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The Probert Encyclopaedia of Medicine

EAR

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The ear is the organ used for hearing. It converts sound into electrical impulses that are fed to the brain. The external ear is composed of the auricle (the pinna), and the auditory canal (the meatus auditorius externus). The Pinna or auricle surrounds the entrance to the auditory canal. It consists of cartilage covered by skin, with small muscles connecting it to the scalp. At the base of the ear is a fleshy lobe. The meatus auditorius is a canal about three centimeters long in the adult, partly bony and partly cartilaginous, leading from the pinna of the ear to the drum. The lining cells secrete the waxy substance found in the canal. In young children the canal is much shorter. The ear drum (tympanic membrane) is a thin oval-shaped membrane, inserted into a groove around the auditory canal. Normally it is white, glistening and somewhat transparent, so that some of the structures of the middle ear are partly visible when viewed through an auroscope. It separates the auditory canal from the middle ear.

The Tympanum or middle ear is a cavity within the temporal bone. It contains several important structures, including three small bones which connect the drum with the internal ear; they are the malleus or hammer, the incus or anvil, and the stapes or stirrup bone. They transmit the vibrations of sound waves to the inner ear. The Eustachian Tube is a channel of communication between the tympanum and the upper part of the pharynx. It admits air from the throat to the tympanum and so maintains an equal pressure on both sides of the drum. The Labyrinth or internal ear is a series of chambers through the petrous bone, comprising the vestibule, a three-cornered cavity within the tympanum; the semicircular canals communicating with the vestibule; and the cochlea, which makes two and a half turns around an axis called the modiolus. The human ear is capable of detecting sounds in the frequency range 20 hz to 20 khz, approximately.
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EASTON'S SYRUP

Easton's Syrup was a thick syrup containing phosphates of iron, quinine and strychnine administered oraly as a nervine and general tonic in cases of anaemia.
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ECCHYMOSIS

In medicine, ecchymosis is bleeding beneath the skin, or in the tissues of the body, whether resulting from a bruise or any other cause, causing discolouration and sometimes swelling.
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ECCLESIOPHOBIA

Ecclesiophobia is the fear of church.
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ECLAMPSIA

Eclampsia is the name given to the sudden convulsive seizures sometimes occurring in pregnant women as a result of Bright's disease.
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ECRASEUR

In surgery, an ecraseur is an instrument consisting of a fine chain which was placed round the base of a growth or a tumour and gradually tightened by a screw until it passed through the structure. It was used in cases of cancer of the tongue, polypi, etc.
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ECSTASY

Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) is a powerful drug that acts as a stimulant and can produce hallucinations. The original designer drug, ecstasy was first invented in Germany in 1912, and later rediscovered in California during the 1970s where it was used by marriage guidance counsellors to increase empathy in clients. Ecstasy became popular as a recreational drug during the 1980's, with a single tablet in Southampton then costing around 17.50 pounds, by the end of 2005 the price had dropped to 1.50 pounds, with ecstasy tablets sold by a Southampton dealer at a New Year's Eve dance in Birmingham at the start of 2006 at 3 pounds each. While usually sold as a tablet, ecstasy is also produced as a white powder which may be smoked or inhaled. The effects of ecstasy take about 30 minutes to be felt and then last several hours, giving the patient energy and making them feel more alert, empathy is enhanced and serotonin levels in the brain soar, though they then drop for a few days afterwards. Side effects include paranoia, vomiting, dehydration and heart attacks. In the UK ecstasy is illegal, and is often supplied mixed with dangerous, cheaper, other compounds including amphetamines or caffeine or even scouring powder.
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ECTOPIC

In medicine, the term ectopic describes an abnormal anatomical situation. The most common use in in an eptopic pregnancy, which is frequently where a fertilised ovum settles in the Fallopian tube instead of passing on through and implanting itself in the lining of the uterus. In such cases the pregnancy usually doesn't last more than two or three months before the ovum dies and is reabsorbed into the body. Sometimes in such cases the Fallopian tube bursts and bleeds and then an immediate operation is required to repair the damage. It has been known for an infant to develop in the Fallopian tube and to be successfully delivered by way of a Caesarean section.
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ECTOSTOSIS

Ectostosis is a process of bone formation in which ossification takes place in the perichondrium and either surrounds or gradually replaces the cartilage.
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ECTROPION

Ectropion is a pathological condition of the eyelids in which the conjunctiva or the mucous membrane on the insides of the eyelids is exposed.
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ECZEMA

Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease.
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EFEROX

Eferox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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EFPINEX

Efpinex is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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EICOPHOBIA

Eicophobia is the fear of home surroundings.
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EISOPTROPHOBIA

Eisoptrophobia is the fear of mirrors.
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EJACULATORY DUCT

The ejaculatory duct is a short tubule located just above the prostate gland. It is formed by the connection of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles, and serves to transport spermatozoa through the prostate gland and into the urethra.
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ELASTIC TISSUE

Elastic tissue is ordinary connective tissue with the addition of many fibres of the albuminoid elastin. It resembles draper's elastic and is found in some ligaments and in the walls of the arteries.
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ELASTIN

Elastin is one of the albuminoids.It is a nitrogenous substance which forms the chemical basis of elastic tissue. It is very insoluble in most fluids, but is gradually dissolved when digested with either pepsin or trypsin.
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ELATERIUM

Elaterium is a very powerful hydragogue purhative. It is a green deposit formed by expressing and drying the juice of the unripe squirting cucumber.
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ELBOW JOINT

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The humerus, radius, and ulna join to form the elbow joint. This joint features a number of complex prominences which serve as attachment sites of ligaments and muscles, serving to control the flexibility and adduction of the bones about the elbow. The articulation of the elbow is called a hinge joint, because, like a hinge on a door, the joint only permits flexion in a single plane.
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ELECTROPHOBIA

Electrophobia is the fear of electricity.
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ELEPHANTIASIS

Elephantiasis is a disease characterised by inflammation of the fibrous connective tissue, leading to excessive swelling of the leg, scrotum, arm or breast and more rarely other parts of the body. It is caused by the parasitic worm Filaria which blocks the lymph vessels, and at the same time causes irritation of the skin.
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ELEUTHEROPHOBIA

Eleutherophobia is the fear of freedom.
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ELTHYRONE

Elthyrone is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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ELTROXIN

Eltroxin is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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ELUROPHOBIA

Elurophobia is the fear of cats.
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EMBRYO

An embryo is the offspring of an animal before it has been born or emerged from its egg.
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EMBRYOLOGY

Embryology is the branch of biology comprising the history of animals from the first appearance of organization in the egg or ovum (the embryo stage) up to the attainment of the perfect form. The importance of the study partly depends upon the fact that the history of animals thus traced reveals the existence of structures which disappear at a later period, or become obscured by arrest of their development, or by union with other parts, and permits us to follow the steps by which complex organs arise by the combination of simpler parts. Thus points of affinity are detected between species and orders whose adult aspect is very unlike. As a systematic study embryology dates only from the 19th century, though Aristotle and Galen had considered the subject, and though Harvey and other later physiologists did much in the way of direct observation to lay the foundations of higher work.
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EMETIC

An emetic is a drug used to cause vomiting.
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EMETINE

Emetine is an alkaloid obtained from the dried roots of Psychotria ipecacuanha, a Brazilian plant.
Emetine is a white powder employed in the treatment of amoebic dysentery and also as an anthelmintic.
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EMETOPHOBIA

Emetophobia is the fear of vomiting.
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EMOLLIENT

An emollient is a substance, usually a cream or ointment, used for softening, smoothing and moisturising inflamed or dry skin.
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EMPHYSEMA

Emphysema is an abnormal presence of air in certain parts of the body. Generally however the term is restricted to a peculiar affection of the lungs, exhibited in two forms, vesicular emphysema, dilation or rupture of the air-sacs, and interlobular emphysema, infiltration of air into the connective tissue beneath the pleura.
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EMPIRIC

In the 16th , 17th and 18th centuries the term empiric was used to describe someone who practised medicine without any scientific knowledge. An empiric was a charlatan doctor, a fake.
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EMPLEOMANIA

Empleomania is an excessive desire, obsession or mania for holding a position of public office.
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EMPYEMA

Empyema is a pathological term describing a collection of pus in a cavity, especially applied to pus in the pleural cavity of the lung.
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EMPYEMA THORACIS

Empyema thoracis is the condition of pus formation in the pleural space. The pleural effusion which accompanies infective conditions of the lung may itself become infected and form pus. A lung abscess may burst into the pleural space. Haemothorax may become infected. The symptoms which the condition produces depend on the amount of pus present, and the degree of compression of, or disease in, the underlying lungs. There is some embarrassment of respiration, and 'swinging' fever, typically present whenever pus has accumulated in the body. Fever may sometimes be absent, especially if the patient is being treated with antibiotics. The patient with an empyema is severely toxic, looks ill, loses weight rapidly and becomes severely anaemic. If the pus is sufficiently thin to be removed through a needle, then the treatment is entirely by aspiration. Penicillin or other antibiotic solution may be injected into the pleural space after the withdrawal of the pus. Aspiration needs to be repeated daily until lung expansion is adequate. If the pus becomes too thick for aspiration, the empyema is treated by one of two surgical methods:

(a) A small intercostal incision is made and a large self- retaining catheter placed into the pleural space to allow the escape of pus. The catheter is connected to an under-water seal. This method of intercostal drainage is rarely used but it is sometimes suitable for children.

(b) Rib resection and drainage by a wide-bore tube. Part of one rib is removed and the pleural space opened through its periosteum. This tube may be left open at its outer end or may be attached to an under-water seal. One type of tube is the 'Tudor- Edward' empyema tube which has an additional small rubber side tube through which the empyema cavity can be irrigated.
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ENAMEL

The enamel (substantia adamantina) covers the crown of the tooth and is the hardest known substance in the body. This hardness is necessary to survive the powerful forces exerted on the tooth surface during chewing.
Enamel is composed predominantly by calcium salts, with less than five percent of its weight being due to organic tissues. Since no cells or vessels penetrate into the enamel, it is not considered living tissue. Because of this, damage to the enamel of a tooth (as in the case of a dental cavity) cannot repair itself.
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ENARTHROSIS

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In anatomy enarthrosis is the ball-and-socket type of joint, such as the human hip.
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ENCEPHALIN

Encephalin is a naturally occurring chemical produced by nerve cells in the brain that has the same effect as morphine or other derivatives of opium, acting as a natural painkiller. Unlike morphine,
encephalins are quickly degraded by the body, so there is no build-up of tolerance to them, and hence no addiction.
Encephalins are a variety of peptides, as are endorphins, which have similar effects.
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ENCEPHALITIS LETHARGICA

Encephalitis Lethargica or sleepy sickness is a disease of comparatively late recognition. It has been known in Europe, America and Great Britain since about 1916. The virus is unknown, but the disease is characteristic, causing fever, lethargy and paralysis of the eye muscles with double vision. Infection probably takes place through the mouth and nose. Various non-typical forms of the disease also occur. The onset is often gradual and insidious, but sometimes acute delirium may be the first symptom. The condition often resembles influenza in the early stages, and hiccough is a common symptom. In severe cases mania or delirium is seen, or lethargy and coma; muscular pains, rigidity of the limbs, or convulsions may develop. Later, in cases which recover, tremors and purposeless movements may indicate the true condition and the patient's face becomes mask-like and expressionless ('Parkinsonism'). A drooping posture and the shuffling gait are characteristic, The diagnosis is often difficult; about 33 per cent. of cases are fatal. Complete recovery is rare, most cases ending in chronic invalidism, and the disease often runs on for many months. There is no specific treatment. Isolation and careful nursing are essential. Hyoscine, Artane and Benadryl relieve tremors, and stiffness ollimbs.
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ENCEPHALOMYELITIS

Encephallitis is inflammation of the brain, generally due to viral infection. The most common form of encephalitis is caused by poliomyelitis, but even this is rare, the virus mainly confiding itself to a harmless infection of the intestine.
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ENCEPHALOPATHY

Encephalopathy describes any degenerative disease of the brain, often associated with toxic conditions.
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ENCEPHALOTOMY

Encephalotomy is the surgical dissection of the brain.
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ENCHONDROMA

Enchondroma is a cartilaginous tumour, most often found on the bones of fingers, toes and legs, though sometimes in the parotid gland and elsewhere.
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ENCOPRESIS

Encopresis is the technical term for deliberate soiling of the clothing, or defecating in other inappropriate locations by children who are old enough for it to be socially unacceptable, and who are conciously aware of what they are doing - that is it is not accidental. Encropesis, as a disorder, refers not to one-off or occasional acts of soiling, but to consistent soiling over periods longer than a single month.
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ENDEMIC

Endemic describes a disease as being present within a localised area or peculiar to persons in such an area.
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ENDOCHONDRAL

Endochondral refers to the growing or developing within cartilage. The term is especially applied to developing bone.
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ENDOCRINE GLAND

An endocrine gland is one which secretes hormones into the body.
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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The Endocrine System is a number of separate glands differing in structure and function, but all characterised by the fact that they have no ducts through which to discharge their secretions; but instead discharge them straight into the blood-stream. These secretions are called hormones or sometimes endocrines. Hormone- producing tissues may be classified into three groups: purely endocrine glands, which function solely in hormone production; endo-exocrine glands, those that produce other types of secretions as well as hormones; and certain nonglandular tissues, such as the autonomic nerves, which produce hormone-like substances.
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ENDOCRINOPATHY

Endocrinopathy describes any disease due to a disorder of the endocrine system.
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ENDODONTICS

Endodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with diseases of the dental pulp.
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ENDOGENOUS

Endogenous refers to the structure of the vascular system, which consists of strands of ligneous tissue isolated in a cylinder of cellular tissue. The term is used to describe the Monocotyledonous group of plants.
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ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

The endoplasmic reticulum (cytoskeleton) forms a network of membranous tubes and flattened sacs within a cell and is distributed throughout the cell, predominantly between the plasma membrane and the membrane that encircles the nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum networks may be loosely organized of tightly packed. The membranes that form the interrelated channels may appear smooth, while others appear rough. The rough-surfaced membranes are dotted with ribosomes that form granules on the outer surfaces and are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosomes on the rough surface deposit the newly formed proteins into the lumen, or inner space, of the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum segregates the proteins into those that will be needed in the cytoplasm and those that will be transported to the other organelles or secreted from the cell.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has no ribosomes and is, instead, a site of lipid synthesis. The endoplasmic reticulum appears to serve several functions. Its membranes provide an increase in surface area where chemical reactions can occur. The channels of the reticulum provide both storage space for products synthesized by the cell and transportation routes through which material can travel through other parts of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum is also the cell's membrane factory. Phospholipids and cholesterol, the main components of membranes throughout the cell, are synthesized in the smooth portion of the endoplasmic reticulum. These compounds form the coating of protein filled sacs, called vesicles, that break off from the endoplasmic reticulum, migrate to another organelle, fuse with it, and then deposit the protein cargo. Most of the proteins leaving the endoplasmic reticulum are still not mature and undergo further processing in another organelle, the Golgi apparatus, before they are ready to perform their functions within or outside the cell.
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ENDOSCOPE

An endoscope is a long slender medical instrument originally used for examining the interior of hollow organs including the lung, stomach, bladder and bowel, but with the advent of fibre optics and keyhole surgery endoscopes are increasingly used for general interior investigations (endoscopy) . There are various types of endoscope in use - some rigid, some flexible - with names prefixed by their site of application (for example, bronchoscope and laryngoscope). The value of endoscopy is in permitting diagnosis without the need for exploratory surgery. Biopsies (tissue samples) and photographs may be taken by way of the endoscope as an aid to diagnosis, or to monitor the effects of treatment. Some surgical procedures can be performed using fine instruments introduced through the endoscope.
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ENDOSCOPY

Endoscopy is the examination of internal parts of the body using special instruments known as endoscopes. The simplest method of instrumental examination is that employed for the anal canal and rectum. A 'speculum' (proctoscope) which is in fact a simple tube with a handle, is introduced through the anal canal and the surgeon examines the rectal wall through the tube. To facilitate the introduction of the instrument, there is a shaped conical stopper which is known as the 'obturator.' This same principle of a shaped introducer is used on many instruments which have an open tubular end. Sigmoidoscopy is the examination of the upper regions of the rectum and the sigmoid or pelvic colon with a longer tubular speculum. Because the folds of mucous membrane fall against the end of the instrument and obstruct the view, air inflation is used for the introduction of the sigmoidoscope so that the lumen of the bowel is distended. The surgeon inserts the instrument under direct vision, inspecting the wall of the bowel as far as 25 cm. from the anus.

The oesophagoscope is a similar instrument passed down the oesophagus through the mouth, thus enabling the surgeon to inspect the whole length of the gullet. The inside of the stomach is examined by the gastroscope, using air inflation. Through a very small incision in the abdominal wall the surgeon may introduce another viewing instrument, the peritoneoscope, and with this he may inspect the inside of the peritoneal cavity and obtain infonnation to enable him to reach a decision without open operation. In order to separate the coils of intestine from one another and allow the satisfactory inspection of the viscera, the peritoneal cavity is inflated with air through a separate cannula. Endoscopic instruments, except for the simpler forms of proctoscope, carry their own miniature lamps which draw electric current either from a battery or the mains through a transformer to reduce the voltage. The bladder and urethra are inspected with the cytoscope and urethroscope. The urinary tract is distended with water instead of air for the inspection, but air
inflation is sometimes used for the lower part of the urethra. Various forms of speculum are used for the vagina and these are usually illuminated by direct light, although some forms carry a lamp of their own. Operations for the removal of tissue for microscopic examination (biopsy) are performed through some of the tubular instruments, and for this purpose there are special long forceps and diathermy electrodes. Examinations carried out with endoscopic instruments may be made with local or general anaesthesia and in the case of the rectum and colon, without anaesthesia.
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ENDOSKELETON

In anatomy, endoskeleton is a term applied to the internal bony structure of man and other animals, in contradistinction to exoskeleton, which is the outer and hardened covering of such animals as the crab, lobster, etc,
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ENDOSTEUM

The endosteum is the layer of bone which lines the marrow cavity within the long bones which houses the bone marrow. It is distinguished from the periosteum, which is the external membrane which covers the surface of the compact bone tissue.
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ENEMA

An enema is a liquid or gaseous substance injected or squirted into the rectum.
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ENETOPHOBIA

Enetophobia is the fear of pins.
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ENOCHLOPHOBIA

Enochlophobia is the fear of crowds.
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ENOLTESTOVIS

Enoltestovis is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti- insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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ENOSIOPHOBIA

Enosiophobia is the fear of committing an unpardonable sin.
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ENTERIC FEVER

Enteric Fever is a term for typhoid fever and paratyphoid indicative of the intestinal lesions met with in that disease.
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ENTERITIS

Enteritis is a convenient term for disorders of the bowel in which there is inflammation of the lining of the bowel wall. Varieties of enteritis include; dysentery, mucous colitis, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever.
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ENTEROBIASIS

Enterobiasis is a disease, common in children, caused by infestation of the large intestine with nematodes of the genus Enterobius, especially Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm.
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ENTEROKINASE

Enterokinase is a hormone manufactured in the wall of the intestine and causes the pancreas to secrete when it is received.
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ENTEROVIRUS

An enterovirus is any of a group of viruses that occur in and cause diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
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ENTOMOPHOBIA

Entomophobia is the fear of insects.
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EOSIN

Eosin is a red acidic dye, much used in medicine for staining biological specimens for microscopic examination, usually with contrasting blue alkaline dye; different components of the specimen taking up one colour or the other.
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EOSINOPHIL

An eosinophil is a kind of white blood cell, containing granules readily stained with eosin. The number of circulating eosinophils is believed to increase during illness due to allergy.
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EOSINOPHILIA

Eosinophilia is the presence of abnormally large numbers of eosinophils in the blood. Eosinophilia may occur in various diseases and in response to certain drugs.
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EOSOPHOBIA

Eosophobia is the fear of dawn.
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EPHEDRINE

Ephedrine is a central nervous system stimulant used as a bronchodilator for individuals who have been diagnosed with mild asthma.
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EPICANTHUS

The epicanthus is a vertical fold of skin at the inner corner of the eye. It is common in Mongolians, but rare in other races.
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EPICARDIUM

In anatomy, the epicardium is the name given to the innermost layer of the pericardium which is in direct contact with the heart.
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EPIDEMIC

An epidemic is a disease which affects a large number of people simultaneously in a wide area at one time. As a rule it is infectious, but may affect its victims independently. Epidemics were frequent in the Middle Ages before sanitation and considered inevitable.
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EPIDEMIOLOGY

Epidemiology is the branch of medical science concerned with the occurrence, transmission, and control of epidemic diseases.
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EPIDERMIS

The epidermis (surface of the skin) consists of dead cells, which are rubbed off as a person moves and goes about their business. This layer of dead cells is often refered to as 'false' skin. The epidermis consists of four layers: the stratum basale, the stratum spinosum, the stratum granulosum, and the stratum corneum.
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EPIDIDYMIDES

The epididymides are narrow, elongated storage vessels for newly generated spermatozoa. They are located within the scrotum, adjoining each testicle. Spermatozoa remain in the cord-like epididymides until ejaculation, at which time they eject them into the vas deferens.
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EPIGLOTTIS

The epiglottis is a fibro-cartilaginous lid shaped like a leaf which covers the upper opening of the larynx. It is covered by a mucous membrane and contains taste and mucous glands.
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EPIPHYSIS

The epiphysis is the end of a developing bone. It is distinguished from the non-developing segment of the bone by the epiphyseal line. When bones form, calcium salts are first deposited within the diaphysis, and this calcification spreads outward to the ends of the bone (epiphyses). As this progresses, the periosteal membrane produces a network of fibrils (osteoblasts) in front of this advancing line of calcification, which provides a mesh framework for the ensuing calcification. Once this calcified cartilage has developed, the periosteal membrane sends blood vessels into the bone which carry nutrients as well as regulatory cells known as osteoclasts. The osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to replace the calcified cartilage with true, osseous material.

This process is carried out on the ends of the bones as well, though a layer of uncalcified cartilage demarcates the epiphyses from the diaphysis until later in the life of the bone. Once the true bone has developed, the center becomes hollowed out, which allows for the development of the marrow and the spongy tissue layer (trabeculae). The growth and development of the bone is regulated by a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, with new growth taking place at the epiphyseal line. At some stage, however, hormones, secreted by the testes in the male and ovaries in the female, cause this bone growth to cease, whereupon the epiphysis fuses to the diaphysis. Beyond this point, which usually occurs earlier in females, the bone undergoes simultanous resorption (where it breaks down and re-absorbs osseous material) and reconstruction. Healthy bone is constantly undergoing resorption and reconstruction, though, in the elderly, the reconstruction of bone is somewhat diminished, making healing of fractures slower.
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EPISIOTOMY

An episiotomy is a surgical incision that is used to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth. This unneccesary surgical procedure involves making a small incision, from two to ten centimeters, on the perinium. Fortunately, since the 1980s the practice is now less common.
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EPISTAXIOPHOBIA

Epistaxiophobia is the fear of nosebleeds.
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EPISTAXIS

Epistaxis is a technical term for bleeding from the nose.
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EPISTEMOPHOBIA

Epistemophobia is the fear of knowledge.
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EPISTOLOPHOBIA

Epistolophobia is the fear of writing letters.
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EPITHELIAL ATTACHMENT

The epithelial attachment is the site of connection between the tooth structure and the gingeval epithelium. It is located at the base of the crown of the tooth, and just before the gum tissue terminates in the alveolus.
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EPITHELIUM

Epithelium is an anatomical term for a basic type of bodily tissue. It comprises the external surface of the skin, the internal surfaces of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems, the closed serous cavities, the inner coats of the vessels, the acini and ducts of the secreting and excreting glands, the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. The constituent cells of an epithelium are always closely packed together and the intercellular substance is reduced to a minimum. The cells comprising an epithelium are arranged in one (simple epithelium) or more (stratified epithelium and transitional epithelium) layers, usually supported on a basement membrane and united together by a cement-like substance which is chemically similar to the matrix or ground-substance of the connective tissues.

The epithelium serves various purposes. The epithelium of the skin (known as the epidermis) serves primarily to protect the underlying tissue (the true skin, nerves and vessels which it contains). Th epithelium of the salivary glands, the pancreas, the gastric glands and the glands of the small intestine are comprised of cells which prepare the digestive juices. The cells comprising the epithelium of the intestinal villi are concerned with the absorption of the products of digestion. The cells of the epitheliums of the serous cavities provide a smooth, moist surface. Rather unusually in the body, the epithelium is devoid of a blood supply
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EPULIS

An epulis is a grown on the gums, sometimes so large as to hinder the opening of the mouth.
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EPULOTIC

During the 18th century, epuloticks were medicines used to dry up sores and ulcers.
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EQUINOPHOBIA

Equinophobia is the fear of horses.
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EQUIPOSE

Equipose is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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ERECTOR SPINAE

The erector spinae, or sacrospinalis, consists of several combined muscles which form a thick, elongated muscle mass that runs from the top of the neck to the small of the back. The overlapping column of long, slim muscles stretch alongside to the rear of the vertebrae. They are innervated by posterior branches of the spinal nerves. These muscles link the vertebrae, helping you to stand upright and enabling you to bend and twist.
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EREMOPHOBIA

Eremophobia is the fear of being oneself.
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EREUTHROPHOBIA

Ereuthrophobia is the fear of blushing.
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ERGASIOPHOBIA

Ergasiophobia is the fear of surgical instruments.
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ERGOPHOBIA

Ergophobia is the fear of doing work.
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ERGOTISM

Ergotism (St Anthony's Fire) is poisoning resulting from the consumption of the fungus ergot, often in infected rye. Symptoms include hallucinations, convulsions, burning pains and gangrene in the hands and feet.
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EROTOPHOBIA

Erotophobia is the fear of sex.
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ERRHINE

In medicine, errhine describes something that causes nasal secretions.
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ERUPTIVE

A disease is said to be eruptive if it is characterised by skin eruptions.
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ERYSIPELAS

Erysipelas (Saint Anthony's Fire) is a contagious disease due to the invasion of the tissues by the streptococcus germ, producing fever and a local redness of the skin. The inflammation of the skin may spread to deeper tissues, producing widespread necrosis and other complications occurring such as pneumonia, nephritis or meningitis.
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ERYTHRITYL TETRANITRATE

Erythrityl Tetranitrate is an anti-anginal drug used to reduce the frequency and severity of angina attacks.
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ERYTHROBLASTOSIS

Erythroblastosis is the abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the circulating blood. It is an anaemic blood disease occuring in a fetus or newborn child caused by a blood incompatibility between the mother and fetus.
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ERYTHROCYTES

Erythrocytes or red blood cells, carry 99% of the oxygen the body needs. Although plasma circulates throughout the body, it can only carry about one percent of the oxygen that the body needs. Red blood cells are the most abundant cells in the body, constituting about 45% of the blood. Their main function is to carry oxygen to tissue and remove carbon dioxide waste. Red blood cells are mainly made of water and hemoglobin, an iron- containing protein. Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their colour and is so highly concentrated in individual cells that it almost forms crystals. It is an important protein in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red blood cells are manufactured in myeloid tissue, better known as red bone marrow. It is found mainly in the sternum, ribs, and cranial bones, although a few other bones also contain small amounts of the tissue. Each cell is very small, about .008 centimeter in diameter and shaped like a round cushion, with a hollow on each side.

The rate of red cell formation is regulated by a messenger hormone called erythropoietin which is produced in the kidneys. This hormone signals the cell to begin growth. First, the cell splits in two. Each of the pair in turn divides until there are sixteen red blood cells. Inside each of the cells hemoglobin is being produced. This production continues until the concentration of the protein becomes 95% of the dry weight of the cell. As this saturation point nears, the cell expels its nucleus, taking on a biconcave shape and thus, increasing its oxygen- carrying potential. At this point, the cell is called a corpuscle. The production of a corpuscle takes six days to complete. Yet the cell will only live for 120 days. About two and a half million red blood cells are destroyed every second. They are broken down into their constituent parts, some of which can be used again to manufacture new red cells. Normal red blood cell production depends upon the body having an adequate supply of iron and two main vitamins: B12 and folic acid. There are many diseases due to deficiencies in red cells, they are collectively known as anemia. Hemolytic anemia is caused by excessive destruction of red blood cells. It is often caused by poisoning, or a disease such as malaria, or may be an inherited condition.

Pernicious anemia, in which large numbers of abnormally large red cells are made, is due to lack of proper absorption of vitamin B12. It can now be easily controlled with regular injections of the vitamin.
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ERYTHROPHOBIA

Erythrophobia is the fear of blushing.
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ERYTHROPOIETIN

Erythropoietin is a polypeptide hormone present in vertebrates and secreted mainly by the kidneys but also by other organs including the liver. It stimulates the proliferation and maturation of erythrocytes in red bone marrow.
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ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER

The esophageal sphincter is a ring of muscle fibres that serves as a valve which closes the esophagus at the opening to the stomach and prevents the gastric contents from re-entering the esophagus. Heartburn is sometimes caused by the regurgitation of acid juices (reflux esophagitis) which can occur if the lower esophageal shpincter does not function properly.
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ESOPHAGOTOMY

Esophagotomy is the surgical operation of making an incision into the esophagus, for the purpose of removing a foreign substance that is obstructing the passage.
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ETHMOID BONE

The ethmoid bone is a bone of very spongy substance, somewhat irregularly cubical in shape, lying at the root of the nose, between the two orbits or eye-sockets, and forming part of the bony wall of both. The segment of the ethmoid bone which forms part of the inner wall of the orbital cavity is called the orbital plate, while another segment, forming the roof and back part of the septum of the nasal cavity is called the perpendicular plate. Two irregularly shaped, shell-like projections from the ethmoid bone are called the superior and middle turbinate (conchae), and form ledges on the inside wall of the nasal cavity.
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ETHYL ETHER

Ethyl ether (ether) is a solvent used as a general anesthetic (where it is known as gas) It is a central nervous system depressant and induces general anaesthesia (analgesia, amnesia, loss of consciousness, inhibition of sensory and automatic reflexes, and skeletal muscle relaxation). Ether has been known to chemists since the earliest of times, nitric ether was discovered in 1681 by Kunkel. The use of ether as a general anesthetic is due to the work of an American doctor, Jackson of Boston, being first employed in 1846, and popularised by the obsterician, John Snow a few years later.
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EUCAINE

Eucaine is a synthetic local anaesthetic with a chemical structure similar to that of cocaine.
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EUONYMIN

Euonymin is an extract from the bark of the wahoo tree or spindle tree (Euonymus eruopaeus), and formerly used in medicine as a powerful stimulant to the liver, with a mild carthartic action on the intestine.
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EUPEN

Eupen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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EUPHOBIA

Euphobia is the fear of hearing good news.
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EUROTOPHOBIA

Eurotophobia is the fear of female genitalia.
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EUSTACHIAN TUBE

The eustachian tube is a narrow tube lined with mucous membrane connecting the pharanyx with the middle ear. It lies in the temporal bone and by admitting air to the middle ear it preserves an equality of pressure on the inside and the outside of the ear drum.
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EUSTACHIAN VALVE

The eustachian valve is one of the valves of the heart, lying at the point where the inferior vena cava empties itself into the right auricle.
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EUTHYROX

Euthyrox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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EUTIROX

Eutirox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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EVE'S ROCKING METHOD

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Eve's rocking method is a simple form of artificial respiration, particularly suited to being practised by unskilled people, and in the treatment of children by parents. In effect the patient is held straight, or strapped to a stretcher, and then tilted or rocked, backward and forward through an angle of fourty-five degrees.
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EVIPAN

Evipan is an anaesthetic which was discovered in the 1930s. It is the sodium salt of N-methyl-cyclo- hexenyl- methyl-barbituric acid and was administered by intravenous injection providing surgical anaesthesia for around 20 minutes.
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EXANTHEMA

Exanthema is a skin eruption or rash occurring as a symptom in a disease such as measles or scarlet fever.
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EXCILLIN

Excillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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EXCITANT

An excitant is an agent or influence which arouses vital activity, or produces increased action, in a living organism or in any of its tissues or parts.
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EXCITE

In medicine, the term excite refers to increasing the vital activity of an organism, or any of its parts.
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EXOCRINE GLAND

An exocrine gland is one which secretes onto a surface. Such as a sweat gland.
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EXOPHTHALMIC GOITRE

Exophthalmic Goitre (Graves' Disease) is a form of hyperthyroidism characterised by enlargement of the thyroid gland, protrusion of the eyeballs, increased basal metabolic rate, and weight loss.
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EXSECT

In surgery, an exsect is the removal by operation of a portion of a limb; particularly, the removal of a portion of a bone in the vicinity of a joint.
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EXTENSION

In surgery, extension is the operation of stretching a broken bone so as to bring the fragments into the same straight line. In physiology, extension refers to the straightening of a limb, in distinction from flexion.
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EXTENSOR

An extensor is a muscle which serves to extend or straighten any part of the body, such as an arm or a finger.
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EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS

The extensor carpi radialis brevis is a short, wide, flattened muscle. It arises from the humerus and narrows into a long, flat tendon about two-thirds of the way down the arm. It lies between the extensor carpi radialis longus and the extensor digitorum along the outer surface of the radius. This muscle extends and radially deviates the hand at the wrist joint.
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EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS

The extensor carpi radialis longus is a short, flat muscle that originates from the supracondylar ridge of the humerus and extends down the arm. The muscle belly narrows into a long flat tendon at the upper third of the forearm and continues down to the outer edge of the radius and inserts in the posterior base of the second metacarpal bone. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the radial artery. This muscle helps to extend and radially deviate hand at the wrist. It also helps flex (bend) the elbow joint.
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EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS

The extensor carpi ulnaris originates by two heads: one from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the other from the border of the ulna (forearm bone). It narrows into a tendon three-fourths of the way down the arm and inserts on the ulnar side of the base of the metacarpal bone of the little finger. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle is the most superficial muscle on the ulnar side of the forearm. The extensor carpi ulnaris works with the flexor carpi ulnaris to bend the hand at the wrist.
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EXTENSOR DIGITI MINIMI

The extensor digiti minimi (extensor digiti quinti proprius) is a small, slender muscle that originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus , and lies between the extensor digitorum and the extensor carpi ulnaris. At the wrist, the muscle develops a double tendon which inserts into the last (distal) phalanx of the little finger. It is innervated by the radial nerve and is supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle is the predominant tendon of the little finger.
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EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

The extensor digitorum (extensor digitorum communis) is a wide, lateral muscle. It has a flat, fusiform belly that originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and extends towards the lower half of the forearm where it develops into four tendons that insert into the middle and distal phlanges of the fingers. It does not insert into the thumb. The extensor digitorum is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle works to extend all the joints of the fingers. It also extends the wrist.
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EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

The extensor digitorum brevis originates from the front end of the calcaneum, the inferior extensor retinaculum, and the lateral talocalvaneal ligament. It is made up of four slender, flat bellies that pass over the top of the foot. Three of the bellies insert into tendons of the middle three toes. The most medial portion of the extensor digitorum brevis is also referred to as the extensor hallucis brevis. It inserts into the base of the first phalanx of the big toe. The extensor digitorum brevis is innervated by deep branches of the peroneal nerves and supplied by the peroneal artery and the dorsal pedal artery. The muscles work to extend the big toe and the second, third, and fourth toes.
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EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS

The presence of the extensor digitorum brevis manus varies from person to person. Its presence was discovered by the French anatomist Samuel Pozzi and it is sometimes referred to as Pozzi's muscle. It is a short muscle that extends the fingers. It is innervated by the posterior interosseous which branches from the radial nerve.
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EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

The long, thin extensor digitorum longus muscle actually consists of four combined bellies and their tendons. The belly arises from the lateral condyle of the tibia and the front edge of the fibula and extends about three-fourths of the way down the lower leg. The four tendons lie close to each other and appear as one tendon that continues down to the front of the ankle. When the tendons reach the back of the foot they separate and extend to the middle and distal phalanges (bones) of the toes two through five. The muscle is innervated by deep branches of the peroneal nerves and supplied by branches of the anterior tibial artery. The extensor digitorum longus extends the toes (separates the toes) and bends the foot toward the leg. The tendons may clearly be seen on the top of the foot when the toes are extended.
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EXTENSOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

The extensor hallucis brevis is actually the most medial portion of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle narrows into tendons, three insert in the middle toes, and one, the extensor hallucis brevis, inserts into the base of the first phalanx of the big toe. The extensor hallucis brevis is innervated by deep branches of the peroneal nerves and supplied by by the dorsal pedis artery. The muscle works to extend the big toe.
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EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS

The extensor hallucis longus for the most part lies deep in the lower leg. It is a thin, elongated, and flattened muscle that originates from the middle of the tibia (lower leg bone) and tapers into a long, narrow tendon that emerges from between the extensor digitorum longus and the tibialis anterior, extends downward across the ankle and inserts in the top base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. It is innervated by the anterior tibial nerve and supplied by the anterior tibial artery. This muscle extends the big toe and assists in flexing the foot.
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EXTENSOR INDICIS

The extensor indicis (extensor indicis proprius) is located deep in the forearm, where it originates from the back of the ulna. At the wrist it develops into a tendon that extends along the back of the hand with the extensor digitorum and inserts in the index finger. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle extends and adducts the index finger.
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EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS

Combined with the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis (thumb muscle) creates a narrow, triangular muscle form which wraps around the lower end of the radius (the bone of the forearm on the thumb side). The extensor pollicis brevis originates from the back side of the radius and inserts in the base of the first phalanx of the thumb. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle extends the thumb and continued action rotates the hand. The combination of the abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis forms the oblique carpal muscle group.
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EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS

The extensor pollicis longus originates deep in the forearm from the shaft of the ulna (the forearm bone on the index finger side), crosses over the tendons of the extensor carpi radiales brevis and longus and descends along the back of the thumb and inserts in the last phalanx of the thumb. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the posterior interosseous artery. This muscle extends the thumb and helps to extend the hand at the wrist.
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EXTENSOR RETINACULUM

The wrist area contains about 10 blood vessels and nerves and more than 20 tendons. These vessels, nerves and tendons are bound by two fibrous muscle bands that surround the entire wrist and lie just under the skin. The two bands, the flexor retinaculum and the extensor retinaculum work together. The flexor retinaculum is a deep, thick fibrous band that lies on the palm side of the wrist and creates the carpal tunnel for the passage of the long flexor tendons of the fingers. The extensor retinaculum attaches to the ulna (the forearm bone on the index finger side) and crosses the back of the wrist and attaches to the ridges on the distal end of the radius.
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EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE

The external oblique (obliquus externus abdominis) is a large, thin sheet of muscle that runs along the side of the torso and partly on the front. The muscle is divided into two portions; and upper thoracic portion and a lower flank portion. The thoracic portion is located along the rib cage. The lower flank portion is located along the side of the abdomen between the rib cage and the pelvis. The muscle originates from the fifth to twelfth ribs and inserts in the lip of the iliac crest, inguinal ligament, and the rectus abdominis muscle. The individual ribs can be seen beneath this muscle when it is relaxed. Most of this muscle is concealed by a cushion of fat. The two portions meet at the waist. It is innervated by branches of the lower thoracic nerve and supplied branches of the lumbar artery and the intercostal arteries. This muscle assists the rectus abdominis muscle in flexing the spine when the trunk twists or turns. It also supports the abdominal organ tissue.
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EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

The auditory canal is visible externally from the ear. It is an air-filled cavity about three centimeters in length that ends at the tympanic membrane. It also protects the middle ear by keeping out foreign objects.
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EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY

The external carotid artery begins near the thyroid cartilage and curves upward along the neck, narrowing as it ascends, and divides into the temporal and internal maxillary arteries. The external carotid has many branches along its course up the neck supplying the neck and face.
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EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY

The external iliac artery descends along the inner border of the psoas muscle along the pelvis and down to the thigh where it becomes the femoral artery.
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EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

The external intercostals (intercostalis externi) originate from the lower border of a rib and extend downward and forward to insert into the upper border of the rib below.
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EXTERNAL OBLIQUE

The external oblique (obliquus externus abdominis) is a large, thin sheet of muscle that runs along the side of the torso and partly on the front. The muscle is divided into two portions; and upper thoracic portion and a lower flank portion. The thoracic portion is located along the rib cage. The lower flank portion is located along the side of the abdomen between the rib cage and the pelvis. The muscle originates from the fifth to twelfth ribs and inserts in the lip of the iliac crest, inguinal ligament, and the rectus abdominis muscle. The individual ribs can be seen beneath this muscle when it is relaxed. Most of this muscle is concealed by a cushion of fat. The two portions meet at the waist. It is innervated by branches of the lower thoracic nerve and supplied branches of the lumbar artery and the intercostal arteries. This muscle assists the rectus abdominis muscle in flexing the spine when the trunk twists or turns. It also supports the abdominal organ tissue.
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EXTERNAL OS

The external os is a small, circular opening of the cervix where it projects into the vagina. It is distinguished from the internal os, which is the internal opening from the lower part of the uterus into the cervix.
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EXTEROCEPTOR

In physiology, an exteroceptor is any sensory organ or part of the body, such as the eye, that is able to receive stimuli from outside the body.
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EYE

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The eye is the organ of vision of animals, consisting in man of the globe of the eye, the muscles which move it, and of its appendages, which are the eyelids and eyebrows, and the lachrymal apparatus. The walls of the globe of the eye are formed principally of two fibrous membranes; one white and opaque - the sclerotic (from the Greek skleros meaning hard) - which envelops two-thirds of the globe posteriorly; and the other transparent, and resembling a horny plate, whence its name, cornea (from the Latin. corneus, meaning horny). The sclerotic is a tough fibrous coat, and is the part to which the phrase 'white of the eye' is applied. In the front of the globe the sclerotic is abruptly transformed into the transparent portion (the cornea), which is circular, and which forms a window through which one can see into the interior.

A mucous membrane, the conjunctiva, so named because it unites the eye to the lid, spreads over the anterior portion of the globe, and then folds back on itself and lines the internal surface of the, eyelids. On the internal surface of the sclerotic is a vascular membrane called the choroid. This is essentially the blood-vessel coat of the eyeball. The front part of the choroid terminates about the place where the sclerotic passes into the cornea in a series of ridges, the ciliary processes. The circular space thus left in front by the termination of the choroid is occupied by the iris, a round curtain, the structure seen through the cornea, differently coloured in different individuals. In its centre is a round hole, the pupil, which appears as if it were a black spot. The iris forms a sort of transverse partition dividing the cavity of the eyeball into two chambers, a small anterior chamber filled with the aqueous humour, and a large posterior chamber filled with vitreous humour. The iris consists of a framework of connective tissue, and its posterior surface is lined by cells containing pigment which gives the colour to the eye. In its substance are bundles of involuntary muscular fibres, one set being arranged in a ring round the margin of the pupil, the other set radiating from the pupil like the spokes of a wheel. In a bright light the circular fibres contract and the pupil is made smaller; but in the dark these fibres relax and cause the pupil to dilate more or less widely, thus allowing only that quantity of luminous rays to enter the eye which is necessary to vision.

Just behind the pupil is the crystalline lens, resembling a small, very strongly magnifying glass, convex on each side, though more so behind. The greater or less convexity of the surfaces of the lens determines whether the vision is long or short. The internal surface of the choroid, or rather the pigmentary layer which covers it, is lined by the retina or nervous tunic upon which the objects are depicted that we see.

The ocular globe is put in motion in the orbit by six muscles, grouped two by two, which raise or lower the eye, turn it inward or outward, or on its antero-posterior axis. In these movements the centre of the globe is immovable, and the eye moves round its transverse and vertical diameters. These three orders of movements are independent of each other, and may be made singly or in combination, in such a manner as to direct the pupil towards all points of the circumference of the orbit.


Each eye is furnished with two eyelids, moved by muscles, which shield it from too much light and keep it from being injured. They are fringed with short fine hairs called eyelashes; and along the edge of the lids is a row of glands similar to the sebaceous glands of the skin. The eyebrows, ridges of thickened integument and muscle, situated on the upper circumference of the orbit and covered with short hairs, also regulate to some extent the admission of light by muscular contraction. In reptiles, some fishes (sharks, etc), in birds, and in some mammals a third eyelid or nictitating membrane is present, and can be drawn over the surface of the eye so as to clear it of foreign matters, and also to modify the light.

The lachrymal apparatus is composed of, firstly, the lachrymal gland, which lies in a depression of the orbital arch; secondly, of the lachrymal canals, by which the tears are poured out upon the conjunctiva a little above the border of the upper lid; thirdly, the lachrymal ducts, which are destined to receive the tears after they have bathed the eye, and of which the orifices or lachrymal points are seen near the internal commissure of the lids; fourthly, the lachrymal sac, in which the lachrymal ducts terminate, and which empties the tears into the nasal canal.

The tears, by running over the surface of the conjunctiva, render it supple and facilitate the movements of the globe and eyelids by lessening the friction. The influence of moral or physical causes increases their secretion, and when the lachrymal ducts do not suffice to carry them off they run over the lids.

The retina renders the eye sensible of light, and we may therefore consider it as the essential organ of vision. The function of the other portions is to converge the luminous rays to a focus on the surface of the retina, a condition necessary for distinct vision and the clear perception of objects. The visual impressions are transmitted from the retina to the brain by means of the optic nerve. The two optic nerves converge from the base of the orbit toward the centre of the base of the skull, where there is an interlacement of their fibres in such a manner that a portion of the right nerve goes to the left side of the brain, and a part of the left nerve to the right side; this is called the chiasma or commissure of the optic nerves. The principal advantage of having two eyes is in the estimation of distance and the perception of relief. In order to see a point as single by two eyes we must make its two images fall on corresponding points of the retinas; and this implies a greater or less convergence of the optic axes according as the object is nearer or more remote.

According to one estimate, four-fifths of everything we know reaches the brain through our eyes. The eyes transmit constant streams of images to the brain by electrical signals. The eyes receive information from light rays. The light rays are either absorbed or reflected. Objects that absorb all of the light rays appear black, whereas those that reflect all the light rays appear white. coloured objects absorb certain parts of the light spectrum and reflect others. When you look at something, the light rays reflected from the object enter the eye. The light is refracted by the cornea and passes through the watery aqueous humor and pupil to the lens. The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye. Then the lens focuses the light through the vitreous humor onto the retina, forming an image in reverse and upsidedown. Light- sensitive cells in the retina transmit the image to the brain by electrical signals. The brain perceives the image the right side up.

To accommodate the eye to different distances the lens is capable of altering itself with great precision and rapidity. When we look at a near object the anterior surface of the lens bulges forward, becoming more convex the nearer the object; the more distant the object the more the lens is flattened. When the transparency of the cornea, the crystalline lens, or any of the humours, is destroyed, either partially or entirely, then will partial or total blindness follow, since no image can be formed, upon, the retina; but although all the humours and the cornea be perfectly transparent, and retain their proper forms, which is likewise necessary to distinct vision, yet, from weakness or inactivity of the optic nerve, or injury of the central ganglia with which it is connected, weakness of sight or total blindness may ensue. Defective vision may also arise from the crystalline lens being so convex as to form an image before the rays reach the retina (a defect known as short sight or myopia), in which case distinct vision will be procured by interposing a concave lens between the eye and the object of such a curvature as shall cause the rays that pass through the crystalline lens to meet on the retina; or the lens may be too flat, as is the case in old age, a defect which is corrected by convex lenses.

In the lower forms of life the organs of sight appear as mere pigment spots. Ascending higher, simple lenses or refracting bodies occur. Insects, crustaceans, etc, have large masses of simple eyes or ocelli aggregated together to form compound eyes - the separate facets or lenses being optically distinct, and sometimes numbering many thousands. In the molluscs well-developed eyes approaching in structure those of the highest animals are found; and in all vertebrate animals the organ of vision corresponds generally to what has been described, though they vary much in structure and adaptation to the surroundings of the animal.
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EYE-TOOTH

In the human body, an eye-tooth is one of the two upper canine teeth (the pointed fang-like teeth) with the root pointing towards the eye.
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EYELASHES

The eyelashes fringe the border of each eyelid. The lashes help protect the eye from dust and other foreign particles and protect the eye from glare. Each eye has about 200 lashes. They consist of three series of short hairs. Those of the upper lid are more numerous and longer than the lashes of the lower lid. The lashes of the upper lid curve upward and the lashes of the lower lid curve downward. They extend from about one-fourth of an inch from the inner canthus to near the outer canthus. The lashes last between three and five months. New lashes are continually growing.
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EYELID

The eyelids are two folds of skin that shield the eyeball. The upper lid is larger and more movable. It regulates the opening and closing of the eye with the help of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. Lower-lid movement is slight. The eyelids sweep dirt from the surface of the eye, protect it from injury, and help distribute the tear fluid. When the eye is closed, the lids unite at the lid-slit in a downward curve. The corners of the eye are called the inner canthus, which is near the opening of the lachrymal duct, and the outer canthus, which ends in the crease where the upper lid overlaps the lower lid. The eyelid is lined with a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. This lining also covers the front of the eyeball. This covering, when washed with tears, gives the eye its glossy appearance.
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