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The Probert Encyclopaedia of Medicine

L-THYROXINE

L-Thyroxine is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LABIA MAJORA

The labia majora are two folds of the skin that extend from the mons pubis, a soft mound of flesh covered with pubic hair, to the perineum, the area between the vagina and the anus. They normally conceal the other genital structures.
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LABRUM

The labrum is the ventral lobe in the front of an insect's head which covers the mouth parts.
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LABYRINTHITIS

labyrinthitis (otitis interna) is an inflammation of the inner ear, causing loss of balance, vertigo, and vomiting.
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LACHANOPHOBIA

Lachanophobia is the fear of vegetables.
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LACHRYMAL BONE

The lachrymal bones (lacrimal bones) are two of the smaller bones in the face, and form part of the medial walls of the orbit cavities and part of the side walls of the nasal cavity. The lachrymal bones, in conjunction with part of the maxilla, feature small channels, called lachrymal fossa, which allow the tear ducts to drain into the nasal cavity.
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LACHRYMAL DUCT

The lachrymal duct is one of two channels that secretes the sterile tear fluid that constantly bathes the front of the eye and its thin protective covering membrane, the conjunctiva. Although tear flow is continual, only about 1/2 to 2/3 of a gram of fluid is produced per day. The lachrymal duct is located in the inner corner of the lower eyelid.
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LACHRYMAL GLAND

The lachrymal gland is a gland beneath the upper eye lid which secretes tears which drain from the inner corner of the eye through the Lachrymal duct to the nose.
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LACHRYMATION

Lachrymation is the anatomical term for the shedding of tears.
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LACRIMAL DUCT

The lacrimal duct (tear duct) is a short tube in the inner corner of the eyelid through which tears drain into the nose.
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LACRIMAL GLAND

The lacrimal gland is the compound gland that secretes tears and lubricates the surface of the eye and the conjunctiva of the eyelid.
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LACTASE

Lactase is an enzyme found in the small intestine, needed to digest lactose.
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LACTASE DEFICIENCY

Lactase deficiency is a lack of the lactase enzyme. It causes lactose intolerance.
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LACTEALS

Lacteals are small lymphatic vessels which arise from the mucous membrane lining of the small bowel.
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LACTIFEROUS TUBULES

The lactiferous tubules are the small ducts through which the milk flows to the openings of the nipple in the mammary glands. The lactiferous ducts are composed of areolar tissue and elastic fibres. The number of ducts in each mammary gland varies from fifteen to twenty. These ducts increase in capacity during pregnancy and in breast-feeding the pressure of the baby's gums on the areola stimulates the milk flow.
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LALIOPHOBIA

Laliophobia is the fear of speaking.
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LALOPHOBIA

Lalophobia (glossophobia, phonophobia) is the fear of speech.
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LAMBDOID SUTURE

The lambdoid suture joins the two parietal bones to the occipital bone in the back of the skull. The intersection of the sagittal suture, joining the two parietal bones together, and the
lambdoid suture forms a tripartite shape, resembling the Greek letter 'lambda,' and giving the suture its shape. The lower ends of the lambdoid suture extend to the mastoid processes of the temporal bones, joining them to the occipital bone.
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LAMINA PROPRIA

The lamina propria is the periosteal membrane which lines the alveolus. It lies below the gingeval epithelium at the surface and adjoins the neck and roots of the tooth. The lamina propria is also known as the mandibular or maxillary periosteum, depending upon in which bone the alveolus is located. It carries the nutrient vessels and nerves for the alveolus and the tooth itself.
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LAMINECTOMY

A laminectomy (or rachiotomy) is a surgical incision into the backbone to gain access to the spinal cord.
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LAMOXY

Lamoxy is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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LAMPAS

Lampas is a horse disease with a swelling in the roof of the mouth.
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LAPAROSCOPE

A laparoscope is a thin tube with a tiny video camera attached. Used to look inside the body and see the surface of organs. See also endoscope.
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LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an operation to remove the gall bladder using keyhole surgery.
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LAPAROSCOPY

A laparoscopy is a test that uses a laparoscope to look at and take tissue from the inside of the body.
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LAPAROTOMY

A laparotomy is a surgical incision through the abdominal walls into the abdominal cavity, such as a Caesarean operation. The use of laparotomy, as an exploratory surgery technique, has decreased sharply with advances in medical imaging and the direct-viewing technique known as endoscopy.
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LARGE INTESTINE

The large intestine is a broad, corrugated tube which accepts the by-products of digestion from the small intestine and passes it along to be excreted, continuing to process the material on the way. Any unabsorbed food materials are stored in the large intestine until the body can partially reabsorb water from it, then passing the remains along to the anus for elimination. The overabsorption of water from the waste material may lead to hard, relatively dry faeces which can become impacted, making elimination difficult. This condition is known as constipation. If not enough liquid is reabsorbed, as often caused by some viral infections or malnutrition, the large intestine passes too much fluid to the anus, making control of elimination difficult. This condition, and the fluid (which is often painful to the anal tissues) is known as diarrhea. The
large intestine is divided into eight sections: the cecum, the appendix, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, the rectum, and the anus.
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LAROCILIN

Larocilin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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LAROTID

Larotid is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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LARYNGOLOGY

Laryngology is the branch of medicine concerned with the larynx and its diseases.
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LARYNGOSCOPE

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The laryngoscope is an instrument consisting of a concave mirror, by which light is thrown upon a small plane mirror placed in the posterior part of the cavity of the mouth. It is used in the examination of the vocal cords and the interior of the larynx. The laryngoscope was invented by Manuel Garcia (a singing teacher) in 1855, and introduced into use in medicine by Czermak Pesth shortly afterwards.
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LARYNX

The larynx is the organ (voice-box) at the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) in the front of the neck. It is the organ by which the voice is produced. The larynx is enclosed by cartilages. Below it is supported by a firm ring, the cricoid cartilage, which is the entrance to the trachea proper. The much larger thyroid cartilage is perched on top of the cricoid. It is shaped like a snow-plough, with its two halves widely separated behind and meeting in front to form the Adam's apple.

The mucous membrane which lines the larynx is thrown into various folds. These folds are called the true vocal cords, and by their movements the voice is produced. They are called true, as distinct from the false vocal cords which are above them, but take no part in producing the voice.


The true vocal cords projecting towards the middle form a chink, which is called the glottis. By the contraction of various muscles this chink can be so brought together that the air forced through it throws the edges of the membrane into vibration and so produce sounds. Variations in the form of the chink will affect changes in the sound. Thus the production of voice is the same as in musical
instruments, the arrangements in the larynx being such as to produce (1) the vibratory sounds, (2) to regulate the sound, (3) to vary the pitch, and (4) to determine the quality of the sound. The rapid, delicate, muscular movements involved are produced by nervous stimuli reaching the muscles from the brain. Thus the voice is produced in the larynx, and is modified by the rest of the respiratory passages. In the act of swallowing, the glottis is covered by a cartilaginous plate called the epiglottis.
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LASSA FEVER

Lassa fever is an incurable fever caused by a virus carried by a species of rat found in west Africa. It is characterised by high fever and muscular pains
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LATERAL CONDYLE OF THE TIBIA

The lateral condyle of the tibia is the bony prominence on the lateral, or outer, side of the head of the tibia. It articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur and is cushioned from it by the lateral meniscus. The lateral condyle of the tibia is connected to the fibula at the superior tibiofibular joint.
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LATERAL GLOSSOEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

The lateral glossoepiglottic fold is situated at the root of the tongue. It is a groove formed by the mucouse membrane covering the epiglottis cartilage and the thyroid cartilage in the larynx.
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LATERAL MENISCUS

The lateral meniscus is the slight concavity on the outer side of the knee joint, upon which rests the lateral condyle.
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LATERAL PLANTAR ARTERY

There are two plantar arteries, the medial and lateral. The medial plantar artery is smaller than the lateral artery and runs along the inside of the sole of the foot supplying the abductor hallucis muscle and the flexor brevis digitorum muscle. It also supplies the big toe. The larger
lateral plantar artery runs along the bases of the metatarsal bones completing the plantar arch. It supplies the foot and the tendons of the toes.
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LATERAL THORACIC ARTERY

The thoracic artery arises from the axillary artery (artery of the armpit) in several branches. All branches of the thoracic artery supply the chest.
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LATERAL VENTRICLES

Lateral ventricles project branches, or horns (cornua), into the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid, used to support the brain and buffer it from physical shock, is created in and transmitted to the brain's lobes by means of these
lateral ventricles. In addition to the two lateral ventricles, a third ventricle helps form cerebrospinal fluid and carries it to the structures of the midbrain, and a fourth ventricle supplies the cerebellum and the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord.
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LATHYRISM

Lathyrism is a neurological disease often resulting in weakness and paralysis of the legs. It is caused by eating the pea-like seeds of the leguminous plant Lathyrus sativus.
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LATISSIMUS DORSI

The latissimus dorsi is a wide, flat triangular muscle located on the lower half of the back. It is the broadest of the back muscles. It originates along the lumbar and lower half of the thoracic vertebrae and the iliac crest and sacrum far below. The muscle fibres at its tip insert under the scapula and join to the humerus in the shoulder. The latissimus dorsi is innervated by the thorocodorsal nerve and supplied by the thorocodorsal artery. This muscle gives the arms motion. It is used when swimming or when swinging the arms back when jogging. It is also used to reach up to grab something above the head.
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LAUDANUM

Laudanum is an alcoholic tincture of opium, formerly used medicinally as a narcotic.
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LAUREL-WATER

Laurel-water is a fluid obtained by maceration and distillation from the leaves of the cherry-laurel (Cerasus laurocerasus), being a watery solution of the volatile oil contained in the plant. It contains prussic acid and is therefore poisonous, but was used medicinally.
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LAXATIVE

A laxative is a substance which loosens the bowels assisting or encouraging the excretion of faeces.
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LEAD-POISONING

Lead-poisoning is a disease due to the entrance of soluble lead compounds into the system; it is more dangerous as it is cumulative and ultimately chronic. It may be caused by soft drinking waters passing through leaden pipes, by acid liquids corroding leaden vessels, but was formerly mainly by the use of lead in the arts. The glazing of culinary vessels with lead; the colouring of confectionery with the chromate, chloride, or carbonate of lead; the sweetening of sour wine by litharge or oxide of lead, all also produced lead-poisoning more or less serious. But the most frequent and virulent cases used to occur among painters and persons engaged in white-lead factories, and among those engaged in the ceramic industry. Four forms of disease, either simple or complicated, are apt to manifest themselves:


Opium and cathartics were the chief medicines administered in cases of lead-poisoning. Leadless glazes were introduced into the manufacture of pottery at the end of the 19th century, owing to the danger to the workers arising from the use of those containing lead, and lead was removed from most paints and petrol at the end of the 20th century.
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LEG

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Leg is the name given to any limb of an animal that is used in supporting the body, and in walking and running. In a narrower sense, the leg is that part of the human limb from the knee to the foot. The human leg has two bones, the inner called the tibia or shin-bone, the outer called the fibula or clasp-bone. The tibia is much the larger of the two, and above is connected with the thigh-bone to form the knee-joint, the fibula being attached to the outer side of its bead. In front of the knee-joint, situated within a tendon, is the knee-cap or patella. The lower end of the tibia and of the fibula enter into the ankle-joint, the weight being conducted to the foot by the tibia. In the foreleg are muscles which extend the foot, and on the back of the leg are two large muscles which form the bulk of the calf of the leg, and which unite in a thick tendon, the tendo Achillis (Achilles tendon). These muscles are used in walking, jumping, etc.
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LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE

Legionnaires' disease is a form of pneumonia first discovered in 1976 among members of the American Legion attending a convention in Philadelphia. The cause of the disease is the bacteria Legionella pneumophila which is found in water-tanks, air-conditioning units and other sources of static or sheltered water. The bacteria is spread through water droplets in the air, frequently affecting large numbers of people in modern, air-conditioned buildings. Diagnosis is difficult as the bacteria is hard to isolate, and often patients die before Legionnaires' disease is diagnosed.
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LEISHMANIA

Leishmania is a microsopic parasite transmitted by sandfies, which causes either a localised infection or Dumdum fever.
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LENS

The lens lies just behind the pupil in the eye and is protected in front by the aqueous fluid which exists between it and the cornea. The lens is held in place by a ligament attached to the ciliary muscle located at the front part of the eye. The lens refracts light to focus a sharp image on the retina. In a healthy person, the muscles of the elastic lens can change its shape to bring objects at different distances into focus. When looking at a distant object, the ciliary muscle relaxes and the lens has only a slightly curved shape. To focus on a near object, the ciliary muscle must contract, causing the lens to become more bulging and curved. However, if the eyeball is shaped so that the retina is too near or far from the lens, objects will appear out of focus.
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LEPROPHOBIA

Leprophobia is the fear of leprosy.
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LEPROSY

Leprosy (named after the Greek, lepros meaning rough), is a name applied at one time to several different skin diseases characterized by roughness or scaliness. True leprosy is the elephantiasis of the Greeks, the lepra of the Arabs, whose old English name was the myckle ail or great disease. It is to be distinguished from the elephantiasis of the Arabs, which is a local overgrowth of skin and subcutaneous tissue, chiefly of the extremities and genital organs, and is non-contagious.

Of true leprosy there are several well-marked types. The first is characterized by the formation of nodules or tubercles in the skin, common about the eyebrows, where they destroy the hair, and produce a frowning or leonine aspect. After a time the nodules break down, forming ulcers, which discharge for a time, and may cause extensive destruction and deformity. The tubercles may form in the nostrils, in the throat altering the voice, on the eyelids extending into and destroying the eyeball.

In the second type the chief features are insensibility and numbness of parts of the skin, accompanied by deop-seated pains, causing sleeplessness and restlessness.

In a third variety much mutilation occurs owing to the loss of bones, chiefly of the limbs, a portion of a limb being frequently lopped off painlessly at a joint.

All these varieties begin with the appearance on the skin of blotches of a dull coppery or purplish tint, the affected part being thickened, puffy, and coarse-looking. When the redness disappears a stain is left, or a white blotch.

There may be remissions or arrest of symptoms, but more commonly death occurs from tuberculosis, exhaustion, or renal failure after twenty years or more.
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LEPTIN

Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells, and switches off feelings of hunger. A deficiency of
leptin in the blood stream has been found to be a genetic characteristic of very obese people.
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LEPTOSPIROSIS

Leptospirosis (Weil's Disease) is several infectious diseases caused by spirochaete bacteria of the genus Leptospira. They are transmitted to man by animals and the disease is characterised by jaundice, meningitis, and kidney failure.
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LETHARGY

Lethargy is an abnormal lack of energy, an unnatural tendency to sleep, closely connected with languor and debility, and much resembling apoplexy in character. It may arise from a plethoric habit, from deficient circulation in the brain, from nervous exhaustion of that organ, from a poisoned state of the blood, or from a suppression of urine.
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LEUCOCYTES

Leucocytes (white blood cells) are outnumbered by the red blood cells 600 to 1. These cells are spherical in shape and slightly larger than red blood cells. There are five types of leukocytes. Three of the five have a granular appearance. These are the neutrophils, eosinophils, and the basophiles. The other two, the lymphocytes and monocytes, have smooth, non-granular bodies. The main function of the leukocytes is to provide a defence against 'foreign' material (infectious agents, foreign bodies, abnormal proteins). In the presence of a foreign material, basophiles and some lymphocytes release chemicals that cause inflammation, trapping the invader. The other leukocytes then take the foreign material into their own bodies and digest them. This process of digestion is called phagocytosis. The cells that digest microbes are called phagocytes. The most numerous of the phagocytes are the neutrophils.

In addition to neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes, the body has other phagocytes that are not white blood cells. They are classed as reticuloendothelial cells, a type of connective tissue cells. Lymphocytes are the smallest white blood cells and are a part of the immune mechanism. They form antibodies against disease. When microbes invade the body, lymphocytes begin to multiply and they become transformed plasma cells. Each microbe stimulates only one type of lymphocyte to multiply and form one type of plasma cell. The type of plasma cell formed is the type that can make a specific antibody to destroy the particular microbe that has invaded the body. Red bone marrow continually produces white blood cells, except lymphocytes and monocytes, and keeps a reserve ready in case of need. Lymphocytes and monocytes are produced by lymphatic tissue located in the lymph nodes and spleen. When a parasite or virus invades and begins to colonize, the reserves of white blood cells are released and the manufacturing of large quantities of the appropriate white cells begins. It is this increased production that causes fever.

Because white blood cells are supposedly specific for various illnesses, their count can supposedly assist doctors diagnose patients. However, as has been shown by researchers at Perth, Australia (The Perth Group), white blood cell counts can also be misleading as many conditions cause very similar counts, leading some researchers to question the emphasis currently placed on white blood cell counts in diagnosis.
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LEUCOCYTOSIS

Leucocytosis is the name given to a condition of the blood in which the leucocytes or white corpuscles in the blood plasma are increased in number. These leucocytes are minute protoplasmic cells, which have the power of movement and can pass out of the smallest capillary blood vessels into the surrounding tissues. They act as scavengers, and play an important part in the destruction and removal of bacteria in the body, a process known as phagocytosis.

The leucocytes are of different types, and normal blood contains a fairly constant proportion of each type. In infection or inflammation the leucocytes become greatly increased in number; the leucocytes which are killed in the attack on the bacteria form pus. In certain blood diseases, of which leukaemia is the best example, the increase is also often enormous, even reaching to 80,000 and 100,000 white corpuscles in a cubic millimetre of blood which normally contains only from 5,000 to 6,000. The symptoms of this disease are very similar to those of anaemia, and the diagnosis is confirmed by microscopic examination of the blood. The leukaemias are accompanied by swelling of the glands but this also occurs in other diseases.

A small increase of the white corpuscles is found in such a great number of the more common diseases that an examination of the blood is often made as a routine measure. In many cases, for instance, of appendicitis, the white corpuscles increase to from 15,000 to 20,000 per cubic millimetre; in pneumonia they also increase sometimes to 40,000 per cubic millimetre. In other more common diseases such as tonsilitis or sore throat, erysipelas, in smallpox, and inflammatory diseases such as septicaemia, boils, bone diseases and pyaemia, a greater or less increase is always found. In other diseases absence of an increase often enables the right diagnosis to be made, since in typhoid fever (which might in the early stages be mistaken for appendicitis) there would be no increase in the early stage of the disease, but it would probably be marked in the latter stages. In whooping-cough a marked leucocytosis occurs, which may confirm a doubtful diagnosis.
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LEUCOPHOBIA

Leucophobia is the fear of the colour white.
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LEUCOPOENIA

Leucopoenia is an abnormal reduction in the number of white blood cells in the blood. It is characteristic of certain diseases.
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LEUKAEMIA

Leukaemia is an acute or chronic disease characterised by a gross proliferation of leucocytes, which crowd into the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, etc., and suppress the blood-forming apparatus.
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LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS

The levator anguli oris (triangularis labii superioris) muscle originates immediately below the maxillary foramen and extends inward and downward and is inserted in the skin at the angle of the mouth near the orbicularis oris muscle. It is innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and is supplied by the facial artery. This muscle raises the angle of the mouth and is one of the muscles used when smiling.
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LEVATOR ANI-COCCYGEUS

The levator ani-coccygeus originates from the back of the pubis and inserts in the sides of the lower part of the sacrum and coccyx. This muscle draws the anus upward in defecation. It is innervated by the fourth sacral nerve.
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LEVATOR ANI-ILIOCOCCYGEUS

The levator ani-iliococcygeus is the posterior part of the levator ani muscle. It originates from the back of the pubis and inserts in the sides of the lower part of the sacrum and coccyx. This muscle supports pelvic organs. It is innervated by the fourth sacral nerve.
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LEVATOR ANI-PUBORECTALIS

The levator ani-puborectalis originates from the back of the pubis, passes around the anus and inserts in the sides of the lower part of the sacrum and coccyx. This muscle relaxes during defecation. It is innervated by the fourth sacral nerve.
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LEVATOR ANI-PUBOVAGINALIS

The levator ani-pubovaginalis originates from the back of the pubis, passes around the anus and inserts in the sides of the vagina. It is innervated by the fourth sacral nerve.
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LEVATOR COSTARUM

The levator costarum are a group of twelve muscles on each side of the spine. They originate from the transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebrae and upper eleven thoracic vertebrae. These muscles pass downward and outward to insert in the rib below them. These muscles are innervated by the intercostal nerves and are supplied by muscular branches of the aorta. The levator costarum raise the ribs to expand the thoracic cavity when breathing and help to bend and rotate the spinal column.
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LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS

The levator labii superioris is a thin muscle with a quadrilateral form. It originates near the lower edge of the occular orbit (orbit of the eye) immediately above the maxillary foramen and is inserted in the muscular tissue of the orbicularis oris muscle of the upper lip. The levator labii superioris is innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by the facial artery. This muscle elevated the upper lip.
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LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI

The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi is a thin triangular muscle located on the side of the nose. It originates from the root of the nasal process of the maxilla bone and extends towards the inner edge of the occular orbit (orbit of the eye). It is innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by the facial artery. This muscle draws the upper lip and nose upward and is most often used when expressing disdain or contempt.
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LEVATOR PALATI

The levator palati (levator veli palatini) is a long, thick, rounded muscle that raises the soft palate and opens the eustachian tube during swallowing. The lower end of the eustachian tube opens during swallowing to allow air to flow into the middle ear and equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. The levator palati originates from the temporal bone and inserts in the palatine aponeurosis. The levator palati is innervated the pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve and by fibres from cranial accessory nerve.
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LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLE

The levator palpebrae muscle (orbitopalpebralis) is a thin flat muscle with a triangular shape that is situated in the eyelid. It originates from the orbital portion of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and inserts in several places along the skin of the eyelid and the orbital walls. It is innervated by the oculomotor nerve. This muscle raises the eyelid, the direct opposite of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. These muscles are used together to blink and to close the eye during sleep.
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LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS

The levator palpebrae superioris is a thin flat muscle with a triangular shape that is situated in the eyelid. This muscle raises the eyelid, the direct opposite of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. These two muscles are used to blink and during sleep. The
levator palpebrae superioris originates from the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and inserts into the walls of the orbit. It is innervated by the third cranial nerve (oculomotor) and is supplied by branches of the ophthalmic artery.
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LEVATOR SCAPULAE MUSCLE

The levator scapula muscle (levator anguli scapulae) lies along the back and side part of the neck. It originates deep in the side of the neck from the four upper cervical vertebrae near the base of the skull, passes down and back and inserts in the scapula. It is innervated by the dorsal nerve of the scapula and is supplied by the cervical artery. As the name implies, this muscle is the ' shoulder blade lifter'. This muscle tenses up, becoming hard and stiff, when weight is carried upon the shoulder.
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LEVAXIN

Levaxin is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVO-T

Levo-T is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVODOPA

Levodopa (L-dopa) is a substance occurring naturally in the body and used to treat Parkinson's Disease.
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LEVOPHOBIA

Levophobia is the fear of things to the left side of the body.
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LEVOTHROID

Levothroid is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVOTHYROX

Levothyrox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVOTHYROXINE SODIUM

Levothyroxine sodium is a synthetic crystalline levothyroxine sodium (L-thyroxine). L-thyroxine is the principal hormone secreted by the normal thyroid gland. Chemically, L-thyroxine is designated as L-tyrosine, O- (4-hydroxy-3, 5-diiodophenyl) - 3,5-diiodo -, monosodium salt, hydrate. It is used in replacement or supplemental therapy in patients of any age or state (including pregnancy) with hypothyroidism of any aetiology except transient hypothyroidism during the recovery phase of sub- acute thyroiditis: primary hypothyroidism resulting from thyroid dysfunction, primary atrophy, or partial or total absence of the thyroid gland, or from the effects of surgery, radiation or drugs, with or without the presence of goitre, including sub-clinical hypothyroidism; secondary (pituitary) hypothyroidism; and tertiary (hypothalamic) hypothyroidism.
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LEVOTIROX

Levotirox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVOTRIX

Levotrix is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LEVOXYL

Levoxyl is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
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LIBRAX

Librax is a trade name for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.
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LIBRITABS

Libritabs is a trade name for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride
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LIBRIUM

Librium is a trade name for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride
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LIGAMENT

In anatomy, ligaments are the strong, tendinous, inelastic white bodies which surround the joints, and connect bones, or strengthen the attachments of various organs, or keep them together. Every joint is surrounded by a capsular ligament; the tendons at the wrist and ankle are bound down by what are called the annular ligaments. In dislocations of joints the capsular ligament is often broken.
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LIGAMENTS OF THE HAND

The hand features a number of ligamentary attachments within it which help facilitate manual flexibility and dexterity. Tendons may be flexor (they contract, causing the hand or fingers to tighten or curl up) or adductor (they contract, causing the hand or fingers to loosen, or straighten out). Therefore, palmar tendons (those on the palm-side of the hand) generally are flexors, while dorsal tendons (on the back of the hand) usually are adductors. Exceptions to this includes the collateral ligaments which help in side-to-side movement of the digits. The ligaments of the fingers are encased in fibrous sheaths of ligamentary material. These sheaths allow contraction of the ligaments without incident friction on the nerves and vessels which surround them. Additionally, where these sheaths meet the joints between phalanges, or between a phalanx and a metacarpal, a large joint capsule may be seen. This joint capsule encloses the joint and any ligaments which may be attached to prominences at the bone ends.
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LIGNOCAINE

Lignocaine is a short-term local anaesthetic injected into tissues or applied to skin. It is effective for brief, invasive procedures such as dental care or insertion of a cannula into a vein. Temporary paralysis (to prevent involuntary movement during eye surgery, for example) can be achieved by injection directly into the nerve serving the region. Rapidly absorbed by mucous membranes, lignocaine may be sprayed into the nose or throat to allow comfortable insertion of a viewing instrument during endoscopy. Its action makes it a potent anti-arrhythmia drug as well: given intravenously during or following a heart attack, it reduces the risk of cardiac arrest.
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LIGYROPHOBIA

Ligyrophobia is the fear of loud noises.
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LILAPSOPHOBIA

Lilapsophobia is the fear of tornadoes and hurricanes.
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LIMB OF HENLE

The loop of Henle is a U-turn in the tubule responsible for carrying urine out of the nephron and into the calyces. It is bordered by the proximal and distal segments of the convoluted tubule and features both the ascending and descending limb flanking the U-turn.
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LIMNOPHOBIA

Limnophobia is the fear of lakes.
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LIMOX

Limox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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LINGUAL TONSIL

The lingual tonsils (tonsilla lingualis) are a pair of oval-shaped organs located at the back of the tongue behind the foramen cecum and the sulcus terminalis in the mucous membrane covering the tongue. They enlarge gradually from birth to about seven years of age and then shrinks. Each oval consists of a large number of lymphoid follicles. The lingual tonsils are part of the lymphatic system and are important to the body's defense against infection. They are composed of lymphoid tissue, which contains germ-killing cells. The tonsils help protect against upper respiratory tract infection.
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LINIMENT

In medicine, liniment is a species of soft ointment of a consistence somewhat thinner than an unguent, but thicker than oil. The term is also applied to spirituous and other stimulating applications for external use.
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LINONOPHOBIA

Linonophobia is the fear of string.
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LIPS

The lips are a pair of muscular tissues which form the entrance to the oral cavity (mouth). They are arranged laterally, at the top and bottom of the mouth opening, but since they are manipulated by a versatile sphincter muscle, the lips are able to take a wide variety of arrangements. They serve primarily to help in speech articulation and to manipulate and control food within the mouth cavity. The affectionate kiss is also facilitated by the versatility of the lips.
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LITHOTOMY

Lithotomy is the surgical procedure of removing a stone (calculus) from the urinary bladder.
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LITHOTOMY POSITION

The Lithotomy position involves the patient lying on their back with their hips and knees bent, resembling a trussed fowl. The position was formerly used for lithotomy operations before abdominal surgery, the bladder being accessed between the thighs. Now the lithotomy position is used chiefly for gynaecological examinations.
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LITICAPHOBIA

Liticaphobia is the fear of lawsuits.
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LIVER

The liver is the gland which secretes the bile. This gland is not confined to the Vertebrate animals, all of which - save the Amphioxus or lancelet - possess a well-developed liver, but is found in many Invertebrates. In man the liver is part of the alimentary apparatus, and is situated just below the diaphragm on the right side, extending across the middle line of the body towards the left side. Its front border reaches just below the border of the chest when the posture is sitting or standing; but when the person lies down the liver passes slightly up so as to be completely under cover of the ribs, except a small portion which extends beyond the lower end of the breast-bone. From its position it is extremely liable to compression and injury. It is the largest gland in the body, and weighs from 50 to 60 ounces avoirdupois. In its general form the liver
is flat, broad, and thick towards the right side, becoming narrow and thin towards the left side. Its upper surface is convex or arched and fits into the concave surface of the diaphragm, whilst its lower surface is irregularly divided into certain 'lobes', five in number, and separated by clefts or fissures. These lobes are known as the right, left, spegelian, caudatus and quadrate lobes.

When microscopically examined the entire mass of the liver is found to consist mainly of large many-sided cells containing granular protoplasm. They are arranged in groups or masses, each little mass being called a lobule, and each lobule slightly mapped off by connective tissue and containing a mesh-work of blood-vessels and ducts. These blood-vessels are branches of the portal vein. This vein receives the blood which has circulated in the stomach and intestines and carries it throughout the entire liver by a net-work of finely subdivided veins. It is from this supply of blood that the bile is secreted. The blood passes off from the liver by the hepatic vein, formed by the union of small vessels which begin in the centre of the lobules. The connective tissue of the liver is supplied with arterial blood by the hepatic artery. This blood, like that which has entered through the portal vein, is drained off into the hepatic vein. There is, however, another set of vessels which ramify through the liver, namely the bile ducts, whose business it is to carry off the bile produced in the gland. These ducts intersect and unite until in the end two channels are formed, one from the right and the other from the left of the liver, which ultimately form one common exit into the small intestine called the common bile duct. Thus, when the bile has been secreted by the liver-cells, it is transferred by way of this hepatic duct into the small intestine, where it mingles with the food. When this flow of bile ceases, as it does when intestinal digestion is interrupted, the supply which still continues is stored in the gallbladder, which forms a kind of reservoir situated under the liver.

The functions of the liver would seem to be, at least, threefold. It serves (1) to secrete from the blood received from the stomach and intestines that amount of bile which is necessary for the purposes of digestion. The bile, however, contains waste matter, which has been separated from the blood. The liver therefore (2) has a direct function in separating and casting forth the waste impurities of the blood. (3) The liver secretes a substance called glycogen or animal starch, which is readily converted into sugar, and its use would seem to be to supply the tissues with material for their energy and heat. The functions of the liver, however, still form the subject of dispute and investigation.

There are many diseases connected with this important gland. There is congestion of the liver, which indicates that the structure is surcharged and choked with blood. This arises from various causes; heart-disease, disease of the lungs, or even excess in food or drink will produce congestion. The symptoms are excessive weight, fullness, and a tenderness in the organ. Inflammation of the liver is frequent in hot countries; it is closely connected with dysentery, and its symptoms are similar to those of congestion. Cirrhosis of the liver, or drunkard's liver, is frequently caused by excessive alcohol consumption - but not necessarily so, as it has been known to occur in children. The symptoms are many and not easily recognized; and the disease may remain for years before a fatal issue. Fatty degeneration of the liver occurs when the cells become crowded with globules of oil, and it becomes large and pale. This result usually arises from overfeeding or drinking and want of exercise.
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LIVER OF SULPHUR

Liver of sulphur is a mixture of potassium sulphides used as a fungicide and insecticide and in the treatment of skin diseases.
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LOBULE

The lobule, or earlobe is a part of the outer ear that hangs below the tragus. It is composed of tough areola and adipose tissue. This part of the outer ear is not made of cartilage.
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LOCKIOPHOBIA

Lockiophobia is the fear of childbirth.
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LOGIZOMECHANOPHOBIA

Logizomechanophobia is the fear of computers.
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LOGOMANIA

Logomania is a disease or disorder of the faculty of language generally associated with organic disease of the nervous structure, as in paralysis. In this condition, while conceptions and ideas remain clear, the power of associating these with the words by which they are ex pressed is lost, and the patient can either not give any names to his conceptions at all or expresses them erroneously. Sometimes one class of words is lost and others retained. Thus a patient may forget his own name, or nouns only, and remember all other words. Sometimes he forgets only parts of the word, as terminations, and not infrequently in another form of the disease he inverts his phrases.
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LOGOPHOBIA

Logophobia is the fear of words.
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LONG BONES

In human anatomy, long bones are found in the limbs where they form levers. They have a hollow shaft.
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LONG THORACIC VEIN

The long thoracic vein extends through the chest returning blood from the chest muscles and arms to the lungs.
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LONGISSIMUS CERVICIS

The longissimus cervicis muscles are deep back muscles that originate from the transverse processes of the upper thoracic vertebrae and insert in the transverse processes of the medial and upper cervical vertebrae. These muscles link the vertebrae, helping you to stand upright and enabling you to bend and twist. The muscles are innervated by branches of the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves and are supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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LONGISSIMUS THORACIS

The longissimus thoracis muscles originate with the intercostalis muscles from the transverse processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae. The insert into all of the ribs and into the ends of the transverse processes of the upper lumbar vertebrae. These muscles link the vertebrae, helping you to stand upright and enabling you to bend and twist. The muscles are innervated by branches of the lumbar and thoracic spinal nerves and are supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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LONGITUDINAL FISSURE

The longitudinal fissure runs down along the longitude of the cerebrum, separating the left and right hemispheres. It is interrupted in the intermediate region by the corpus callosum, which connects the two hemispheres.
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LONGUS CAPITIS

The longus capitis (rectus capitis anticus major) is a broad thick muscle that originates from the transverse processes of the third to sixth cervical (neck) vertebrae. It narrows to insert in the basilar process of the occipital bone. The longus capitis is innervated by the cervical plexus and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta. This muscle helps twist the neck and bend the neck forward.
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LONGUS CERVICIS

The longus cervicis is the human muscle which bends the cervical portion of the vertebral column forwards.
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LONGUS COLLI

The longus colli is a long neck muscle that consists of three parts. The first part of the muscle originates from the third thoracic to the fifth cervical vertebrae and inserts into the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae. The second part of the muscle originates from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebrae and insert into the front tubercle of the atlas. The third part of the muscle originates from the first, second, and third thoracic vertebrae and inserts into the transverse processes of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae. The three parts of the longus colli work together to bend the head and neck forward and to turn the head from side to side. This muscle is innervated by ventral branches of the cervical nerve and supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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LOPRESSOR

Lopressor is a brand name for Metoprolol tartrate.
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LORDOSIS

Lordosis is the forward curvature of the lumbar spine. It may be congenital or caused by trauma or disease.
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LOTION

Lotions are liquid remedies, consisting principally of distilled or filtered soft water, holding in solution various medical substances, and applied externally. Lotions are either cooling, stimulating, astringent, soothing, or sedative.
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LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd) is an hallucinogen illegal drug.
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LUIPHOBIA

Luiphobia is the fear of syphillis.
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LUMBAGO

Lumbago is persistant pain in the lower part of the back. It is often caused by pressure on a nerve by a vertebrae (known as a slipped disc).
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LUMBAR

Lumbar refers to the part of the back between the lowest pair of ribs and the top of the pelvis.
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LUMBAR VERTEBRAE

In human anatomy, the lumbar vertebrae are the five vertebrae following the thoracic vertebrae. The
lumbar vertebrae feature no facets on the body or transverse processes (as the thoracic vertebrae have) and the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae are much larger than those of the cervical or thoracic vertebrae. The vertebral foramen is usually triangular, while the spinous process points backward and is rectangular or hatchet-shaped. The transverse processes of the
lumbar vertebrae (which also represent their rib elements) lack the foramina which characterize the cervical vertebrae. The large body of each lumbar vertebra bears the weight of the vertebrae above it (and the skull), while the arch serves to create a canal-like area along the spine to house and protect the spinal cord.
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LUMBRICALS

The lumbricals (lumbricales manus) consist of four small, fleshy tissues that originate from the tendons of the deep flexor muscle, the flexor digitorum profundus and insert in the extensor tendon of each of the four fingers. The lumbricals are innervated by the radial and ulnar nerves and supplied by the palmar arch from the deep metacarpal artery. These muscles work to flex and extend the fingers. The first lumbrical moves the index finger, the second moves the middle finger, the third moves the middle and ring finger and the fourth moves the ring and little finger.
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LUMEN

The lumen is the channel within both arteries and veins through which blood flows.
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LUNATE BONE

The lunate bone is one of the eight carpal bones which constitute each wrist. The bone, also called semilumar, is so named because its shape resembles a crescent moon.
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LUNGS

Picture of Lungs

The lungs are the sole organs used for respiration of reptiles, birds, mammals, and in part of amphibians (frogs, newts, etc), the latter forms breathing in early life by branchias or gills, and afterwards partly or entirely by lungs.

The essential idea of a lung is that of a sac communicating with the atmosphere by means of a tube, the trachea or windpipe, through which air is admitted to the organ, and through structural peculiarities to its intimate parts, the air serving to supply oxygen to the blood and to remove carbon dioxide.

In the Mammalia, including humans , the lungs are confined to and freely suspended in the cavity of the thorax or chest, which is completely separated from the abdominal cavity by the muscular diaphragm or 'midriff'. In humans the lungs are made up of honeycomb-like cells which receive their supply of air through the bronchial tubes. If a bronchial tube is traced it is found to lead into a passage which divides and subdivides, leading off into air-cells. The walls of these air-cells consist of thin, elastic, connective tissue, through which run small blood-vessels in connection with the pulmonary artery and veins. By this arrangement the blood is brought into contact with, and becomes purified by means of the air. The impure blood enters at the root of the lung through the pulmonary artery at the right side of the heart, and passes out purified through the pulmonary veins towards the left side of the heart.

Both lungs are inclosed in a delicate membrane called the pleura, which forms a kind of double sac that on one side lines the ribs and part of the breast-bone, and on the other side surrounds the lung. Pleurisy arises from inflammation of this membrane.

The lungs are situated one on each side of the heart, the upper part of each fits into the upper corner of the chest, about an inch above the collar-bone, while the base of each rests upon the diaphragm. The right lung is shorter and broader than the left, which extends downwards further by the breadth of a rib. Each lung exhibits a broad division into an upper and lower portion or lobe, the division being marked by a deep cleft which runs downwards obliquely to the front of the organ; and in the case of the right lung there is a further division at right angles to the main cleft. Thus the left lung has two, whilst the right lung has three lobes. These again are divided into lobules which measure from 0.25 to 0.5 inches in diameter, and consist of air-cells, blood-vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the tissue by which the lobules themselves are bound together.

The elasticity of the lungs by which they expand and expel the air is due to the contractile tissues found in the bronchial tubes and air-cells, this elasticity being aided by a delicate, elastic, surface-tissue.

The lungs are popularly termed 'lights', because they are the lightest organs in the body, and float when placed in water, except when they are diseased; a characteristic this which was formerly applied in medical jurisprudence as a test whether an infant has respired or not.
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LUPUS

Lupus (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory connective tissue disorder, the causes of which are unknown, but which affects almost nine times as many women as men.
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LUSTRAL

Lustral is a brand name for sertaline.
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LUTRAPHOBIA

Lutraphobia is the fear of otters.
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LYGOPHOBIA

Lygophobia is the fear of darkness.
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LYME DISEASE

Lyme disease is a disease of domestic animals and humans, caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burghdorferiand transmitted by ticks, and variously affecting the joints, heart, and brain.
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LYMPH DUCT

The lymphatic duct is much shorter than the thoracic duct, only about one centimeter long. It receives lymph from right side of body above the liver and empties into right subclavian vein and internal jugular vein. Together with the thoracic, these ducts empty between 4 and 10 milliliters of lymph into the blood every minute.
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LYMPH NODES

Lymph nodes, or lymph glands as they are sometimes called, are small oval structures normally the size of small kidney beans. They generally are located in clusters near veins at strategic points along medium-sized lymph vessels at the knee, elbow, armpit, groin, neck, abdomen and chest. Blood is cleaned and filtered in the lymph nodes, and germ fighting cells gather there during illness. This filtration process prevents bacteria, cancer cells, and other infectious agents from entering the blood and circulating through the system. The lymph nodes are the centers for production and storage of some of the white blood cells, namely the lymphocytes and monocytes, which are important elements of the body's immune mechanism. During any kind of infection, the nodes enlarge in their area of drainage due to the multiplication of lymphocytes in the node.
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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic glands, which occur in different parts of the body and are connected with the lymphatic vessels. The glands are especially numerous in the neck, thorax, abdomen, axillae and groins. They vary in size, and in them are formed the white blood corpuscles or lymphocytes which circulate in the blood. The lymph vessels commuilicating with the glands pass on to other groups of glands and finally unite to form the thoracic duct, which pours its contents into the veins at the base of the neck. The lymphatic glands act as filtering agents and prevent bacteria and other impurities from entering the bloodstream.
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LYMPHOCYTES

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell produced in the lymphoid tissue of the lymphatic system. They are colourless and slightly larger than red blood cells. The number of
lymphocytes in the body remains fairly constant, but may rise or fall under certain conditions.
Lymphocytes are concerned with immunity. They multiply to produce antibodies to neutralize infectious substances such as invading bacteria. There are two main groups, B and T lymphocytes. The B cells are ordinarily concerned with making antibodies, while T cells have a dual role: they control immune mechanisms and fight foreign cells.
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LYMPHOCYTOSIS

Lymphocytosis is the condition of having an abnormally large number of lymphocytes in the blood. It often occurs in diseases such as glandular fever and smallpox.
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LYSSOPHOBIA

Lyssophobia (maniphobia) is the fear of insanity.
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