The cardiac pacemaker.a small area of specialized tissue within the wall of the right atrium of the heart whose spontaneous electrical activity initiates and controls the beat of the heart. An artificial pacemaker is an electronic device that stimulates the heart muscles by delivery small electric shocks to it, thereby taking over the role of the cardiac pacemaker.
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Pachymeningitis is an inflammation of the dura mater of the brain.
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Pacinian corpuscles are fast-conducting, bulb-shaped receptors located deep in the dermis. They are the largest of the skin's receptors and are believed to provide instant information about how and where we move. They are also sensitive to vibration. Pacinian corpuscles are also located in joints and tendons and in tissue that lines organs and blood vessels.
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Paediatrics is the branch of medical science concerned with children and their diseases.
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Paedophobia is the fear of children.
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Paget's cancer is a cancer of the nipple and surrounding tissue.
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Paget's disease (osteitis deformans) is a chronic disease of the bones characterised by inflammation and deformation.
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Pagodone is a drug which mimics the action of GABA, a neurotransmitter, which reduces excessive neuronal activity thought to be responsible for the symptoms of anxiety and panic attacks.
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Pagophobia is the fear of ice or frost.
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Palate is the name applied to the roof of the mouth. It consists of two portions, the hard palate in front, the soft palate behind. The former is bounded above by the palatal bones, in front and at the sides by the alveolar arches and gums, being lined by mucous membrane; behind it is continuous with the soft palate. It supports the tongue in eating, speaking, and swallowing.
The soft palate is a movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. It consists of mucous membranes, nerves, and muscles, and forms a sort of partition between the mouth and the hinder nostrils. Its upper border is attached to the posterior margin of the hard palate; its lower border is free. The uvula hang's from the middle of its lower border, and on each side are two curved folds of mucous membrane called the arches or pillars of the soft palate. Between these on either side of the pharynx are the two glandular bodies known as tonsils. The upper surface of the soft palate is convex, the lower surface is concave with a median ridge, the latter pointing to the early or embryo stage of its formation, when it consists of two distinct parts. Non-union of these halves and of those of the hard palate constitutes the deformity known as cleft palate, often associated with hare-lip.
Glands are abundant in the soft palate, secreting the mucus which serves to lubricate the throat during the passage of food. The soft palate comes into action in swallowing, and also in speaking, being of great importance in the utterance of certain sounds.
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The palatine bones consist of a vertical part and a horizontal plate and make up part of the orbital floor, the nasal cavity, and the back part of the palate. The two palatine bones are joined at the palate at the median palatine suture. Each bone is pierced by one greater palatine foramen and two lesser palatine foramina. Each palatine bone is also articulated with the vomer, and the conjunction of these bones forms the posterior nasal spine. The vertical portions of each palatine bone articulate with the inferior nasal concha and the ethmoid bone. The horizontal plates of the palatine bones also join the two palatine processes of the maxilla bones, at the transverse palatine suture.
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The palatine processes are the lower wings of the maxilla which form the two halves of the forward palate. The connection of the two palatine processes is marked with the median palatine suture, which sometimes may be felt by the tongue as a ridge in the roof of the mouth. The palatine processes connect to the palatine bones, which form the posterior plates in the palate.
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The palatine tonsils (tonsilla palatina), are two prominent, rounded bodies of lymphatic tissue, located on each side of the tongue at the back of the mouth in the pharynx. They lie beneath the mucous membrane lining mouth and are closely associated with the soft palate. They vary in size in different individuals and are a small part of the body's protection against infection. The tonsils are composed of lymphoid tissue, which contains germ-killing cells. When they become infected, they become inflamed in a condition known as tonsillitis. The tonsils and adenoids are two pairs of organs that seem to give more trouble than service to the body.
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The palatoglossal arch is created by the connection of the plato-glossal muscle to the upper region of the tongue and the rear of the palate.
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The palatoglossus muscle (glossopalatinus) originates from the soft palate and inserts on the side of the tonge. Humans have one on each side of the tongue. The two palatoglossus muscles work together to raise the back of the tongue. These two muscle are innervated by the pharyngeal plexus. The genioglossus, the styloglossus, the
palatoglossus and the hyoglossus work together to move the tongue.
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The palatopharyngeal arches are located near the uvulae and palate. On each side of the base of the uvulae are two curved folds of mucous membrane called the palatopharyngeal arches.
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The palatopharyngeus muscle (pharyngopalatinus) originates from the soft palate and inserts into the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage. This muscle depresses the soft palate and raises the pharynx and larynx. It is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus.
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The palmar arch, as its name implies, crosses the palm of the hand. There are two branches: a superficial and a deep. The deep palmar arch is formed by the continuation of the radial artery and a branch of the ulnar artery. It supplies the palm of the hand, principally the deep muscles of the hand, thumb, and index finger. The superficial palmar arch is a continuation of the ulnar artery and connects with the radial artery supplying the carpal extremities of the metacarpal bones (the fingers).
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The palmar interossei consists of three small muscles that help bend the fingers. The first muscle originates from the second metacarpal bone and inserts into the ulnar side of the index finger. The second muscle originates from the fourth metacarpal bone and inserts into the radial side of the little finger. The third muscle originates from the fifth metacarpal bone and also inserts into the radial side of the little finger. The muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve and supplied by the palmar metacarpal artery, which is a part of the palmar arch.
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The deep and superficial palmar veins follow the path of the palmar arteries, crossing the palm and connecting with the ulnar vein and the radial vein.
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The palmaris brevis muscle works in conjunction with the palmaris longus muscle to bend the hand at the wrist. It is a short muscle that originates from the palmar aponeurosis on the ulnar side of the hand and inserts into the skin on the same side of the hand. This muscle is innervated by the ulnar nerve and supplied by superficial palmar branches of the ulnar artery. This muscle wrinkles the skin on the medial side of the palm.
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The palmaris longus is a short, narrow muscle that originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and converges into a long, slender, slightly flattened tendon that inserts in the flexor retinaculum of the wrist. It is innervated by the median nerve and supplied by the ulnar artery. This muscle bends the hand at the wrist.
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Palpation is a medical examination conducted by touch.
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Palsy is a medical term for full or partial paralaysis with involuntary tremors.
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Pamocil is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Pamoxicillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Pamoxin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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The pancreas is an elongated secreting gland which lies transversely across the back wall of the abdomen, behind the stomach. It secretes pancreatic juice, which contains ferments necessary for digestion and the absorption of proteins, fats and starches. Insulin is also secreted.
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The pancreatic ducts allow transport of pancreatic fluids from the many lobules of the pancreas to the duodenum of the intestine. The primary pancreatic duct, also called the canal of Wirsung, is the main duct which accepts contributions of fluid from the many tributary ducts leading from these lobules. An accessory pancreatic duct is occasionally found to branch off of the primary pancreatic duct in the neck of the pancreas and opens into the duodenum about three centimeters above the opening of the primary pancreatic duct.
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Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, which may occur as an acute, painful attack, or it may be a chronic condition resulting in gradual symptoms over a long time. Pancreatitis is caused by a buildup of digestive enzymes within the pancreas. Chronic pancreatis often follows long-term excessive alcohol consumption.
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Pandemic refers to a disease affecting persons over a wide geographical area, that is an extensively epidemic disease.
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Pannus is an opaque, inflamed membrane spreading over the front of the eye. It is a complication of trachoma, and obscures vision.
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Panophobia (pantophobia) is the fear of everything.
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Panthophobia is the fear of disease.
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Pantophobia is the fear of fears.
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Papaphobia is the fear of Pope.
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The interdental papilla are the small projections of fleshy tissue between the teeth in the dental arch. These protruding portions of gingeva can often be pulled away from the tooth quite easily, as when cleaning the teeth, resulting in mild bleeding.
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Papillae is the name applied in physiology to small or minute processes protruding from the surface of the skin, or of membranes generally, and which may possess either a secretory or other function. The human, skin exhibits numerous papillae, with divided or single extremities, and through which the sense of touch is chiefly exercised. The papillee of the tongue are important in connection with the sense of taste.
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A papilloma is a benign tumour of the skin or of a mucous membrane, especially in the nasal cavity or the uterus. It consists of overgrown and thickened epidermis or epithelium and manifests itself as a wart, corn, polyp, or condyloma.
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A papule is a spot, or blemish, that is raised above the surrounding skin.
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Papyrophobia is the fear of paper.
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In medicine, parabiosis is a natural physical union of two individuals so that they share a common blood circulation. Co-joined twins are an example of parabiosis. The term is also given to an artificially induced union for experimental or therapeutic purposes.
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Parabolin is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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Paracentesis thoracis is a simple procedure in which a needle is introduced through an intercostal space in order to withdraw pleural fluid for pathological examination or to relieve pressure on the lung. It is carried out under local anaesthesia and apart from syringes, needles and the anaesthetic solution, no special apparatus is required. Penicillin or other antiseptic solution may be injected at the end of the aspirating procedure. Paracentesis for the withdrawal of large pleural effusions requires the addition of a two-way tap or special aspiration apparatus. The ' Potain's' aspirator is sometimes used. For paracentesis following thoracic operations air-pressure adjustments are frequently necessary and an artificial pneumothorax apparatus is required. This machine measures the intra-pleural pressure in expiration and inspiration. Special needles are used for the induction or refill of pneumothorax to provide a connection for the pressure gauge. Following paracentesis there are two main risks: (a) the development of a haemothorax from inadvertent puncture of the lung surface, with subsequent bleeding. (b) surgical emphysema from an escape of air from the pleural space into the subcutaneous tissues.
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Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) is an analgesic. Over doses of Paracetamol can cause liver damage. Paracetamol was first used in medicine in 1893. However, it gained widespread use only after 1949, when scientists discovered that another popular drug, phenacetin, is converted to Paracetamol in the body. Paracetamol proved to be as effective as phenacetin but is less toxic.
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Paraesthesia is the medical term for an abnormal sensation resulting without external cause, such as a tingling or 'pins-and-needles' sensation. Paraesthesia is a common symptom associated with the compression or irritation of a nerve.
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Paralipophobia is the fear of neglecting duty.
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Paralytic discharge is the increased secretion from a gland resulting from the cutting of all of its nerves.
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Paraphimosis is the retraction of the foreskin in uncircumcised men behind the head of the penis that cannot be brought forward, resulting in severe swelling. It often requires an emergency cirumcision or partial circumcision.
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Paraphobia is the fear of sexual perversion.
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Paraplegia is paralysis of the lower half of the body, usually as the result of disease or injury of the spine.
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Parasitophobia is the fear of parasites.
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Paraskavedekatriaphobia is the fear of Friday the 13th.
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Parasomnias are activities such as walking, talking, and urinating which are associated with being awake but which occur during sleep. The most common parasomnia is sleepwalking which occurs more commonly in children than adults. In children, parasomnias are rarely treated, but in adults they are often treated with benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants.
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The parathyroid glands are small glands, usually four in number, embedded within the back of the thyroid. These glands produce the hormone parathormone, which regulates the level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood and bones. Parathormone tends to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood by increasing bone breakdown. This hormone has the opposite effect of calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) which is secreted by the thyroid gland. Calcium plays an important role in many metabolic processes; too much calcium (hypercalcemia) or too little calcium (tetany) can disrupt the normal function of the muscles and nerves. Parathormone functions to help maintain homeostasis of blood calcium. The body's cells are extremely sensitive to changing amounts of blood calcium.
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Paratyphoid fever is a disease resembling, but less severe than typhoid fever. It is characterised by chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea and is, caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella.
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Paregoric Elixir known also as the camphorated tincture of opium, is a solution of powdered opium, camphor, benzoic acid, and oil of anise. It was formerlt used as an anodyne and anti-spasmodic.
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The parietal bones are two of the flat cranial bones that form the roof and upper sides of the calvarium. The parietal bones are attached to each other by the sagittal suture which runs longitudinally along the roof of the skull, and both of the parietal bones are attached to the frontal bone by the coronal suture and to the occipital bone in back by the lambdoid suture. The intersection of the two parietal bones and the occipital bone is called the 'lambda' after its resemblance to that Greek letter. The sphenoid and temporal bones on each side of the skull are attached to the lower edge of the parietal bone by the squamous suture. Two ridges traverse the side of the parietal bone, extending to the frontal bone and forming a depression with the temporal fossa. These two ridges are called the superior and inferior temporal lines.
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The parietal eminences are the raised lines which mark the outer margin of the parietal bones.
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The pleura of the thorax are the serous membranes which enclose the upper chest cavity. The pleura enclose the lungs and protect them from friction against the wall of the thorax. It is formed of two layers - the visceral and parietal pleura - between which is lubricated by serous fluid. The parietal pleura is the exterior layer of this pulmonary pleural sac, which connects to the thorax wall, the mediastinal membrane, and the diaphragm muscle.
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Parkinson's disease (paralysis agitans or shaking palsy) is a progressive chronic disorder of the central nervous system characterised by impaired muscular coordination and tremor.
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The parotid fascia covers the parotid gland and lies just behind the masseteric fascia, which covers the masseteric muscle. Fascia covers muscles and attaches to the periosteum of bones.
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The parotid gland is the largest of the three salivary glands occuring on each side of the mouth. It lies on the side of the face immediately in front of the external ear. Its duct is about 5 cm long and opens into the mouth by a small orifice opposie the second molar tooth of the upper jaw.
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Parthenophobia is the fear of virgins or young girls.
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Parturiphobia is the fear of childbirth.
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Pasetocin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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The patella (kneecap) is a small bone of the knee joint which resembles an inverted teardrop. The patella is connected to the joint by the medial and patellar retinaculum ligaments and to the tuberosity of the tibia by the patellar ligament.
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A pathogen is any agent that can cause disease.
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Pathogenesis is the origin, development, and resultant effects of a disease.
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In medicine, the term pathological means relting to, involving or caused by disease.
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Pathology is the branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease.
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Pathophobia (nosophobia) is the fear of disease.
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Patroiophobia is the fear of heredity.
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Peccatophobia is the fear of sinning.
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The pectineus muscle lies on the front of the upper and middle part of thigh. It is a flat, quadrangular muscle that originates from the crest of the pubis and, to some extent, from the surface of the bone just in front of it. It inserts in the pectineal line of the femur. This muscle is innervated by the obturator and femoral nerves and supplied by branches of the posterior profunda femoris artery and the common femoral artery. The pectineus flexes and moves the thigh towards the body and rotates it toward the center.
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The pectoralis major muscle is located at the front of the thoracic cage. It is a thick, fan-shaped muscle and is divided into three parts that begin at the armpit and cover most of the front of the chest. The upper, or clavicular, part (clavicular head) originates from the clavicle. The lower, or sternocostal portion (sternocostal head), originates from the sternum and the costal cartilage of the first to sixth ribs. The abdominal portion originates from the external oblique muscle. The three portions unite, covering a wide area and then narrowing to insert into the crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle is innervated by the anterior thoracic nerve and supplied by the thoracic artery. This muscle is used when you bring your arms across the chest, raise and lower the arms and to rotate the arms. The clavicular portion will raise the arm, while the sternocostal portion will pull it down.
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The pectoralis minor originates from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs and inserts into the tip of the corocoid process of the scapula. This muscle works with the pectoralis major muscle to bring your arms across the chest, raise and lower the arms and to rotate the arms. This muscle is innervated by the anterior thoracic nerve and is supplied by the lateral thoracic artery.
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The bones of the toes (and fingers) are known as phalanges. Each toe has three phalanges, with the exception of the large toe, which has only two. The phalanges are referred to by their position with respect to the body when the foot is extended. The bones at the ends of the toes, because they are the most distant from the body, are the distal phalanges. The next are the middle phalanges (which the large toe does not have). Those articulating with the metatarsals of the foot are the proximal phalanges. The ends of each phalanx are somewhat bulbous at the site of articulation with other bones. These prominences also serve as sites of attachment for phalangeal ligaments.
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Pediculophobia is the fear of lice.
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Pediophobia is the fear of dolls.
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The pedis lumbricals are four small lumbrical muscles that are associated with the tendons between the four small toes. The first muscle originates from the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle on the tibial side of the second toe. The second, third, and fourth lumbricals originate from adjacent sides of the four tendons of the lexor digitorum longus muscle. They insert into the extensor tendons of the four toes. The lumbrical muscles are innervated by the lateral and medial plantar nerves and are supplied by the plantar artery. These muscles work with the tendons to flex the corresponding digital joint.
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Pedophobia is the fear of children.
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Peladophobia is the fear of bald people.
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Pellagra (commonly known as Mal de la Rosa, Mal Rosso, Alpine Scurvy, Asturian Rose, or Psilosis Pigmentosa) is a non-contagious disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid or niacin) in the diet, common among people where maize is the staple food, but also among poor peoples in Europe, Africa, Asia and North America. Pellagra is generally endemic and slowly evolves. It is characterised by burning or itching often followed by scaling of the skin, inflammation of the tongue and mouth, diarrhoea, and manic depression. In particular, patients exhibit a rash around the neck which resembles a rosary, from whence pellagra obtains its popular names. The symptoms usually reoccur each year in the same season, usually during the spring but sometimes autumn. The first authentic case of pellagra in Great Britain was reported in 1866, a second in 1906 and a third in 1909. In 1914 the first case in Canada was reported, and in 1920 an outbreak was reported in Nanking, China. During the Great War many Turkish troops and Armenian refugees developed the disease.
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A pellagrin is a person affected by pellagra.
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Pellagrophobia is the fear of pellagra.
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In medicine, the term pellagrose refers to a part of the body affected by pellagrin.
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The pelvis creates the basin of the lower abdominal cavity. It is formed by three separate bones which become fused: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. The ilium is the broad, wing-like segment which features the wide, slightly concave surfaces of the back and sides of the pelvic girdle. The ischium forms the smaller, lower, portion which bears the weight of the body while sitting. The pubis creates an archway in the front of the basin which allows the urethra, blood vessels, and nerves to pass through the pelvic girdle to the external genitalia and lower body. The pelvis articulates with the sacrum in the back (and thereby connects to the rest of the vertebral column) and to the legs through the ball- and-socket joint formed by the two acetabula of the
pelvis and the head of each femur.
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Pemphigus is a name given to a group of blistering skin diseases, and particularly to a potentially fatal form (pemphigus vulgaris) which is characterised by large blisters on the skin, mucous membranes of the mouth, genitals, intestines, etc., which eventually rupture and form painful denuded areas from which critical amounts of bodily protein, fluid, and blood may be lost.
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Penamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Penbiosyn is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Peniaphobia is the fear of poverty.
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The penis is the male genital organ which carries the duct for the emission of sperm, and ejection of urine. In mammals it is comprised mainly of erectile tissue, many mammals (including most primates, rodents and others) except humans having in addition a bone (known as the baculum bacula or os Penis) in the penis to allow instant arousal, or erection, to facilitate penetration of the female for the transference of the sperm, humans lacking this bone require to be aroused in order to be able to copulate.
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Penis envy is a theory postulated by Sigmund Freud to explain various behavioural characteristics of women. Today, most psychologists consider the concept of women being jealous of men for possessing a penis to be laughable at best, and like almost all Freud's theories this one was never substantiated by verifiable supporting evidence.
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Penmox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Pensyn is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate is an anti-anginal drug used to reduce the frequency and severity of angina attacks.
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Pentheraphobia is the fear of mother-in-laws.
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A peptic ulcer is a chronic sore or crater extending through the protective mucous membrane lining and penetrating the underlying muscular tissue of the gastrointestinal tract. The areas most commonly affected are the upper part of the duodenum, the stomach. The cause of peptic ulcers is largely unknown, but stress is known to be a contributor in some cases.
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Perception is the ability to observe and understand, particularly intuitively.
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Percorten acetate is a brand name for the adrenal gland hormone drug desoxycorticosterone acetate.
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In medicine, percussion is that method of diagnosis which consists in striking gently on the surface of one of the cavities of the body, and then endeavouring to ascertain from the sound produced the condition of the organ lying beneath. Percussion is most frequently used on the chest, but it is also occasionally applied to the cavity of the abdomen, the head, etc.
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A percussor or plexor is a tool like a hammer with a rubber head which is used in medicine to tap the body lightly to evaluate the size, borders, and consistency of internal organs or body cavities.
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A percutaneous nephroscope is a thin fiberoptic medical device that is inserted into the kidney through a skin incision to allow inspection of the inside of the kidney and the removal of small kidney stones.
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The Perez reflex is the normal response of an infant that includes crying, moving the arms and legs, and holding up the head and hips when it is on its back and a finger is pressed along the spine from the lower back to the neck. The Perez reflex is used to test for possible brain damage, the reflex usually ceasing at about six months of age.
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Perfluorocarbons are a group of chemicals that act somewhat like red blood cells by carrying oxygen through the blood vessels. They are sometimes used as artificial blood to substitute for real blood and can be used regardless of the patient's blood type.
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The pericardium is the outer membrane which surrounds the heart muscle. It is in contact with the pulmonary pleura and is connected to the diaphragm muscle by tendinous fibres.
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The periformis (piriformis; pyriformis) is a flat, pyramid shaped muscle lying partly in the pelvis and partly at the back of the hip joint. The muscle originates from the sacrum, passes through the sacrosciate foramen, and inserts as a round tendon into the upper edge of the great trochanter of the femur. It is innervated by the sciatic plexus and supplied by the internal iliac artery. This muscle helps rotate the thigh towards the side.
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The periodonteum (or periodontal membrane) is a layer of connective tissue around a tooth which helps anchor it in the alveolus. The periodonteum is similar to the supportive periosteal membrane in bones, as it carries the nerves and blood vessels which supply nourishment to the pulp cavity of the tooth.
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Periodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with diseases affecting the tissues and structures that surround teeth.
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The periosteum is the tough, vascular membrane which covers the surface of a bone, except for the articular cartilage. The periosteum contains the blood vessels which supply nutrients to the bones enabling them to regenerate. The bones of the skull feature no such periosteum, and so cannot regenerate themselves. The periosteum also facilitates the regeneration of bone by serving as a confining membrane for the deposition of new bone cells, insuring that any regeneration of osseous material is added to the pre-existing bone.
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The peritoneum is a complex, serous membrane lining the lower abdominal cavity. Its function is to provide a lubricating surface against which the viscera may move so that they are not damaged by friction. In the male body, the peritoneum is predominately a closed, sac-like structure, while in the female, the fallopian tubes penetrate the peritoneum. The peritoneum contains the lesser cavity at the upper abdomen, near the stomach and transverse colon. The duplicating folds of the peritoneum are called omenta. The greater omentum is the largest of these and hangs down from the stomach over the small intestine. The greater omentum is composed of highly vascularized and innervated fatty tissue, protecting the lower viscera from shock and infection.
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The peroneal artery is one of the three branches of the popliteal artery. The anterior and posterior tibial ateries form the other two branches.
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The peroneal nerves include the common (peroneus communis), superficial (peroneus superficialis), and deep peroneal (peroneus profundus) nerves. Originating in the sciatic nerves, which branch off of the spinal cord between the fourth lumbar and third sacral vertebrae, these nerves extend to the calf muscles, the skin of the top of the foot, and the toes.
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The peroneal veins are small branches from the lower legs that join the posterior tibial vein, which accompanies the posterior tibial artery as it ascends along the leg.
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The peroneous brevis (fibularis brevis) is a flat, elongated muscle located on the outside of the lower half of the leg. It lies just below the peroneus longus muscle, originating from the lower surface of the fibula (lower leg bone) and inserting in the base of the metatarsal bone of the little toe. It is innervated by the peroneal nerves and supplied by the peroneal artery. This muscle works with the peroneus longus to extend the foot.
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The peroneus longus (fibular muscle) is a superficial muscle that runs along the upper part of the outside of the leg. It originates from the upper shaft of the fibula and lateral condyle of the tibia (lower leg bones), descends across the outer side of the calcaneum , crosses the sole of the foot and is inserted in the cuniform and the outer side of the base of the metatarsal bone of the big toe. The peroneus longus is innervated by the peroneal nerves and supplied by the peroneal artery. This muscle works with the peroneus brevis to extend the foot.
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The peroneus tertius (fibularis tertius) lies against the peroneus brevis muscle. It is connected to the extensor digitorum longus, and often considered a part of it. The
peroneus tertius originates from the lower third of the fibula (lower leg bone) and the adjacent interosseous membrane and continues downward and slightly forward, across the ankle, where it tapers into a narrow, flat tendon that passes over the extensor digitorum brevis and inserts into the fifth metatarsal bone (little toe). It is innervated by deep branches of the peroneal nerves and supplied by branches of the peroneal artery. This muscle lifts the foot.
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Pertussin ES is a trade name for dextromethorphan hydrochloride
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A pessary is a vaginal suppository.
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The petrosquamous fissure, or suture, denotes the margins of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the squamous part. The squamous part is the anterior section, which comprises most of the glenoid fossa. The petrous part is the posterior section, which forms the rear portion of the glenoid fossa and the frontal wall of the tympanum and external auditory meatus.
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The petrous part of the skull is a small bony process located between the sphenoid and occipital bones. It projects inward slightly and serves to house and protect the inner auditory structures.
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Phagophobia is the fear of swallowing.
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Phalacrophobia is the fear of becoming bald.
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The bones of the fingers and toes are known as phalanges. Each finger has three phalanges, with the exception of the thumb, which has only two. The phalanges are referred to by their position with respect to the body when the hand is extended. The bones at the ends of the fingers, because they are the most distant from the body, are the distal phalanges. The next are the middle phalanges (which the thumb does not have). Those articulating with the metacarpals of the hand are the proximal phalanges. The ends of each phalanx are somewhat bulbous at the site of articulation with other bones. These prominences also serve as sites of attachment for phalangeal ligaments.
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Phallophobia is the fear of a penis, especially when erect.
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Pharmacophobia is the fear of drugs.
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A pharmacopoeia is a book containing the prescriptions for the preparation of medicines recognized by the general body of practitioners. Up until 1863 separate Pharmacopoeias were issued by the Colleges of Physicians of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin. After that a British Pharmacopoeia, issued by the medical council of the kingdom, was recognized by the whole medical profession of Great Britain. There was also an American pharmacopoeia, based on that of Britain. Since 1970 the British Pharmacopoeia is the official collection of standards for UK medicinal products and pharmaceutical substances and is produced by the British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.
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Pharmacum was an old term for a medicine used to treat a disease.
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Pharyngology is the branch of medical science concerned with the pharynx and its diseases.
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The pharynx is the upper portion of the airway and the digestive tract. It connects with openings into four general areas: the mouth cavity (at the back of the tongue), the nasal cavity, the larynx (which leads to the trachea), and the esophagus. In swallowing, the nasal part of the pharynx, the larynx, and the mouth cavity cooperate to shut off the airway so that the swallowed food isn't taken into the trachea.
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Phasmophobia is the fear of ghosts.
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Phenacetin is an acetyl derivative of amidophenol, occurring in small tasteless crystals. It was formerly used to relieve headache or neuralgia, and also to reduce the temperature of fevered patients, having much the same effect as antipyrin.
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Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative aesthetic and central nervous system stimulant. Which was formerly used as a human tranquilliser, discontinued in 1953 and as an animal tranquilliser, discontinued in 1979.
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Phengophobia is the fear of daylight or sunshine.
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Phenobarbital (Acro-lase, Barbidonna Elixir, Belladenal, Bellergal-S, Bronkotabs, Donnapine, Donnatal, Hyosophen, Kinesed, Levsin-PB, Lufyllin-EPG, Mudrane GG, Nembutal, Quadrinal, Rexatal, Solfoton Tedral) is an orally ingested or injected drug that depresses the sensory cortex, decreases motor activity, alters cerebellar function, and produces drowsiness, sedation and hypnosis. It is a respiratory depressant and ultimately, barbiturates interfere with the cortexs impulse transmission. It is used in medicine to reduce anxiety, nervous tension, and insomnia. Prevent seizures and convulsions and as a pre-operative medication
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Phenylbutazone is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.
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Philemaphobia is the fear of kissing.
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Philophobia is the fear of falling in love.
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Philosophobia is the fear of philosophy.
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Phlebotomy (from the Greek, phleps, phlebos, a vein, and temnein, to cut), is the act of letting blood by opening a vein; a method of treatment formerly applied to almost all diseases. Another mode of letting blood is by cupping or by the application of leeches. It has been one of the processes of the medical profession from the earliest times.
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A phobia is an intense and irrational fear of a given situation, organism, or object. A list of Some more common phobias:
- Acarophobia is the fear of itching.
- Acerophobia is the fear of sourness.
- Achluophobia (lygophobia) is the fear of darkness.
- Acousticophobia is the fear of sound.
- Acrophobia is the fear of being at a great height.
- Aerophobia is the fear of draughts.
- Agoraphobia is the fear of open spaces.
- Ailurophobia is the fear of cats.
- Algophobia is the fear of experiencing or witnessing bodily pain.
- Americophobia is the fear of American people and things.
- Androphobia is the fear of men.
- Anemophobia is the fear of wind.
- Anginophobia is the fear of narrowness.
- Anglophobia is the fear of Britain.
- Anthophobia is the fear of flowers.
- Anthropophobia is the fear of people.
- Antlophobia is the fear of floods.
- Apeirophobia is the fear of infinity.
- Apiphobia is the fear of bees.
- Aquaphobia is the fear of water, especially because of the possibility of drowning.
- Arachnophobia is the fear of spiders.
- Asthenophobia is the fear of weakness.
- Astraphobia (or astrophobia) is the fear of thunder and lightning.
- Atelophobia is the fear of imperfection.
- Atephobia is the fear of ruin.
- Autophobia (ermitophobia) is the fear of loneliness.
- Bacillophobia (microbiophobia) is the fear of microbes.
- Bacteriophobia is the fear of bacteria.
- Ballistophobia is the fear of bullets.
- Bathophobia is the fear of depth.
- Batophobia is the fear of high buildings.
- Batrachophobia is the fear of reptiles.
- Belonephobia is the fear of needles.
- Blennophobia is the fear of slime.
- Bromidrosiphobia is the fear of body odour.
- Brontophobia (tonitrophobia, keraunophobia) is the fear of thunder.
- Carcinophobia is the fear of cancer.
- Cardiophobia is the fear of heart disease.
- Cheimaphobia is the fear of cold.
- Chionophobia is the fear of snow.
- Chrematophobia is the fear of money.
- Chromophobia is the fear of colour.
- Chronophobia is the fear of time.
- Chrysophobia (aurophobia) is the fear of gold.
- Cibophobia (sitophobia) is the fear of food.
- Claustrophobia is the fear of being closed in or of being in a confined space.
- Clinophobia is the fear of bed.
- Cnidophobia is the fear of insect stings.
- Coitophobia is the fear of coitus.
- Cometophobia is the fear of comets.
- Coprophobia is the fear of faeces.
- Coprostasophobia is the fear of constipation.
- Cremnophobia is the fear of precipices or steep places.
- Cryophobia is the fear of ice.
- Cyberphobia is the fear of computers.
- Cymophobia is the fear of waves.
- Cynophobia is the fear of dogs.
- Demophobia (ochlophobia) is the fear of crowds.
- Dermatosiophobia (dermatopathophobia) is the fear of skin disease.
- Dikephobia is the fear of justice.
- Doraphobia is the fear of fur.
- Dysmorphophobia is the fear that one's body, or any part of it, is repulsive or may become so.
- Ecclesiophobia is the fear of church.
- Eisoptrophobia is the fear of mirrors.
- Electrophobia is the fear of electricity.
- Eleutherophobia is the fear of freedom.
- Emetophobia is the fear of vomiting.
- Enetophobia is the fear of pins.
- Entomophobia is the fear of insects.
- Eosophobia is the fear of dawn.
- Epistolophobia is the fear of writing letters.
- Ergophobia is the fear of doing work.
- Erotophobia is the fear of sex.
- Erythrophobia is the fear of blushing.
- Febriphobia is the fear of fever.
- Francophobia (Gallophobia) is the fear of French people and things.
- Gametophobia is the fear of marriage.
- Gephyrophobia is the fear of bridges.
- Germanophobia (Teutophobia) is the fear of German people and things.
- Geumatophobia is the fear of taste.
- Graphophobia is the fear of writing.
- Gynophobia is the fear of women.
- Hadephobia (stygiophobia) is the fear of hell.
- Haemophobia is the fear of blood.
- Hagiophobia is the fear of saints.
- Hamartophobia is the fear of sin.
- Haptophobia is the fear of touch.
- Harpaxophobia is the fear of robbers.
- Hedonophobia is the fear of pleasure.
- Heliophobia is the fear of sun.
- Helminthophobia is the fear of worms.
- Hierophobia is the fear of priests.
- Hippophobia is the fear of horses.
- Hodophobia is the fear of travel.
- Homichlophobia is the fear of fog.
- Homophobia is the fear of homosexuals and homosexuality.
- Hormephobia is the fear of shock.
- Hydrophobia is the fear of drinking liquids.
- Hydrophobophobia is the fear of rabies.
- Hygrophobia is the fear of dampness.
- Hypegiaphobia is the fear of responsibility.
- Hypnophobia is the fear of sleep.
- Ichthyophobia is the fear of fish.
- Iconophobia is the fear of religious works of art.
- Ideophobia is the fear of ideas.
- Italophobia is the fear of Italian people and things.
- Judaeophobia is the fear of Jewish people and things.
- Kakorrhaphiaphobia is the fear of failure.
- Katagelophobia is the fear of ridicule.
- Kenophobia is the fear of voids.
- Kinetophobia is the fear of motion.
- Kleptophobia is the fear of stealing.
- Koniophobia is the fear of dust.
- Kopophobia is the fear of fatigue.
- Lalophobia (glossophobia, phonophobia) is the fear of speech.
- Leprophobia is the fear of leprosy.
- Limnophobia is the fear of lakes.
- Linonophobia is the fear of string.
- Logophobia is the fear of words.
- Lyssophobia (maniphobia) is the fear of insanity.
- Mastigophobia is the fear of beating.
- Mechanophobia is the fear of machinery.
- Metallophobia is the fear of metal.
- Microphobia is the fear of small things.
- Monophobia is the fear of being alone.
- Musicophobia is the fear of music.
- Musophobia is the fear of mice.
- Mysophobia is the fear of dirt.
- Necrophobia is the fear of death or dead bodies.
- Negrophobia is the fear of Black people and things.
- Neophobia is the fear of novelty.
- Nephophobia is the fear of clouds.
- Nosophobia is the fear of illness.
- Nyctophobia is the fear of night.
- Ochlophobia is the fear of crowds.
- Ochophobia is the fear of vehicles.
- Odontophobia is the fear of teeth.
- Oikophobia is the fear of home.
- Olfactophobia (osmophobia) is the fear of smell.
- Ommetaphobia is the fear of eyes.
- Onomatophobia is the fear of names.
- Ophidiophobia is the fear of snakes.
- Ornithophobia is the fear of birds.
- Paedophobia is the fear of children.
- Panophobia (pantophobia) is the fear of everything.
- Papaphobia is the fear of Pope.
- Parasitophobia is the fear of parasites.
- Pathophobia (nosophobia) is the fear of disease.
- Patroiophobia is the fear of heredity.
- Pediculophobia is the fear of lice.
- Peniaphobia is the fear of poverty.
- Phagophobia is the fear of swallowing.
- Pharmacophobia is the fear of drugs.
- Phasmophobia is the fear of ghosts.
- Philosophobia is the fear of philosophy.
- Phobophobia is the fear of fear.
- Photophobia is the fear of sunlight and well-lit places.
- Phronemophobia is the fear of thinking.
- Phthisiophobia is the fear of tuberculosis.
- Pinaciphobia (katastichophobia) is the fear of lists.
- Pogonophobia is the fear of beards.
- Poinephobia is the fear of punishment.
- Politicophobia is the fear of politics.
- Potamophobia is the fear of rivers.
- Potophobia is the fear of drink.
- Pteronophobia is the fear of feathers.
- Pyrophobia is the fear of fire.
- Rhabdophobia is the fear of magic.
- Russophobia is the fear of Russians.
- Satanophobia is the fear of Satan.
- Scabiophobia is the fear of scabies.
- Sciophobia is the fear of shadows.
- Scotophobia (nyctophobia) is the fear of the dark.
- Siderodromophobia is the fear of rail travel.
- Siderophobia is the fear of stars.
- Sinophobia is the fear of Chinese people and things.
- Spermophobia (bacteriophobia) is the fear of germs.
- Stasophobia is the fear of standing.
- Symmetrophobia is the fear of symmetry.
- Syphilophobia is the fear of venereal disease.
- Tachophobia is the fear of speed.
- Taphephobia is the fear of being buried alive.
- Technophobia is the fear of technology.
- Telephonophobia is the fear of telephones.
- Teratophobia is the fear of giving birth to a monster.
- Teratrophobia is the fear of monsters.
- Thalassophobia is the fear of sea.
- Thanatophobia is the fear of death.
- Thassophobia is the fear of idleness.
- Theophobia is the fear of God.
- Thermophobia is the fear of heat.
- Tocophobia is the fear of childbirth.
- Topophobia is the fear of places.
- Toxiphobia is the fear of poison.
- Traumatophobia is the fear of injury.
- Trichophobia is the fear of hair.
- Triskaidekaphobia is the fear of the number thirteen.
- Trypanophobia (vaccinophobia) is the fear of inoculation.
- Tyrannophobia is the fear of tyrants.
- Uranophobia is the fear of heaven.
- Xenophobia is the fear of foreigners.
- Zelotypophobia is the fear of jealousy.
- Zoophobia is the fear of animals.
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Phobophobia is the fear of fear.
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Phonophobia is the fear of noises or voices.
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Photoaugliaphobia is the fear of glaring lights.
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Photophobia is the fear of sunlight and well-lit places.
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Phototherapy is the use of light in the treatment of disease. It is particularly effective in the treatment of seasonal depression caused by short winter days.
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The phrenic nerve originates in the upper half of the spinal cord, between the third and fifth cervical vertebrae, and extends to innervate the diaphragm muscle. It is responsible for transmitting the nerve impulses to the diaphragm which cause it to contract and expand, facilitating breathing.
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Phronemophobia is the fear of thinking.
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Phthiriophobia is the fear of lice.
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Phthisiophobia is the fear of tuberculosis.
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Phthsis is a name for any disease that causes wasting of the body, but the term is especially applied to pulmonary tuberculosis.
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Physostigmine or eserine is an alkaloid extracted from the calabar bean. It is used for the relief of tetanus. It acts upon the third cranial nerve affecting the eye causing contraction of the pupil and is therefore used in the relief of ocular tension.
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Physotigmine is an alkaloid derived from the Calabar Bean. It has little effect on the cerebrum, but acts strongly on the vital centres in the medulla, and on the spinal cord where it produces feebleness of muscular movement, and slightly affects sensation. It was used in medicine where it was given to relieve tetanus and to antagonise the action of atropine and to relieve ocular tension.
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The pia mater is the thin, compact membrane covering the brain and spinal cord which carries blood vessels which supply the central nervous system.
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PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) is an inflammation of a woman's womb, Fallopian tubes, or ovaries as a result of infection with one of a group of bacteria.
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A piestrum was a former instrument used in aiding childbirth. Bailey, writing in 1749, describes a piestrum as: 'an instrument to beat in pieces the bones of the head in drawing the child out of the womb'.
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Pilocarpine is an alkaloid obtained from the dried leaves of Pilocarpus pinnatifolius, a South American plant of the order Rutaceae (rue). It is a very powerful drug, and acts as an antidote in cases of poisoning by belladonna.
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Pinaciphobia (katastichophobia) is the fear of lists.
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The function of the pineal body, or gland, within the midbrain is not fully understood. It is generally believed to be a vestigial sensory organ which is incompletely developed in the modern anatomy.
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Pinigerophobia is the fear of smothering.
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Pinta (mal de pinto) is a tropical infectious skin disease caused by the bacterium Treponema carateumand. It is characterised by the formation of papules and loss of pigmentation in circumscribed areas.
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Piramox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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The Piriformis is a muscle in the human hip.
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The pisiform bone is one of the eight carpal bones which constitute each wrist. This bone, also called the lentiform, is so named because its shape resembles a bean or pea. It is located on the ulnar side of the wrist, in the proximal row of carpal bones.
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The pituitary gland (or hypophysis),is a gland within the brain concerned with regulating growth and regulating other ductless glands. The pituitary gland , consists of three lobes, the anterior lobe, the intermediate lobe, which in primates is present for only a short part of the life span, and the posterior lobe. It is situated at the base of the brain and has been called the master controlling gland of the body. The anterior and the posterior lobes of the pituitary secrete different hormones. The anterior lobe secretes various hormones that stimulate the function of other endocrine glands, for example, adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal cortex; thyroid- stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin, known as TSH; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulate the sex glands; and prolactin, which, with other special hormones, influences milk production of the mammary gland.
In addition, the anterior pituitary is the source of growth hormone, also called somatotropin, which promotes the development of body tissues, particularly of bone matrix and muscle, and influences carbohydrate metabolism. The anterior pituitary also secretes a hormone called melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which regulates the intensity of pigmentation in pigmented cells. In the 1970s scientists found that the anterior pituitary also produces substances called endorphins. These are peptides that act on the peripheral and central nervous systems to reduce sensitivity to pain. The hypothalamus, secretes an antidiuretic hormone named vasopressin, which is stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The posterior lobe of the pituitary also stores another hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. This hormone, known as oxytocin, stimulates muscular contractions, especially of the uterus, and ejection of milk from lactating mammary glands. Not long ago it was found that secretion of three anterior pituitary hormones is under regulation of the hypothalamus: thyrotropin secretion is stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), and luteinizing- hormone secretion by luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Release of growth hormone is inhibited by somatostatin, which is also made by the pancreas.
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The placenta is the structure which, in the higher Mammalia, connects the foetus, or unborn embryo, with the circulation of the mother, thus providing for its due nutrition. In its most typical form it is only met with in the higher Mammalia, which are therefore called placental mammals, while the lower Mammalia are termed implacental or aplacental, from their wanting a placenta;
the latter include only the two orders Monotremata and Marsupialia. Curtain analogous structures also exist in connection with the development of the young of some species of sharks and dog-fishes.
The human placenta presents the most perfect type, and is a special growth on the part both of the womb and the ovum. By the end of pregnancy it forms a disc-like mass, measuring 7.5 inches across, 0.75 inches thick, and weighing about 20 ounces. Connected with it near the middle is the umbilical cord, by means of which the growing embryo is attached to the placenta. Through the placenta and the umbilical cord the blood of the embryo comes into close communication with the blood of the mother, by means of which its purity and nourishing qualities are maintained, and the requisite supply of material furnished for the embryo's continued life and growth. At the end of pregnancy the placenta is thrown off as the after-birth, after the child itself has been expelled.
The human placenta is formed from the chorionic villi, small finger-like projections that cover the outer cells of the blastocyst. After implantation of the fertilized ovum, the chorionic villi burrow into the lining of the uterus seeking nourishment; those which have penetrated deepest erode some of the small uterine blood vessels and become bathed in the mother's blood. At this point the burrowing stops and the villi start to multiply and form branches. It is these villi which form the basis of the placenta. The placenta is responsible for the transfer of nourishment from the mother to the fetus, and of the waste products the fetus produces to the mother so that they can be excreted. Two layers of cells keep the fetal circulation in the placenta separate from the maternal blood. Through these cells the vital exchange function of the placenta takes place. Carbon dioxide, waste products and hormones pass from the fetus to the mother. Oxygen, nutrients and hormones are transferred in the opposite direction. The placenta also acts as a barrier to protect the fetus against potentially harmful substances.
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Placentitis is an inflammation of the placenta, a disease which occurs acute or chronic, more frequently the latter. It may result from a blow, fall, fright, sudden and violent emotion, and other serious shocks to the system. The foetus is injuriously affected, and may be destroyed by it; abortion frequently results, and at almost all stages of pregnancy.
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Placophobia is the fear of tombstones.
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The plantar interossei of the foot is composed of three small muscles that help you bend your toes. The muscles originate from the third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal bones and insert on the proximal phalanges of the third, fourth, and fifth toes. The muscles are innervated by the lateral plantar nerve and supplied by the plantar artery.
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The plantaris (tibialis gracilis) is a very small muscle that lies between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. It originates from the supracondylar ridge at the lower end of the femur (upper leg bone) and extends to a small area on the bottom of the calcaneum where it inserts with the Achillis tendon. The belly of the muscle is about three or four inches in length and tapers into a long, slender tendon that crosses between the two muscles of the calf and continues to the calcaneus. The plantaris is innervated by the tibial nerve and supplied by the posterior tibial artery. This muscle works with the gastrocnemius to extend the ankle if the foot is free and bend the knee if the foot is fixed, as when walking.
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Plasma, made of about 92% water, is the blood's solvent. It is the liquid part of the blood, or blood minus cells, containing proteins, minerals, and salts. Its main components are the three proteins: albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen, all of which are manufactured by the liver. These three proteins circulate in plasma and act as carriers for small molecules. Salts, minerals, sugars, fats, and proteins, all important nutrients, are transported through plasma. All of the chemicals needed by cells to stay alive are brought to them by the blood. At the same time, bicarbonates in the plasma act as a filter to remove poisonous waste to the kidneys. Albumin, the most plentiful, is similar to egg whites and gives blood its gummy texture. The globulins, three in number: alpha, beta, and gamma, transport certain proteins. They number half the albumin proteins found in plasma. Gamma globulins are the antibodies of the blood, giving immunity to disease. Only 3% of plasma is made up of fibrinogen. It is an important link in the chain of reactions that leads to blood clotting. It forms a web of fine protein fibres that bind blood cells together, creating a bridge over which injured tissue can rebuild itself while blood continues to flow underneath.
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Plasters are applications of local remedies to any part of the surface of the body by means of a supporting texture, originally of leather, silk or other cloth, or merely of paper more commonly now of cloth or plastic. Plasters may be intended to give protection, support, or warmth, or they may be actively medicinal. In the Victorian period the materials most frequently used in plasters were belladonna, cantharides, galbanum, isinglass, lead, mercury, opium, pitch, reain, iron, and soap, and their adhesive property was generally due to the combination of oxide of lead with fatty acids.
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Platelets are tiny specialized cells that are activated whenever blood clotting or repair to a vessel is necessary. Although they are often called cells, they are really fragments of other cells. They are made in bone marrow and are much smaller than red blood cells. A drop of blood contains some 15 million platelets. When a blood vessel is cut, platelets rush to the vessel and swell into odd, irregular shapes, grow sticky and clog at the cut, creating a plug. If the cut is too large for platelets, they send out signals to initiate clotting by releasing a hormone called serotonin, which stimulates blood vessels to contract thus reducing the flow of blood. Clotting is fundamentally a change of the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen into an insoluble, thread-like protein, called fibrin. More than a dozen factors are involved in this conversion. The fibrin strands mesh around the blood cells and then contract, squeezing a clear yellowish fluid called serum, and forming a solid clot. Clotting staunches bleeding and creates a scaffold on which to build new tissue.
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The platysma (platysma myoides) muscle is a broad, thin sheet of muscle that originates in the pectoral and deltoid muscles and runs upward over the collar bone and inward along each side of the neck and in the skin near the mandible. It is innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by branches of the internal carotid artery. This muscle works to draw the lower lips and corner of the mouth sideways and down partially opening the mouth. It is used when expressing surprise, fear, or horror. It also increases the diameter of the neck as seen during intense breathing from fast running.
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Pleural effusion is used to indicate the accumulation of any fluid within the pleural space. An effusion is described as 'clear' 'blood-stained' or 'turbid' according to its appearance when it has been aspirated. It may occur from inflammation of the pleura, especially in tuberculosis; the quantity of fluid may be so great that a lung is completely compressed and the hemi-thorax is filled with fluid right up to the clavicle. Pleural effusion may occur in heart failure or be produced from inflammation below the diaphragm in such conditions as subphrenic abscess, liver abscess, perinephric abscess or cholecystitis. The presence of a pleural effusion is detected by clinical examination of the chest and its extent is demonstrated by x-ray. Apart from thoracic surgery, pleural effusion may occur in surgical patients as the result of post-operative pneumonia or more commonly from the inflammation produced by small infarcts in the lung. These infarcts themselves have arisen from pulmonary embolism. The presence of a pleural effusion is common if there is malignant disease in the thorax, either a primary carcinoma of the lung or secondary deposits from some other organ such as the breast or the stomach. It is not uncommon for such effusions, secondary to malignant disease, to need repeated aspiration.
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Plica (Plica polonica) also known as 'Polish plait', from its supposed origins in Poland, is a disease of the hair in which it becomes twisted and matted together.
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Plicidentine is a form of dentine characterised by sinuous lines of structure shown in a transverse section of the tooth.
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Plutophobia is the fear of wealth.
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Pluviophobia is the fear of rain or of being rained on.
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Pneumatic cure is a mode of treatment successfully practised as a remedy for certain diseases, especially emphysema, bronchial catarrh, and asthma. It consists in causing the patient to breathe condensed atmospheric air instead of air at the ordinary pressure, the result-being that the difficulty of breathing is reduced, and the most delicate air-passages of the lungs can be inflated with much more ease than in the open air.
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Pneumatiphobia is the fear of spirits.
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pneumoconiosis is a term describing a group of occupational diseases supposedly caused by the inhalation of noxious dusts while at work.
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Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung due to infection. Pneumonia is a serious disease, in which more or less of one or both lungs is affected, and which may be complicated in various ways. In its ordinary form the blood-vessels of the affected part of the lung are engorged with blood, especially the blood-vessels in the walls of the air-cells of the lung, and also the vessels in the walls of the passages and fine bronchial tubes communicating with them. The pressure of the blood in the vessels causes serum to ooze from them and enter the cells and passages. As the inflammation continues other constituents of the blood escape, that is fibrin and blood-corpuscles. This material completely expels the air from the affected portion of the lung, which thus becomes heavy and solid, the material forming a gelatinous mass in the air-cells.
In the next stage of the disease the inflammatory material breaks down into matter which is more liquid and may be expelled from the air cavities and cells, so that being coughed up and spat out the air regains admission to the cells and cavities. If the course of the case has been favourable the affected portion of the lung is after a time quite restored to its former activity and usefulness. Three stages in the disease are usually recognized: the first is that of congestion or engorgement; the second is that of red hepatization, so called because the solidified part of the lung looks like a piece of liver while the third is grey (or yellow} hepatization, the change in colour being due to the breaking down of the contents of the air-cells. The right lung is attacked twice as often as the left; generally it is the lower parts of the lungs that suffer; and both lungs are not often inflamed at the same time.
In the typical form a whole lobe of the lung is inflamed, usually the lower lobe, but the upper lobes may also be affected. Hence the term lobar pneumonia has been used in distinction from lobular pneumonia, which attacks the lungs in patches, separated by healthy lung tissue. The latter is more common among children than among adults, and is also called catarrhal pneumonia, being frequently the termination of catarrh or cold in the chest. Lobar pneumonia is also called croupous, from being characterized by the fibrinous material that is poured into the air-cells.
In most cases there is some amount of bronchitis, and there may also be pleurisy, that part of the pleura which is in contact with the inflamed portion of the lung suffering with it. When the pleurisy is marked this affection is called pleuro-pneumonia. Pneumonia often fails to run a favourable course, and may have a fatal termination, due to the extent and violence of the attack, or to weakness, the heart being especially liable to fail, owing to the extra work thrown upon it in urging the blood through the obstructed lung.
Prior to about 1900 pneumonia was believed to be commonly caused by exposure to cold, often through a sudden change of temperature. It was also thought to arise from extension of inflammation from the pleurae or the bronchial tubes. Thus it was thought that a neglected cold may end in pneumonia. Drinking a quantity of cold water when overheated was also thought to bring it on. But after 1905 the belief prevalent was that although there may be lowering of the system favourable to its onset (immuno-deficency), it is really an infectious disease due to a special microbe or bacillus (pneumococcus or diplococcus), and that, like other fevers, it has to run its destined course.
Occasionally it seems to prevail almost as an epidemic. The attack usually begins with fever, preceded by shivering, and the temperature may rise to 104 or 105 degrees. In twenty-four hours or so the nature of the disease is shown by pain in the chest, rapid pulse, rapid shallow breathing, and cough, at first dry, afterwards attended by a rust-coloured spit. Other symptoms are flushed face, headache, skin dry and hot, furred tongue, loss of appetite, eruption of watery blisters on the lips, and delirium is an occasional and always a serious symptom. Recovery should begin about the fifth or seventh day by the disappearance of fever, and the disease usually runs its course in about a fortnight, though it may prove fatal in a few days.
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Pnigophobia is the fear of choking or being smothered.
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Pocrescophobia is the fear of gaining weight.
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Podophyllin is a resin obtained from the root-stock of the may-apple (Podophyllum peltatum). It is of a brownish-yellow colour, dissolves readily in alcohol and was used as a purgative; it was particularly beneficial in cases of sluggish liver, but in some constitutions produces severe griping.
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Pogonophobia is the fear of beards.
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Poinephobia is the fear of punishment.
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Arsenic is classed as a metallic irritant poison, though its action is by no means limited to that of an irritant. It acts specifically on the gastro-intestinal mucous membrane, whatever be the channel of entrance to the system. The most usual source of acute arsenical poisoning is the administration of white arsenic, or arsenious acid; but the sulphides, various arsenites, and impure dyes, wall-papers, and pigments, Paris green, rat and roach poisons, were all frequent sources of arsenical poisoning in the past.
Acute Arsenical poisoning is the usual form of poisoning ensuing on the nefarious administration of any preparation of arsenic, but usually arsenious acid is employed. A half-hour or an hour after the poison has been introduced the symptoms come on. The quantity and its state as regards solubility also have an obvious relation to the appearance of the symptoms. Most commonly, after a sense of faintness and depression, intense burning pain is felt in the epigastric region, accompanied by tenderness on pressure; nausea and vomiting quickly supervene, increased by every act of swallowing. Unlike an ordinary bilious attack, the nausea and pains are not relieved by vomiting. Ordinarily the vomiting is followed by violent purging, the motions being often streaked with blood. Purging may, however, be entirely absent. Other prominent symptoms are great thirst, a feeble, irregular pulse, and cold, clammy skin. The patient dies usually within 18 to 72 hours in a state of collapse; but tetanic convulsions are not uncommon, and even coma and paralysis may close the scene. The treatment of acute arsenical poisoning traditionally includes emetics, diluents, and demulcents and the stomach-pump.
Chronic arsenical poisoning is generally accidental. Formerly the inhalation of arsenical vapours in factories, or of arsenic dust, as from green and other wall-papers, and in the process of artificial flower-making were all common sources of chronic arsenical poisoning during the 19th century. The symptoms of chronic arsenical poisoning are, first,-loss of appetite, pains about the heart, looseness of bowels, and occasionally headache. Suffusion of the eyes and intolerance of light are an early occurring symptom. The muscular powers of the limbs become impaired, sometimes progressing to paralysis; a characteristic vesiculous, eczematous eruption appears on the skin. Green arsenical pigments sometimes caused bleeding from the nose.
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Polio (properly poliomyelitis, and also known as infantile paralysis) is caused by infection of the nervous system by a virus which gains entry through the nasopharynx and breeds in the intestinal mucous lining. It is expelled in the faeces. The blood stream carries the disease to the nervous system. There the virus attacks the cells lying in the grey matter of the brain and spinal cord, and in a case of very severe infection certain of these nerve cells may be entirely destroyed. This affection of the nerve cells leads to the characteristic symptom of the disease, namely muscular paralysis. A striking feature of the disease is its occurrence in young children, especially in those between the ages of two and four years. It may occur also in adolescence and early adult Life, but is rare after middle age. During an epidemic the virus may attack many people without giving rise to actual paralysis in any part of the body, and it has been found that over 50 per cent of the adult population have the special antibodies against the virus in the blood, showing that they have at some time suffered from a mild or unrecognised attack.
Confirmation of these facts was found in an American epidemic in the 1950s. Amongst twenty-two contacts of a case of infantile paralysis, fourteen were found to have the virus in the faeces. Fourteen of the twenty-two cases developed slight fever, but only one became paralysed. The disease is spread by human carriers of the virus, who may or may not be ill with the disease. The secretions of the nose and throat are infective during the first ten days of the illness, and spread of the disease mainly takes place from one person to another by what is known as 'droplet infection' (as in sneezing, coughing, talking, etc.), and by the common use of articles recently contaminated by these secretions. The virus may be present also in the faeces of a patient up to three months after his apparent recovery.
The disease may also be spread by infected water, milk or fruit, either by direct handling, or by flies carrying infection from lavatories or sewage. The disease is much more prevalent during the hotter months of the summer, and in the European climate it reaches its maximum frequency in August and September. The incubation period varies between six and ten days, the average being nine days. Infantile paralysis begins suddenly with fever lasting from one to five days, the temperature rising to 102 or 104 degrees. The child is usually flushed and drowsy, but may be very irritable, and vomiting and convulsions may occur. There is headache, with pain in the neck and back, and tenderness of the limbs. The symptoms at this stage are similar to those seen in many other acute infectious diseases, though special significance should be attached to severe pains in the limbs and tenderness of the muscles. In one to five days the characteristic signs of paralysis appear in one or more groups, of muscles. In older children and adults the paralysis is usually present within twenty-four hours of the onset. It develops rapidly and appears to have its maximum limit of distribution from the moment it appears. It is, in fact, usually much more widespread at the onset than it is destined to be permanently.
At first all four limbs may appear to be completely helpless, but after some days a rapid recovery occurs from much of the paralysis, so that only one limb may be finally affected. The narrowing down of the initial paralysis begins to appear after the end of the first week, and any muscle which is going to recover its power will have done so before the end of the first month. The muscles which are permanently paralysed become atrophied, or wasted, and in the course of time they tend to become contracted or shortened. This shortening may lead to considerable deformity of the part unless it is prevented by suitable treatment. The paralysis may affect any of the muscles of the body, but those of the leg are far more commonly involved than any others.
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Poliosophobia is the fear of contracting poliomyelitis.
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Politicophobia is the fear of politics.
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Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, with inflammation of the small arteries and impaired circulation in the tissues that they supply, which may be anywhere in the body.
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Polychromia is an excessive or abnormal pigmentation of the skin.
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polycythaemia is a condition marked by an abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells, leading to a thickening of the blood.
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Polydactylism is the medical condition of a person having more than five fingers on each hand.
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Polymox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Polyphobia is the fear of many things.
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Polypus is a small benign tumour of the skin due to local overgrowth of the cells.
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Ponophobia is the fear of overworking or of pain.
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The pons is located in the brainstem, vertically between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata, and sagittally between the cerebellum and the pituitary gland. It is responsible for serving as a bridge between the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. By serving as this liason between the different parts of the brain, the pons is able to facilitate coordination between the functions of the two sides of the body as well as those of the face and jaw. The origins of the fifth through eighth cervical nerves are associated with the pons.
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The popliteal ateries branch from the femoral artery at the knee joint. It has several branches that supply the knee joint, the muscles of the thigh, and the upper part of the calf.
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The popliteal muscle is a thin, flat, triangular muscle that forms the base of the region behind the knee. It originates from a strong, short tendon (about two centimeters long) from the lateral condyle of the femur and the ligament behind the knee-joint and extends to insert in the shaft of the tibia. The popliteus is innervated by the tibial nerve and supplied by the popliteal artery. This muscle assists in rotating the tibia and is used when bending the knee.
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The small popliteal lymph nodes are four or five in number and surround the popliteal veins and arteries. They are clustered at the back part of the leg behind the knee joint. They help collect excess fluids from your feet and legs.
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The popliteal tendon is located in the popliteal space and connects to the popliteal muscle.
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The politeal vein is formed by the junction of the anterior and posterior tibial veins and ascends to the femoral vein. It usually has four valves to assist with the transportation of blood.
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Porphyria is a hereditary disease of body metabolism, producing abdominal pain and mental confusion.
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Porphyrophobia is the fear of the colour purple.
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The porta hepatis is the fissure on the inferior surface of the liver which admits the hepatic vein and artery and the various hepatic ducts, including the cystic duct and the common bile duct.
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Portal hypertension also known as renovascular hypertension is an increased blood pressure in the portal system caused by a blockage in the liver's blood supply, often linked to alcoholic cirrhosis. It results in the spleen getting larger, increased blood pressure, and varicose veins of the esophagus.
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The portal vein is a large vein (a little over eight centimeters in length) responsible for carrying the oxygen and nutrient poor blood from the organs of the abdomen to the liver, where wastes will be eliminated. The portal vein enters the underside of the liver and divides into a network of capillaries. The capillaries then reconverge and form the hepatic veins that carry the blood to the inferior vena cava. The veins of the liver are relatively large to accommodate the great volume of blood passing through it. The liver receives 28% of the body's total cardiac output of blood, which equates to 1.4 liters of blood circulating through an average adult at rest every minute.
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Posmox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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The posterior cardiac vein (often referred to as the middle cardiac vein) extends from the apex of the heart, receiving blood from both ventricles, and continues along the base of the heart to the coronary sinus, where the blood is then delivered to the right atrium of the heart.
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The posterior communicating artery extends from the back part of the internal carotid artery and runs directly back. This artery varies in size and is frequently larger on one side than on the other. Several small branches of the posterior communicating artery supply the optic thalami.
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The posterior meniscofemoral ligament extens from the the inside of the medial condyle of the femur, near the posterior cruciate ligament, across to the lateral meniscus. This connection provides some of the lateral support for the knee in flexion and extension.
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The posterior nasal spine is composed of the back portion of the vomer and parts of the vertical sections of the two palatine bones. The nasal spine can be seen in the inferior view of the skull at the rear of the palate.
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The anterior and posterior tibial arteries branch from the popliteal artery and supply blood to the lower leg and foot. The posterior tibial artery is a large artery that runs down the leg to the foot where it branches into the internal and external plantar arteries (arteries of the sole of the foot). The interior tibial artery becomes the dorsal pedis artery at the ankle joint.
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The posterior tibial vein is formed by the union of the lateral and medial plantar veins. It accompanies the posterior tibial artery as it ascends through the leg.
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Potamophobia is the fear of rivers.
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Potophobia is the fear of drink.
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Pott's Disease is curvature of the spine, generally resulting from tuberculosis. It is named after the surgeon Percival Pott who first described the condition. The tuberculosis produces decay of the vertebrae, one or more of which softens and breaks up, so that the vertebrae sag forward producing a sharp angular deformity of the spine and causing the spinous processes of the vertebrae to stand out prominently behind.
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In medicine, a poultice is a soft moist application applied externally to some part of the body either hot or cold, but generally hot. The simple poultice is made with linseed meal and boiling water, spread out with a uniform thickness on a cloth or rag, and is used where it is desired to hasten the progress of inflammation. Its moisture causes relaxation of the skin, and thereby lessens the discomfort or pain. It also acts as a counter-irritant, producing a redness and congestion of the skin.
Disinfecting poultices were made with charcoal, mixed with linseed-meal and bread. The sedative poultice, was made with beer, yeast, flour, and hot water, was generally used to relieve pain in cases of cancer. The most widely used poultice, however, was the counter-irritant, commonly called a mustard plaster. This was made by mixing linseed-meal with water, and adding mustard. It produces a rapid but mild counter-irritation, indicated by a redness of the skin, and was thought very useful in cases of bronchitis, lumbago, and similar affections.
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A pox is a disease characterised by the formation of pustules on the skin that often leave pockmarks when healed, for example chicken pox.
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Prazosin hydrochloride is a drug used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure. It has the possible side effects of: dizziness, headache, drowsiness, weakness, depression, palpitations, blurred vision, dry mouth, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, constipation and nausea.
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The premolars are located between the canines and the molars. The crown of each premolar features two cusps which facilitate the grinding and chewing of food. The premolars are not represented in deciduous teeth, but are permanent teeth which erupt once the child approaches nine or ten years of age. The premolar roots feature single root stems which anchor them in the maxilla and mandible, similar to the incisors and canines.
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Presbyopia or presbyopy that is, 'old-sightedness', is an affection of the eye common at an advanced stage of life; its effect is to render objects near the eye less distinct than those at a distance - people suffering from the condition are unable to focus on objects within about twelve or fourteen inches from the face. Persons affected with presbyopia generally have to use convex (magnifying) spectacles such as reading-glasses. Presbyopia affects most men from the age of about 47 and women from about the age of 45.
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Primobolin is an anabolic steroid. It causes increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgensisis, catabolism, and gluticocototitosis. It is used for sports performance enhancement, relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression, and cognition.
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Pro-Gen is another name for proflavine.
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A probang is a long slender strip of flexible material - originally whalebone - with a sponge or sponge-like pad at the end, used to remove a foreign body from the throat, push a foreign body on down from the throat into the stomach, or apply a medication to the throat. The probang is popularly believed to have been invented by the Welsh lawyer, turned doctor, Walter Rumsey, in the 17th century and which he described in detail in a book published in 1657.
The procerus is a muscle in the human nose.
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Proctophobia is the fear of rectum.
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A proctoscope is a form of simple endoscope used for anal and rectum examinations.
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In medicine, a prodome is a symptom that signals the impending onset of a disease.
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Proflavin is another name for proflavine.
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Proflavine sulphate (proflavine hemisulphaye) is a synthetic acridine dye of red-brown crystals, soluble in water, used as a powerful and effective antiseptic during the Second World War to treat battle casulties and later in hospitals, but is much less used now as a result of the pharmaceutical companies pushing for the use of antibiotics instead. Attempts to prove that proflavine causes cancer, have so far proved negative though the pharmaceutical industries still cite this as a reason not to use it. The effectiveness of proflavine is amazing, a wound dressed with proflavine over night usually shows a marked improvement the following morning, where as antibiotics can typically take days to take effect and have the unfortunate side effect of lowering the body's natural immune system which with prolonged usage leads to permanent damage.
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Profoliol is another name for proflavine.
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Profoliol-B is another name for proflavine.
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Proformiphen is another name for proflavine.
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The profunda femoris artery is the deep branch of the femoral artery. It is nearly equal in size and length to the femoral artery. It begins just below the Poupart's ligament near the superficial femoral, passes behind the femoral vein and beneath the adductor longus muscle and continues down the thigh to a small branch that pierces the adductor magnus muscle. This artery supplies the flexor muscles on the back of the thigh.
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Profundol is another name for proflavine.
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Profura is another name for proflavine.
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Progarmed is another name for proflavine.
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Progesic is another name for proflavine.
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Progesterone is a hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle in vertebrates.
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Prolapse is a medical term for a falling down of something out of its usual or proper place.
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Prolapsus ani is the protrusion of the lower part of the rectum through the anus, caused by straining in constipation, piles, etc. Persons liable to this accident should be careful to regulate their bowels so as to prevent constipation and consequent straining. Regular bathing of the parts with cold water may also be found useful.
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The pronator quadratus is a small, flat muscle with a quadrilateral form. It originates from the ulna and extends across the front of the radius and ulna and inserts in the shaft of the radius. It is innervated by the anterior interosseous, which branches from the median nerve, and is supplied by branches of the radial artery. This muscle helps to rotate the radius upon the ulna and thus assists in rotating the hand.
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The pronator teres (pronator radii teres) is a short, round, deep arm muscle. It originates high on the humerus , slightly higher than the flexor mass on the forearm. The muscle ends in a flat tendon which inserts in the radius. It is innervated by the median nerve and supplied by branches of the ulnar artery and the radial artery. This muscle pronates the forearm and assists in bending the elbow.
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Propranolol is a drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, arrhythmia, hypertension, and other forms of heart disease.
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Prophase is the 1st stage in mitosis cell reproduction. The nucleolus disappears and a number of chromosomes become apparent.
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Propranolol is a beta-adrenergic blocker drug used for many purposes including: reducing angina attacks, stabilising irregular heartbeat, lowering blood pressure and reducing the frequency of migraine headaches.
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In physiology, a proprioceptor is any receptor (such as the gut, blood vessels, muscles, etc.) that supplies information about the state of the body.
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Prosophobia is the fear of progress.
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The prostate gland is composed of smooth muscle and glandular tissue and surrounds the first section of the urethra, just below the bladder. About four centimeters in diameter, the prostate gland is responsible for secreting a thin fluid into the urethra during sexual arousal. This alkaline fluid precedes the sperm cells and helps reduce the acidity of vaginal secretions, so that the sperm cells are not destroyed by this acidity.
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Prostin is a trade name for alprostadil.
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Protexillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
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Prothrombin is a substance in the plasma from which thrombin is derived during blood clotting.
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Prozac (fluxetine hydrochloride) is an anti-depression drug which causes central nervous system stimulation by the inhibition of serotonin uptake. It has been noticed, however, that suicide rates among those prescribed Prozac and other serotonin reuptake inhibitors is significantly higher than among those patients who do not take the drugs, revealing that far from reducing depression, Prozac and similar drugs increase it.
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Prurigo is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterised by the formation of papules and intense itching.
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Psellismophobia is the fear of stuttering.
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The psoas is an important muscle of the human body which extunds from the lumbar region to the thigh-bone, and assists in the movements of the thigh.
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The psoas minor is a long, slender, weak muscle that assists in flexing the trunk and the lumbar spinal column. The presence of this muscle varies from person to person. It is present in about 60% of the population. The psoas minor lies just in front of the psoas major muscle. It originates from the twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae and inserts in the iliopubic eminence. This muscle is innervated by the lumbar plexus and supplied by the lumbar arteries.
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Psoriasis is a common, non-contagious, disorder of the outer skin typified by thickened, red blotches on the skin with a scaly surface. These most frequently occur on the scalp, back and arms, rarely on the face.
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Psychoanalysis is a theory and treatment method for neuroses developed by Freud.
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Psychology was originally thought of as a department of philosophy which dealt with the mind. Today, it is recognised as the science of the nature, function and phenomena of the human mind and human behaviour.
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Psychophobia is the fear of mind.
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Psychrophobia is the fear of cold.
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The pterion is the segment of suture which connects each greater wing of the sphenoid bone to the lower edge of the parietal bone on the side of the skull at the temple.
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Pteromerhanophobia is the fear of flying.
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Pteronophobia is the fear of feathers.
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The large pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone are located at the rear of the posterior nasal aperture. Each pterygoid process features a hamulus (at the tip of a flat protrusion called the medial pterygoid plate) and a pterygoid fossa, within which is located the pteygoid fissure. The pterygoid process of the sphenoid is located in a critical area, articulating with twelve other bones, including the frontal, occipital, ethmoid bone, vomer, temporals, parietals, palatines, and zygomatics.
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The lateral pterygoideus (external pterygoid) is a short, thick muscle used in chewing. It originates from the lateral lamina of the pterygoid process, the infratemporal crest, and the adjacent wing of the sphenoid bone and extends horizontally to insert in the depression (pterygoid pit) of the mandible. It is innervated by mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve and supplied by the lateral pterygoid artery. This muscle pulls the rear of the mandible forward, which tilts the front of it down and thereby opens the mouth.
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The medial pterygoideus (internal pterygoid) muscle is located on the side of the jaw. It is thick and quadrilateral in form, similar to the masseter muscle, which lies just above it. The muscle originates from the pterygoid fossa of the sphenoid bone and the tuberosity of the maxilla and extends downward and outward to the angle and ramus of the mandible. It is innervated by mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve and supplied by the medial pterygoid artery. This muscle raises the lower jaw to close the mouth and is used in chewing.
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The pubic tubercle is a bony projection from the front of each half of the pubis. It is situated midway between the superior pubic ramus and the inferior pubic ramus. The two pubic tubercles flank the symphysis pubis.
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The pubis is one of the three pelvic bones which fuse together to form the pelvic girdle. The pubis is located just to the front and below the bladder. In the center of the pubis is the symphysis, which marks a point of fusing of the two sides of the pubis. The pubis features two segments on each side of the symphysis pubis. These two segments are divided at the pubic tubercle. The upper segment is called the superior pubic ramus, and it joins with the ala, or wings, or the ilium. The lower of the two segments is called the inferior pubic ramus and it joins with the ischium of the pelvis.
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The pudenal (pudenus; pudic) nerve extends along the internal pudenal artery and innervates the external genitalia. It is formed by fibres of the second, third, and fourth sacral nerves, which extend down and pass through the greater sciatic foramen to join the dorsal nerve of the penis in males and the clitoris in females.
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The pulmonary artery (pulmonary trunk) carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. It is the only artery that carries dark, low-oxygen blood. The artery is short and wide (about 2 inches in length and 1 1/5 inches in diameter). It arises from the base of the right ventricle and extends upward and branches into two arteries of nearly equal size. The right pulmonary artery is longer and larger and runs horizontally outward to the base of the right lung where it divides in two branches for the two lobes. The left pulmonary artery is shorter and somewhat smaller. It runs horizontally to the base of the left lobe where it divides in two branches for the two lobes.
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The pleura of the thorax are the serous membranes which enclose the upper chest cavity. The pleura enclose the lungs and protect them from friction against the wall of the thorax. It is formed of two layers - the visceral and parietal pleura - between which is lubricated by serous fluid. The parietal pleura is the exterior layer of this pulmonary pleural sac, which connects to the thorax wall, the mediastinal membrane, and the diaphragm muscle.
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The pulmonary semilunar valve is located at the beginning of the pulmonary artery. This valve has three delicate cusps, or pockets, which permit blood flow in only one direction, allowing blood to flow out of the right ventricle, but prevents it from backflowing into the ventricle. When the heart refills, the crescent- shaped valve balloons out, sealed along the edge to prevent the blood from flowing backward. The bloods only exit from the ventricles is through the semilunar valves, so named for their crescent shaped cusps.
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The pulmonary veins circulate blood from the lungs. There are four
pulmonary veins, one for each lobe of the lungs. Unlike most veins, the pulmonary veins carry arterial blood instead of venous blood.
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In the human tooth the pulp consists of connective tissue, nerves, lymphatics, and vessels, housed within a cavity within the tooth. The pulp cavity corresponds roughly to the external shape of the tooth, and sends tubules filled with odontoblasts into the dentine. The pulp is also connected to the periodonteum through the root canals which extend through the apical foramina.
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Pupaphobia is the fear of puppets pyrexiophobia.
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The pupil can be seen in the center of the iris of the eye where it appears to be black in colour. Around the pupil is a sphincter muscle that contracts according to the light conditions. If the eye is exposed to strong light, the pupil contracts, protecting the nerve cells at the back of the eye. In low light, the pupil enlarges to let in as much light as possible. The pupil also enlarges automatically when conversing with someone attractive. This automatic response is designed to make one appear more attractive to the other person, and thus improve the chances of a relationship.
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A purgative is a substance which causes evacuation by the bowels.
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In medicine, purpura refers to a bleeding disorder under the skin or mucous membranes characterized by the presence of purple bruise-like marks or rashes.
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A pustulant is a counter-irritant such as croton oil.
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Pyaemia, blood-poisoning, is a dangerous disease resulting from the introduction of decaying animal matter, pus, or other morbid product into the system. Such matter may be introduced through an ulcer, wound, an imperfectly closed vein, or a mucous membrane, as that of the nose. This disease was common after severe operations in crowded hospitals, whose atmosphere was loaded with purulent or contaminated matter. It was much checked in the late 19th century by the improved ventilation of hospitals, and by the application of antiseptics in the performance of surgical operations and the dressing of wounds.
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The pylorus is the sphincter muscle which serves as the valve controlling the lower opening of the stomach, where it empties into the duodenum. The pylorus only allows the food through after it has been properly processed by the digestive juices of the stomach. Once through the pylorus, the food is only partially digested. Further digestion takes place in the upper portion of the small intestine called the duodenum.
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The pyramidal lobe, when it is present, has a conical shape and extends above the isthmus, or middle portion which connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland. The pyramidal lobe may also extend from the left lobe, and on a rare occasion from the right lobe. The pyramidal lobe varies in size from person to person and can ascend as high as the hyoid bone.
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The pyramidalis is a small, triangular muscle located towards the lower part of the abdomen just in front of the rectus abdominis muscle. It originates from the crest of the pubis and inserts in the lower portin of the linea alba. The muscle is innervated by the last thoracic nerve and supplied by the epigastric arteries.
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The pyramidalis nasi, or procerus muscle, is a thin sheath of muscle placed over the nasal bone between the eyes. Its origin is with the fascia covering the lower part of the nasal bone (bridge of the nose) and it is inserted into the frontalis portion of the occipito-frontalis muscle and the skin over the lower part of the forehead between the two eyebrows. It is innervated by branches of the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by branches of the facial artery. The muscle draws the eyebrows down and together causing wrinkles across the bridge of the nose. It is used when expressing anger, pain, or frowning or concentrating.
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Pyrophobia is the fear of fire.
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Pyorrhoea is an inflammation of the gums characterised by the discharge of pus and loosening of the teeth.
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