new disorder, for it was known of in 1906.
A bunion is an inflamed swelling (bursa or sac) on the foot, especially at the joint of the great toe. Bunions are usually the result of poorly fitted shoes. The part gradually becomes enlarged as fluid fills the bursa or sac. If the bones thicken, it may result in permanent deformity. Treatment sometimes includes surgical removal of the bunion.
Burgundy Pitch is a resin obtained from the Norway Spruce and several other pine trees. It is used in medicine as a stimulating plaster, and takes its name from the place in France where it was first prepared.
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In medicine, a bursa is a fiber sac around the joints between some tendons and the bones under them. Bursae are lined with a membrane that releases synovial fluid from the joint spaces, the bursa acts as a small cushion that allows the tendon as it contracts and relaxes to move over the bone. When the membrane becomes swollen or damaged the condition is known as bursitis or popularly rheumatism.
Bursitis (rheumatism) is the swelling of the connective tissue (bursa) surrounding a joint, characterised typically by severe pain in the joint, particularly when it is moved.
Butyl Nitrate is a drug very similar to amyl nitrate.
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Byssinosis is a lung disease caused by prolonged inhalation of fibre dust in textile factories.