The sacrum is the portion of the vertebral column between the lumbar vertebrae and the structures of the coccyx. It is composed of five vertebrae which are fused together to form a single bone structure. The sacrum features a median crest which is made of the fused spinous processes of its component vertebrae. Beneath this crest is the sacral canal, a tunnel which runs lengthwise from the top of the sacrum to a hiatus (opening) near the bottom. Four pairs of sacral foramina pierce the sacrum, flanking the medial line, where the intermediate sacral crests are formed by the fused articular processes of the component vertebrae. To the outside of the intermediate sacral crests are the lateral crests, formed by the fused transverse processes of the component vertebrae. In the sacrum, therefore, unlike the upper vertebrae in the spine, the intertransverse ligaments have been replaced by fusion of these processes together. The crests are not represented on the pelvic surface of the sacrum, though the sacral foramina are evident.
The veins in the brain return blood from the dura mater and partially from the bones. They terminate in various sinuses, among which are the inferior sagittal sinus, the superior sagital sinus, and the straight sinus. The sagital sinuses are situated near the parietal bone.
Research Sagittal Sinus Vein
The sagittal suture runs longitudinally along the crest of the head from the frontal bone to the occipital. This suture joins the two parietal bones in the middle of the cranial vault. The sagittal suture intersects the coronal suture perpendicularly, and the lambdoid suture in a tripartite manner.
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Sal prunella was a medicine comprised of potassium nitrate and sodium carbonate formerly used as a remedy for sore throats.
Research Sal Prunella
Salbutan is a brand name for albuterol.
Salbutol is a brand name for albuterol.
Salbuven is a brand name for albuterol.
Salbuvent is a brand name for albuterol.
Saliva is a secretion from the salivary glands in the mouth. When food is smelled or tasted, or often even thought of, the salivary glands begin their secretion to prepare the mouth for the food. Mumps, an inflammatory glandular infection, affects the salivary glands, resulting in difficulty chewing and swallowing. Saliva also performs a cleaning function, serving to keep exfoliated epithelial cells, most bacteria, and food particles away from the teeth. Saliva keeps the mouth lubricated for articulation and speech and also helps to moisten food to assist in swallowing. Enzymes in saliva begin digestive breakdown of the food even before it reaches the stomach. A number of toxins (including lead, mercury, and other heavy metals) are secreted in the saliva and the body's water balance regulation is also assisted by salivary secretion.
The salivary glands are three pairs of glands within the mouth: the parotid gland, the submaxillary gland and the sublingual gland, with efferent ducts which convey secretions into the mouth which then combine with mucus secreted by the follicles of the mucous membrane lining the mouth to form saliva.
Research Salivary Glands
Salivation is a superabundant secretion of saliva, either determined locally by the use of masticating irritants, or by means which act upon the whole system, especially by mercurial preparations. In the last case it is accompanied by a coppery taste, by swelling of the gums, and sometimes by looseness of the teeth. Salivation is usually diminished by the use of astringents, laxatives, etc.
Salmaplon is a brand name for albuterol.
Salol (phenyl salicylate) is a colourless crystalline substance obtained by the action of phenol on salicylic acid and employed in medicine externally as an antiseptic and internally as a mouth wash and as an intestinal and urinary disinfectant.
Salomol is a brand name for albuterol.
The salpingopharyngeus originates from the cartilage portion of the Eustatian tube and inserts into the muscular layer of the pharynx. This small muscle lifts the pharynx and helps open the eustachian tube during swallowing. The lower end of the eustachian tube opens during swallowing to allow air to flow into the middle ear and equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. The salpingopharyngeus is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus of nerves.
Saltermox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Samhainophobia is the fear of Halloween.
Samosillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Samthongcillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
The saphenous veins are located in the leg. The short saphenous vein begins at the outer arch on the top of the foot and ascend along the Achilles tendon to the popliteal vein. It receives many venous branches from the back of the leg and the top of the foot. The long saphenous vein, or great saphenous vein, begins along the inner arch on the top of the foot and ascends along the inner side of the leg up through the thigh to the femoral vein. Both veins have numerous valves to assist in the transportation of blood. There are more valves located in the thigh. In bypass surgery, the saphenous vein is cut from the leg and used as a graft.
Research Saphenous Veins
Sardonic smile is a term formerly applied by medical writers to a convulsive affection of the muscles of the face, somewhat resembling laughter. It may occur in tetanus and other convulsive affections, or may result from the action of certain vegetable poisons.
Research Sardonic Smile
Sarmassophobia is the fear of love play.
Sarsaparilla is a drug prepared from the dried roots of several plants of the genus Smilax, which grows in Mexico, Central and South America. Today the term is also a slang expression for Jamaican Cannabis.
The sartorius (tailor's muscle) is the body's longest muscle. It is a long, narrow, ribbon-like muscle that spirals down the thigh. It begins on the front of the hip, where it originates at the front point of the pelvis (the tip of the anterior superior iliac spine), runs down and across the front of the thigh, and along the inner side of the knee where it inserts in the upper end (tuberosity) of the tibia. It is innervated by the femoral nerve and supplied by the femoral artery. This muscle is a powerful flexor of the thigh. It helps bend both hip and knee and twist the leg allowing you to sit cross-legged in the manner in which tailors usually do, hence its name.
Satanophobia is the fear of Satan.
Sausage-poisoning was a former term for a form of poisoning induced by the consumption of insanitary sausages. It was generally due to the presence of ptomaines and was most common in Germany. Among its symptoms were vomiting and diarrhoea, and it was sometimes fatal.
Sawacillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Sawamezin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Scabies is a skin disease due to an animal parasite, the Sarcoptes scabei, which burrows beneath the skin, most commonly at the clefts of the fingers.
Scabiophobia is the fear of scabies.
The scalene muscles (the scalenus posticus, the scalenus medius, scalenus minimus, and the scalenus anticus) work together to aid in breathing. During inhalation, they lift the first and second rib. They also bend the spinal column to one side or the other. The scalenus posticus is the smallest of the three muscles, originating from the lower two or three cervical (neck) vertebrae and descends to insert into the second rib. The scalenus medius is the largest and longest of the three muscles. It originates from the lower six cervical vertebrae and is inserted into the first rib. The scalenus anticus lies deep at the side of the neck, behind the sternomastoid. It originates from the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae and descends to the first rib. It also separates the subclavien artery and vein. The three scalene muscles are innervated by the cervical plexus and supplied by the cervical artery. The scalenus minimus is the smallest of the scalene muscles. It lies between the scalenus anticus and the scalenus medius, originating from the cervical vertebrae and descending to the first rib. This muscle is sometimes referred to as Sibson's muscle after the British anatomist Francis Sibson. It may also be referred to as Albinus' muscle after the German anatomist and surgeon Bernhard S. Albinus.
Research Scalene Muscles
The scaphoid bone is one of the bones in the human wrist.
Research Scaphoid bone
In human anatomy, the scapula or shoulder blade, is the flat bone that lies upon the upper part of the back, forming the shoulder. It has a shallow cavity (glenoid cavity), into which is inserted the head of the humerus. Several strong ligaments and muscles are attached to the elevations of this bone, which keep it in place and move it about as required.
Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) is an infectious fever, characterised by a sore throat, a red, diffuse eruption on the skin, followed by shedding of the superficial part of the skin. Inflammation of the ears and kidneys are common complications.
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Scelerophibia is the fear of bad men, burglars.
Schafer's method is the simplest method of artificial respiration. It can be performed without assistance and encourages the removal of fluid from the air passages by gravity. The patient is placed on his face with his shoulders raised a little so that the mouth is unobstructed. Pressure is exerted on the patient's loins and lower ribs, thus compressing the abdominal contents and forcing the diaphragm upwards. As the weight is taken off the patient's loins, the abdomen and thorax re-expands and inspiration occurs.
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Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is a disease caused by infestation of the body with blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma.
Schlionophobia is the fear of school.
The Schneiderian membrane is the lining membrane of the nostrils; the pituary membrane, so named from Schneider, who first described it.
Research Schneiderian Membrane
The Schwanns cells, or neurilemma, are layers of cells which cover the myelin sheath segments of some nerve cells. Schwanns cells cover each axon segment of the nerve cells, and constrict at the nodes of Ranvier. The neurons of the brain and spinal cord do not have such a cell layer covering their myelin sheaths.
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The sciatic nerves branch off of the spinal cord between the fourth lumbar and third sacral vertebrae. They extend down the legs, innervating the hamstrings, and branch into the tibial and peroneal nerves which innervate the lower leg.
Research Sciatic Nerves
Sciatica (neuritis of the leg) is a pain of the sciatic nerves, often caused by exposure to cold or wet.
Sciophobia is the fear of shadows.
The sclera can be seen as the opaque white of the eye. It is composed of tough, white fibrous tissue and encases the eyeball. The sclera contains fine blood vessels. When the eye is irritated by dust or disease, the blood vessels become enlarged and the 'white' of the eye appears pink or bloodshot.
Scleroderma is a chronic progressive disease most common among women, characterised by a local or diffuse thickening and hardening of the skin.
Sclerous tissue provides the stiffening which is essential for the formation of the general framework of the body. There are two varieties of sclerous tissue: cartilage and bone.
Research Sclerous tissue
Scoleciphobia is the fear of worms.
Scolionophobia is the fear of school.
Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, of congenital origin or caused by trauma or disease of the vertebrae or hipbones.
Scopophobia is the fear of being stared at.
Scotomaphobia is the fear of blindness in visual field.
In psychiatry, scotomization is a defence mechanism in which a person develops selective blind-spots to certain kinds of emotional or anxiety-producing situations or conflicts.
Scotophobia is the fear of the dark, it is also called nyctophobia.
Scotophobin is a substance alleged to be the biochemical basis of scotophobia.
Scriptophobia is the fear of writing in public.
Scrofula was a former term for tuberculosis, especially of the lymphatic glands and bones.
The scrotum is the protective skin pouch which contains the testes (testicles). It is located in the groin, on the outside of the abdominal cavity. This positioning allows the testicles to remain at a temperature slightly below body temperature, a critical condition in the development of viable spermatozoa. After puberty, the hair begins to grow on the scrotum and nearby skin. This pubic hair remains for the rest of the adult life.
Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease characterised by severe headache, skin rash, chills, and swelling of the lymph nodes, caused by the bite of mites infected with the microorganism Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Scrub typhus occurs mainly in Asia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific.
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Scurvy (scorbutus) is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It is characterised by anaemia, great weakness, spongy and swollen gums, and haemorrhages. In recent times scurvy was thought to be caused by a lack of fresh animal and vegetable food. Scurvy was very common in ships and in armies. Lime juice was the first effective preventative agent introduced into the navy in the early 19th century and made compulsory in the British mercantile marine in 1867.
The sebaceous glands lie just below the skin adjacent to the hair follicles and connected by a short duct. They secretes sebum into the hair follicles, providing a lubricant for the hair and skin. Sebum is a semifluid substance composed of waxes, fatty acids, cholesterol, and debris from skin cells. By coating the hair and the dead keratin cells of the stratum corneum, sebum sequesters moisture, keeping hair glossy and skin pliable. Sebum is important for many other reasons. It contains a precursor to vitamin D that produces the mature vitamin when struck by the ultraviolet rays of the sun. It also kills certain forms of harmful bacteria.
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Sebar is a trade name for secobarbital.
Seborrhoea is a condition of the skin in which there is excessive secretion by the sebaceous glands, forming crusts with scales from the skin and dirt.
Secobarbital is a drug very similar to phenobarbital used to relieve anxiety, insomnia and as a pre- anaesthetic agent.
Seconal is a trade name for secobarbital.
Secretin is a hormone produced by the small intestine in vertebrates that stimulates the production of digestive secretions.
Sedatives are medicines that moderate the excessive action of an organ or organic system. Digitalis, for example, is a sedative of the action of the heart and the circulatory system; and gum-resins are sedatives that act on the nervous system. Besides these aconite, chloroform, conium, carbon dioxide, and prussic acid are among the traditional sedatives.
Seidlitz Powders were an aperient medicine of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, named after the Seidlitz spa in Bohemia. These powders were usually put up in a blue and a white paper, the blue containing tartrate of soda and potash (Rochelle salt) with bicarbonate of soda, and the white tartaric acid. The former was dissolved in half a tumbler of water, and the acid powder was then added, which produced effervescence, and the draught was taken while the effervescence was going on.
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Selachophobia is the fear of sharks.
Selaphobia is the fear of light flashes.
Selenophobia is the fear of the moon.
The sella turcia or pituitary fossa, is a deep depression on the surface of the body of the sphenoid bone, where the pituitary body sits. It is named the sella turcica after its shape which is similar to a turkish saddle. This depression contains a number of foramina, or small openings, through which a number of small vessels bring nutrients to the pituitary gland.
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The semicircular canals comprise the organ of balance occupying mush of the inner ear, next to the cochlea. The three semicircular canals are set at right angles to one another: one parallel to the ground, a second parallel to the side of the head, and a third parallel to the front of the head or face. The canals are responsible for sensing the movements of the head in three dimensions. Each fluid-filled canal contains sensory hairs connected to receptor cells that provide information to the cerebellum. As the head is tilted, the fluid presses on the sensory hairs of the receptor cells. The receptor cells convert the pressure into electrical signals which are sent to the brain via nerve impulses. Other receptor cells are situated in and near the semicircular canals. The nerve impulses are essential to the control of balance.
Research Semicircular Canals
The semimembranosus muscle is one of the hamstring muscles. It flexes the lower leg at the knee joint and rotates it in. It consists of a fleshy muscle belly with a tendon at each end. The muscle fibres originate from the tuberosity of the ischium and extend downward from the knee to insert in the middle of the outer condyle of the femur (upper leg bone) and the medial condyle of the tibia (lower leg bone). It is innervated by the tibial nerve and supplied by the profunda femoris. The tendon of the semimembranosus muscle, along with the semitendinosus and gracilis, form the inner hamstring.
Research Semimembranosus Muscle
The seminal vesicles are responsible for secreting a fluid component of semen as the sperm cells pass through the vas deferens. The two vesicles resemble small, bulbous pouches and are located just above the prostate gland.
Research Seminal Vesicles
The semispinalis capitis (complexus) is a deep muscle on the back of the neck that lies below the trapezius. It originates from the spine (7th cervical down to the 6th or 7th thoracic vertebrae) and inserts into the elongated area at the base of the skull (occipital bone). It is innervated by dorsal branches of the cervical nerve and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta. Both the trapezius and the semispinalis capitis create the muscular column on the back of the neck. The semispinalis capitis muscle extends the head and rotates it so the face is directed to the opposite side.
Research Semispinalis Capitis
The semispinalis cervicis (semispinalis colli) stretch along and surround the vertebrae of the spine. These muscle run continuous with the semispinalis thoracis muscles. The semispinalis cervicis muscles originate from the transverse processes of the second to fifth thoracic vertebrae and insert into the spinous process of the axis and third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebrae. The semispinalis muscles give the spine its flexibility to bend, as when taking a deep bow. The semispinalis cervices muscles, specifically, extend the cervical spine. These muscles are innervated by dorsal branches of the cervical and thoracic nerves and are supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
Research Semispinalis Cervicis
The semispinalis thoracis consists of long straps of muscle that stretch along and surround the vertebrae of the spine. The muscle can have between four and eight upper ends, which originate from the transverse processes of the fifth to eleventh thoracic vertebrae in the upper chest. These straps of muscle insert in the spinous processes of the first four thoracic and fifth and seventh cervical vertebrae. The semispinalis thoracis is innervated by dorsal branches of the cervical and thoracic nerves and supplied by branches of the aorta. These muscle straps give the spine its flexibility to bend, as when taking a deep bow.
Research Semispinalis Thoracis
The semitendinosus muscle originates from the ischium. Its long, narrow, fleshy belly ends two- thirds of the way down the thigh at its tendon, which inserts in the upper part of the tibia. It sits in the muscular groove formed in the semimembranosus muscle at the inner back of the thigh. The semitendinosus is innervated by the tibial nerve and supplied by the tibial artery. This muscle flexes the lower leg and extends the thigh at the hip joint. It is considered one of the hamstring muscles. Its tendon, along with the tendons of the semimembranosus and the gracilis muscles, forms the inner hamstring.
Senna is a purgative consisting of the leaves of the shrub Cassia actuifolia.
Senox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Sensorium is a general name given to the brain or to any series of nerve-centres in which impressions derived from the external world become localized, transformed into sensations, and thereafter transferred by reflex action to other parts of the body. The term has been sometimes specially applied to denote the series of organs in the brain connected with the reception of special impressions derived from the organs of sense.
Seotal is a trade name for secobarbital.
Seplophobia is the fear of decaying matter.
Sepsis is blood or tissue poisoning caused by bacteria.
Septic is a term describing tissue in a state of sepsis. Usually the term is applied to cuts and wounds in an animal which have become infected.
Septic meningitis is usually due to extension of infection to the pia mater from adjacent structures. Thus, it arises commonly from chronic infection of the middle ear, infection of the scalp, fractured skull, and bullet wounds of the head, which are common in war-time. At the time of injury the patient may merely feel upset, but deeper trouble may be taking place inside the skull. For this reason all injuries to the head, even though they may appear to be trivial, should be carefully watched. Moreover, in all cases where meningitis is suspected the ear drum should be examined. As in all forms of acute meningitis, there is headache, vomiting and drowsiness, accompanied by high fever with rigors (attacks of shivering as the temperature rises). Later there is restlessness with delirium, and a painful stiff neck so that the head is drawn backwards.
Research Septic Meningitis
Septicaemia is a pathological term describing blood poisoning by bacteria.
A septum is a partition which separates two cavities, such as of the nostrils. The 'septum' is the name given to the septum comprised of a thick muscular wall that divides the heart lengthwise into the left and right sides. Before birth, an opening known as the foramen ovale in the septum allows oxygen from the mother to flow directly from the right to the left atrium, by-passing the lungs which do not function until the moment of birth. The foramen ovale normally closes at birth, but occasionally it remains open, resulting in poor circulation through the lungs where it fails to take up enough oxygen, causing the skin of the new-born child to turn blue. This condition is known as a hole in the heart and can often be repaired by surgery.
The septum pellucidum is a wall of two thin laminae of grey and white matter which extend from the center of the corpus callosum to the fibres of the fornix.
Research Septum Pellucidum
Serotherapy is the treatment of disease by the injection of serum containing antibodies to the disease.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a compound widely distributed in human tissue, particularly in the blood, wall of the intestine and the central nervous system. It acts as a neurotransmitter concerned especially with the process of sleep.
A serous membrane is a membrane that lines certain areas inside the body, such as the sac that surrounds the heart. Between the inner layer of serous membrane covering various organs and the outer layer of the organ itself is a space kept wet by a lubricating serous fluid that allows the covered organ to move easily, such as the lungs, which move during breathing.
Research Serous Membrane
Seroxat (paroxetine) is an anti-depression drug which causes central nervous system stimulation by the inhibition of serotonin uptake. It has been noticed, however, that suicide rates among those prescribed Seroxat and other serotonin reuptake inhibitors is significantly higher than among those patients who do not take the drugs, revealing that far from reducing depression, Seroxat and similar drugs increase it.
The serratus anterior (serratus magnus; costoscapularis) is a large quadrilateral muscle that curves along the rib cage. The muscle originates from several bundles from the first eight to nine ribs and extends along the side and upper border of each rib. It then divides into two portions, and upper and lower portion. The upper portion lies along the upper side of the rib cage and the armpit. The lower portion consists of five or six pointed digitations which create a fan-shaped mass extending from the scapula. The serratus anterior inserts in the inferior and superior angles of the scapula. It is innervated by branches from the brachial plexus and supplied by the thoracic artery and partly by the thorocodorsal artery. This muscle is used everytime you reach out or push forward with your arms. It also helps raise the shoulder joint when lifting your arm above your head.
Research Serratus Anterior
The serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles lie deep on the front part of the neck. The serratus posterior superior is a thin, flat, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the neck to the third, fourth, and fifth ribs. It is innervated by the first through fourth intercostal nerves. The serratus posterior inferior is broader than the serratus posterior superior and extends to the four lower ribs. It is innervated by the ninth through twelfth intercostal nerves. Both muscles are respiratory muscle. The serratus posterior superior elevates the ribs as you inhale and the serratus posterior inferior pulls the ribs down and back to exhale.
Research Serratus Posterior Inferior
The serratus posterior superior and inferior muscles lie deep on the front part of the neck. The serratus posterior superior is a thin, flat, quadrilateral muscle that extends from the neck to the third, fourth, and fifth ribs. It is innervated by the first through fourth intercostal nerves. The serratus posterior inferior is broader than the serratus posterior superior and extends to the four lower ribs. It is innervated by the ninth through twelfth intercostal nerves. Both muscles are respiratory muscle. The serratus posterior superior elevates the ribs as you inhale and the serratus posterior inferior pulls the ribs down and back to exhale.
Research Serratus Posterior Superior
Sertraline is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor drug. It is used to treat depression.
Servamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Sesamoid Bones are small bones formed within tendons at articulations or joints, including the patella or knee-cap. They are so called from their resemblance to the seeds of sesame.
Research Sesamoid Bones
Sesquipedalophobia is the fear of long words.
Sexophobia is the fear of the opposite sex.
Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is a general term that refers to as many as twenty different illnesses. These are transmitted by sex - usually through the exchange of bodily fluids such as semen, vaginal fluid, and blood. STD's such as herpes, can be acquired by kissing or close contact with infected areas - not just intercourse. If left untreated, STD's can cause permanent damage that leaves you blind, brain-damaged, or sterile. The most common STD's are chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhea, genital warts, syphilis, hepatitis B, crabs, and trichomoniasis. STD's can be prevented, most can be cured. They infect men, women, and children. Mothers can also transmit STD's to their babies. Anyone at any age can be a victim. It is not true that having had an STD once and having been cured, you will not get it again. Anyone who has sex can get a sexually transmitted disease and millions do. More than 4 million people get chlamydia each year. Genital herpes affects an estimated thirty million Americans, with as many as 500,000 new cases reported each year. There are over one million cases of gonorrhea each year. And syphilis, once thought to be on the decline, made a rising comeback in the 1990s.
Research Sexually Transmitted Diseases
In human anatomy, short bones are part of the skeleton designed for strength and compactness and occur where the skeleton primarily requires strength. They are comprised of a spongy substance surrounded by a thin crust of compact bone.
Research Short bones
The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the articulation between the upper arm (the head of the humerus) and the shoulder-blade (the glenoid cavity of the scapula). The shoulder-joint forms an example of the ball-and-socket joints, the ball-like or rounded head of the humerus working in the shallow cup of the glenoid cavity. Such a form of joint necessarily allows of very considerable movement, while the joint itself is guarded against dislocation or displacement by the strong ligaments surrounding it, as well as by the tendons of its investing and other muscles. The muscles which are related to the shoulder-joint are the supraspinatus above, the long head of the triceps below, the subscapularis internally, the infraspinatus and teres minor externally, and the long tendon of the biceps within. The deltoid muscle lies on the external aspect of the joint, and covers it on its outer side in front, and behind as well, being the most important of the muscles connected with it.
The movements of the shoulder-joint consist in those of abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation - a 'universal' movement being thus permitted; and its free motion is further aided, when the bony surfaces are in contact, by separate movements of the scapula itself, and by the motions of the articulations between the sternum and clavicle, and between the coracoid process and clavicle also. The biceps muscle, from its connection with both elbow and shoulder joints, brings the movements of both into harmonious relation. The shoulder-joint is liable to various diseases and injuries. Local injury may result in inflammation of the joint, whilst special diatheses or diseased conditions of constitutional origin may each give rise, either per se or through injuries, to such lesions as strumous or scrofulous disease of the joint, to syphilitic lesions, and to gouty or rheumatic attacks. Of the accidents to which the joint is liable dislocations are by far the most frequent.
Research Shoulder Joint
Sia-mox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
In medicine, sialogogues are drugs which cause an increased secretion of saliva.
Siamese Twins (conjoined twins) are human twins born attached together. The attachment may be anything from a finger to a single body with two heads.
The first well-known example was of two male individuals having their bodies connected inseparably from their birth, being joined by a thick fleshy ligament from the lower end of the breast-bone of each, having the common navel on its lower border, so that they stood in a sort of oblique position towards each other. They were Born in Siam (Thailand) in 1811, of a Chinese father and a Chino-Siamese mother, and named Eng ('right') and Chang ('left'), they were on exhibition in Europe and America a number of times, and ultimately settled in the state of Pennsylvania. They married two sisters and both had a number of children, none of whom exhibited any malformation. Chang died unexpectedly on January the 17th, 1874) while his brother was asleep, and Eng died a few hours afterwards. The Siamese twins attracted great attention during their lifetime, particularly from physiologists and doctors, some of whom at the time thought that the ligament connecting them might have been cut without causing the death of either. Later in the 20th century it became possible to separate some Siamese twins, with varying degrees of success.
Research Siamese Twins
Siderodromophobia is the fear of rail travel.
Siderophobia is the fear of stars.
Siderosis is a lung disease caused by breathing in fine particles of iron or other metallic dust.
A sigmoidoscope is a long tubular speculum used for sigmoidoscopy, that is a form of endoscopy involving the examination of the upper regions of the rectum and the sigmoid or pelvic colon.
Sigmopen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Sil-A-mox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Silibrin is a trade name for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.
Silicosis is an occupational disease (pneumoconiosis) caused by the inhalation of silica dust which causes small concentrations of inflammation and scarring of the lungs. Over time the result of silicosis is shortness of breath, and increased susceptibility to infection of the lungs. Silicosis particularly affects miners and those working with stone.
Silvester's method is a method of artificial respiration in which the patient lies on his back with a folded coat or blanket under the upper part of the thorax. The patient's arms, flexed at the elbow, are abducted and taken above his head so that the pectoral muscles elevate the ribs and expand the chest. As the arms are brought down, with pressure against the sides of the chest, forced expiration is produced. This method really requires an assistant to hold the tongue forward, in order to preserve the airway: a safety pin can be put through the dorsum of the tongue and attached to a string held by the assistant.
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Simoxil is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Simplamox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Simples is an old term for any medicinal herbs.
Sinistrophobia is the fear of left-handedness.
Sinophobia is the fear of Chinese people and things.
A sinus is an air-filled space in the diploe of a skull bone.
Sunusitis is an inflamation of the mucous linings of the sinus cavities in the front of the skull. Sinusistus can be caused by infection, but is much more common and severe as an allergic reaction. Formerly the main cause of sinusitis was hay fever, an allergy to small pollen particles in the air. Artificial preservatives based upon sodium sulphite are a much more common cause in modern times as sulphites are so widespread in processed foods, being used to preserve fruit and vegetables, beer, sausages and occuring naturally in wine. Traditionally for several hundred years tobacco smoking was promoted as an effective relief from hay fever, but following pressure from the pharmaceutical industry lobby, since the late 20th century it has been a criminal offence in the United Kingdom to recommend or even to report any medicinal benefits of tobacco use, with some doctors actually erroneously claiming tobacco use as a cause of sinusitis, missing the real causes and leaving tthousands of sufferers in pai and discomfort.
Sitophobia is the fear of food or eating.
The skeleton is the hard internal or external framework of bones, cartilage or shell which provides protection for an animals organs, provides fixing points for the muscles and a general frame for the body. Two hundred and six bones compose the skeleton, about half of which are in the hands and feet. Most of the bones are connected to other bones at flexible joints, which lend the framework a high degree of flexibility. Only one bone, the hyoid, is not directly connected to another bone in such an articulation. It anchors the tongue and is attached to the styloid processes of the skull by ligament. The skeletons of male and female bodies are essentially the same, with the only noteworthy exceptions being that female bones are usually lighter and thinner than male bones, and the female pelvis is shallower and wider than the male's. This latter difference makes childbirth easier.
The skin (cutaneous membrane) is the large, supple membrane that covers the entire external surface of the body, and as such has the largest surface area of any organ in the body and is also the heaviest.
Structurally viewed, the skin of all vertebrates consists of two layers - an outer and inner layer. To the outer layer the name of cuticle, epidermis, or scarf skin is popularly given. This layer is destitute of nerves and of blood-vessels, and is thus a non-sensitive structure. The inner layer is, on the contrary, a highly vascular and sensitive layer, and is named the dermis, corium, or true skin. At the lips and elsewhere the epidermis becomes continuous with the more delicate mucous membrane which forms the lining membrane of the internal passages. This membrane is to be viewed, however, as a mere modification of the epidermis itself. The epidermis is composed of several layers of epithelial cells. The upper cells of the epidermis, as seen in a vertical section of the skin, are flattened, and of scaly conformation, the lower cells being of rounded or elongated shape. The elongated cells have their long axes arranged vertically to the general skin surface. The deeper portion of the epidermis, or rete mucosum, is of softer and more opaque consistence and appearance than the upper layer;
and it is in the rete mucosum that colouring matters are present, which give the hue to the skin.
The dermis or true skin rests upon a layer of adipose and cellular tissue, and is composed of interlacing fibres of fibro-cellular tissue. It is richly supplied with bloodvessels, so that when cut it bleeds; and nerve-fibres are likewise disposed in it, conferring sensibility. The surface of the true skin is thrown into a series of elevations, papillae, or minute prominences, which are specially rich in capillary blood-vessels and nerve endings, and which are thus particularly vascular and sensitive.
The special glands of the skin are the sudoriparous or sweat glands; they are in the form of tubes coiled up into balls, and the total number of them in the human skin is estimated at over two millions. There are also sebaceous glands, which secrete an oily fluid useful for lubrication. Though the most ostensible function of the skin seems to be that it covers in and protects the more delicate structures that lie beneath it, its functions as an excretory organ and as a regulator of the temperature of the body are also of high importance. The hair and nails are modifications of the epidermis, as are also the feathers of birds and the claws of animals. Extensions of skin, as between the toes of ducks, etc, or between the arms and legs of flying squirrels, and as seen in bats, may exist. And pendulous skin-folds, horns, callosities, horny plates, scales, and other modifications of the epidermis, are met with in various animals. The scutes or bony plates seen in the armadillos are dermal structures united to horny plates formed by the epidermis. In many reptiles and in some lizards the two layers of the skin similarly participate in forming the exoskeleton. The scales of fishes are formed by the dermis or true skin; but those of snakes are epidermic in their nature.
The skull is one of the principle groups of bones in the human anatomy. The skull consists of twenty-six bones: eight bones form the skull, which houses the brain and ear ossicles, plus fourteen facial bones, which form the front of the face, jaw, nose, orbits, and the roof of the mouth, three more bones make up the inner ear ossicles, and one more, the hyoid bone, is in the neck and is attached to the temporal bone by ligaments and anchors the tongue. The skull also contains a dental arcade of teeth, which are technically not bones, though they do share some of the compositional characteristics of bone tissue. Children may grow twenty deciduous teeth, which will eventually fall out and be replaced by the permanent teeth.
The bones of the skull include the frontal bone, the occipital bone, two parietal bones, and two temporal bones. The lower rearmost part of each temporal bone is called the mastoid process, but because it is separated from the temporal bone, proper, by a suture, it is often considered a separate bone. The sphenoid bone forms the central base of the skull and spans the skull from side to side, the greater wings forming side plates of the skull. The sections of the ethmoid bone are positioned between the orbits, forming the walls and roof of the nasal cavity, while the three middle ear ossicles (stapes, malleus, and incus) are located within the temporal bones on each side of the skull. The U-shaped hyoid bone is found in the neck, and is attached by ligaments to the temporal bones. In the face, the two maxillary bones form much of the orbits, nose, upper jaw and roof of the mouth, while the zygomatic bones form the cheeks. The lachrymal bones are located on the inner sides of the orbits and are attached to the ethmoid bone and maxillary bones. Within the nasal cavity, the vomer is located in the low center and forms the thin flat bone of the nasal septum, while two inferior urbinates form the lower sides of the cavity and two palate bones form the floor of the nasal cavity as well as the roof of the mouth.
The mandible is the only movable part of the skull, forming the lower jaw and mounting the teeth. The bones of the skull, with the exception of the mandible, are held together by very thin sutures, or seams, in which the periosteum of the individual bones interweave with each other, and are cemented by a fibrous, connective tissue. In the newborn, these sutures are not yet developed, with the bones being attached by cartilage which ossifies over time as the bones of the skull fuse together. The most evident external sutures of the skull include the coronal suture, joining the frontal bone and parietal bone, the sagittal suture, joining the parietal bones to each other, the lambdoid suture, joining the occipital and parietal bones, the squamous suture, joining the temporal and sphenoid bones to the parietal bone on each side of the skull.
The pterion is the short segment of the suture joining the squamous and parietal bones. The bones of the skull also feature a number of sinuses and foramina. Four pairs of sinuses flank the nasal cavity. Two are found in the maxillary bone, and are called maxillary sinuses. The sphenoid bone forms two paranasal sinuses called the sphenoids, and the ethmoid bone forms the two paranasal sinuses called ethmoids. Additionally, the frontal sinuses are located in the frontal bone just behind the roof of each orbit. The foramen magnum is a large, round opening in the base of the skull which admits the spinal cord, while at the base of each temporal bone is the external auditory meatus, which serve as the auditory canals. Just above each orbit in the frontal bone is a small notch or hole, called a supraorbital foramen, and just below each orbit, in the maxillary bone, is an infraorbital foramen. Two more openings, one on each side of the skull, can be found in the frontal processes of the zygomatic bones, and are called zygomatofacial foramina.
On each side of the mandible, just below the lower canines, are the mental foramina. These facial foramina serve to admit blood vessels and nerves through and into the bone. The teeth are mounted in the maxillary bone and the mandible, and are brought together for chewing by the hinge-like motion of the mandible. An average adult will have thirty-two teeth, evenly arrayed on the maxilla and mandible.
Sleeping sickness (Trypartosomiasis) is caused by the Trypanosoma gambiense parasite, discovered in 1902. The disease is spread by various flies called Tsetse flies (Glossina), and the parasites live in the intestines and salivary glands of infected flies; when they bite a human being the parasite is transferred to the wound and thence to the patient's blood. The disease is confined principally to Africa and South America, where whole native districts are said to have been depopulated. An inflamed patch develops round the bite, and is followed within seven to fourteen days by fever. There is a long latent period after infection, and the onset is slow and insidious, with intermittent fever. The patient suffers from headache and weakness, and sometimes an eruption appears.
In the early stage of the disease the patient is mentally dull, the pulse is rapid and there is malaise; the spleen and glands become enlarged. The patient may recover, or the disease become chronic. After a variable period of from three months to three years, if recovery does not follow, stage two develops, with increasing weakness, fatigue, fever, tremors, slow speech, uncertain shuffling gait, neuralgia and cramps, apathy, melancholy or irritability, and vacancy of facial expression; memory and intelligence are impaired. With treatment the patient may recover even at this stage. In stage three, however, the patient sinks into a lethargic or paralytic condition, sometimes with convulsions or delirium, and is unable to speak or stand. The temperature is low, and the body is emaciated. Death is inevitable and generally occurs within eighteen months from meningitis or coma.
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The small intestine is descriptively divided into three sections: the duodenum, the ileum, and the jejunum. The duodenum accepts the digested food paste, called chyme, from the stomach, through the pylorus sphincter. The duodenum is about ten inches long and forms a curve around the head of the pancreas. The duodenum secretes digestive enzymes invertase and erepsin, necessary for digestion. The gall bladder, liver, and pancreas also deposit enzymes and bile into the duodenum. The jejunum is the intermediate section of the small intestine, measuring a little over two meters long. The jejunum carries digested food through the small intestine rapidly by peristaltic waves and, as a result, seldom has much food matter in it. It is connected to the abdominal wall by the mesentery. The ileum is the last, and longest, segment of the small intestine, measuring up to four meters or longer. Most of the absorption of useful food nutrients takes place in the ileum before it empties out into the cecum of the large intestine.
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Smallpox (Variola) is an acute contagious disease characterised by fever and the appearance on the body of an eruption, which passes through the stages of papule, vesicle, pustule and scab.
The first symptoms of the disease appear about seven days after infection, when a feverish shivering pervades the body, followed about three days later by the appearance of red spots on the face, breast, hands, and gradually over the whole body. After about three days these spots develop pustules, which become inflamed and suppurate. About the eleventh day the pustules begin to dry up and form a crust. Commonly the small-pox virus infects but once, and then only those persons who have a certain susceptibility for it.
This disease is first mentioned by Arabic writers. It is not certain how it was introduced into Europe, but from the 13th century downwards it raged with great destructiveness among the Western nations, until it was supposedly checked by the introduction of vaccination. It is more fatal on its first appearance in a country, and commits greater ravages, than after having prevailed for some time, as it did in Iceland in 1707, and in Greenland in 1733. The violence of the disorder is lessened when it is produced artificially by inoculation with the small-pox virus. Inoculation was introduced into Western Europe from Turkey by the celebrated Lady Montagu; but it was entirely superseded by vaccination, which was safer.
The smell receptors are located at the base of each cilia located in the mucous membrane at the top of the nasal cavity. There are about 50 million nerve fibres leaving the olfactory mucosa on each side of the nose. These link with a further 50,000 nerve fibres which carry messages to the frontal lobes of the brain.
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Smelling Salts are a preparation of ammonium carbonate with a sweet-scented oil, used in cases of faintness and also formerly to relieve nasal catarrh.
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Smooth-muscle cells are not attached to the skeleton, but are found in the walls of the blood vessels, the digestive tract, and in the dermal layer of the skin. They react slowly to stimuli from the autonomic nervous system and perform actions such as forcing food through the intestines, transporting urine to the kidneys and pumping blood through blood vessels. The muscle is non-striated and consist of spindle-shaped, uni-nuclear cells that are not bound together, as in skeletal muscle. Like skeletal muscle, smooth muscle has fibrillae but without cross striations. The muscles are involuntary, and are slow-acting, untiring, and weak in action.
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Snakephobia is the fear of snakes.
Sneezing is a convulsive action of the respiratory organs brought on commonly by irritation of the nostrils. It is preceded by a deep inspiration, which fills the lungs and then forces the air violently through the nose. Sneezing produced in the ordinary way is a natural and healthy action, throwing off automatically from the delicate membrane of the nostrils whatever irritable or offensive material may chance to be lodged there. The custom of blessing persons when they sneeze is very ancient and very widely spread.
Soceraphobia is the fear of parents-in-law.
Social phobia is the fear of being evaluated negatively.
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Sociophobia is the fear of society.
Sodium propionate is a transparent crystalline soluble substance used as a medical fungicide and to prevent the growth of moulds, especially to retard spoilage in packaged foods.
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The palate forms the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is a continuation of the hard palate which is located in the front of the mouth and made up of portions of the maxillary bones. The soft palate is a moveable fold of mucous membrane suspended in the back of the mouth, forming an arch and an incomplete septum between the mouth and pharynx.
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The solar plexus is a network of nerves situated in the abdomen behind the stomach. It surrounds the coeliac axis, the thick short artery which is a branch of the aorta. The solar plexus contains several ganglia or collections of nerve cells, and from it nerve filaments go to all the abdominal viscera. A blow to the pit of the stomach is the so-called solar plexus blow in boxing and temporarily paralyses the sensitive network of nerves.
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The soleus is a thick muscle located on the back of the lower leg. It originates from the upper part of the fibula and the tendonous arch connecting the head of the fibula to the tibia. The muscle is thickest at its mid-section where its flattened form curves around the deep flexor muscles of the foot and toes. The muscle tapers low, just above the ankle, and its tendon continues on inserting in the middle part of the calcaneum. The tendon of the soleus, combined with the gastrocnemius, is best known as the achillis tendon. The soleus is innervated by the tibial nerve and supplied by the tibial artery. This muscle is used to point the foot or raise the heel, which lifts the body. Its continuous contraction of the soleus prevents the body from falling forward when standing.
Somnambulism is walking while asleep. The habit is most common amongst children.
Somniphobia is the fear of sleep.
Sonimen is a trade name for Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride.
Sophophobia is the fear of learning.
Sordes are crusts which form on the lips of sick persons suffering from extreme exhaustion. They are especially associated with typhoid.
Soteriophobia is the fear of dependence on others.
Spacephobia is the fear of outer space.
A spasm is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. A short, repeated contraction or twitching of a muscle is known as a clonic spasm, a continuous contraction as a tonic spasm.
Specillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Spectrophobia is the fear of specters or ghosts.
In medicine, a speculum is an instrument for temporarily stretching a cavity of the body so that a physician may examine the deeper parts, such as the ear, or parts about the uterus, with a reflecting body at the end, upon which a light being thrown the condition of the parts is shown.
The spermatic cords are the intermediary pathways beginning with the vas deferens and joining to form the ejaculatory duct. Nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatic glands join the vas deferens to compose these cords.
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Spermophobia (bacteriophobia) is the fear of germs.
Spheksophobia is the fear of wasps.
The sphenoid bone is one of the cranial bones and spans the inside of the skull laterally. The sphenoid bone has four wings: two greater and two lesser. The greater wings form part of the sides of the skull, with one greater wing on each side and extending inward to form also part of the back surface of each orbital cavity. The two lesser wings form a small part of the back surfaces of the orbital cavities, and meet in the middle of the skull. The sphenoid bone features two paranasal cavities, or sinuses, called the sphenoids.
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Sphexsophobia is the fear of wasps.
In anatomy, sphincter is a name applied generally to a kind of circular muscles, or muscles in rings, which serve to close the external orifices of organs, such as the sphincter of the mouth, of the eyes, etc, and more particularly to those among them which, like the sphincter of the anus, have the peculiarity of being in a state of permanent contraction, independently of the will, and of relaxing only when it is required that the contents of the organs which they close should be evacuated.
The sphincter ani externus is a sphincter muscle that surrounds and together with the spincter ani internus, close the anus. It is attached to the coccyx and to the central tendon of the perineum.
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The spincter ani internus is a ring of smooth muscle surrounding the upper end of the anal canal.
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The spincter urethra (compressor urethrae; constrictor urethrae; Guthrie's muscle; Wilson's muscle) originates from the ramus of the pubis and inserts in the median raphe behind and in front of the urethra. The flow of urine is controlled by muscles in the bladder wall and outlet. The sphincter urethra is innervated by the pudenal nerve.
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The sphincter vagina is a small muscle surrounding the opening of the vagina. It is attached to the perineum and the external sphincter ani. Its point of insertion is the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris. The sphincter vagina is innervated by a branch of the pudic nerve and is supplied by the pudic artery.
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A sphygmograph or pulsometer was an old medical instrument for recording the movements of the arterial wall during and between the pulse beats. One of the earliest forms was invented by Marey, and consists of a lever with an elastic spring. One end of the spring is placed on the radial artery, and has above it a rack and pinion attached to a lever. The other end of the lever carries a style, which records on a moving smoked plate the movements of the vessel wall. The smoked plate is moved at a known rate by clockwork, and the pressure of the spring upon the artery can be regulated by a screw.
The spinal accessory nerve is the eleventh cranial nerve, branching from the trigeminal nerve and the spinal cord, between the first and fourth cervical vertebrae. The spinal accessory nerve divides into a number of branches which innervate important structures. These include the cervical lymph glands, the larynx, the pharynx, and the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles.
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The spinal cord is one of the primary portions of the central nervous system, serving as a medium for signals to be sent from the brain to the structures of the body, and received from them in return. Extending from the medulla oblongata, through the foramen magnum in the base of the skull, to the base of the vertebral column, the spinal cord is about half of a centimeter in diameter, and is slightly flattened. The spinal cord itself passes through the vertebral canal created by the vertebral arches, and sends out roots and branches. These structures contain bundles of nerve fibres which extend all the way down the body, innervating even the skin of the tips of the toes. The spinal cord features both efferent and afferent nerve pathways, so that nerves may be transmitted to the body's structures as well as received from them.
Paired sets of nerves branch out from the spinal cord along the vertebral column, with the lowest of these forming the sacral plexus of nerves. The sympathetic nerves travel alongside the spinal cord in the sympathetic nerve trunk, which features periodic clusters of nerves, called ganglia, which deal with specific organ groups. The spinal cord floats in a spinal fluid which protects and nourishes it and, as with the brain, is covered by a meningeal membrane composed of three layers: the pia mater, the arachnoid, and the dura mater. Damage to the spinal cord results in inability to transmit and receive nerve impulses to and from the specific area supplied by the damaged section of the spinal cord, and all sections below it, resulting in paralysis and numbness. Inflammation of the spinal covering is a condition called spinal meningitis.
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The spinal nerves are those which originate in the spinal cord and carry impulses to muscles (and other structures) and from sensory organs. They feature both efferent and afferent nerves. Efferent nerves send impulses out to the muscles and other structures and connect with the spinal cord in the anterior roots. Afferent nerves carry impulses from sensory organs to the spinal cord and connect in posterior roots. The spinal nerves include, in alphabetical order, the celiac, the femoral, the genitofemoral, the gluteal, the hemmorhoidal, the hepatic, the hypogastric, the iliohypogastric, the ilioinguinal, the intercostal, the intercostobrachial, the interosseus, the median, the mesenteric, the musculocutaneous, the obturator, the pelvic, the peroneal, the phrenic, the pudendal, the radial, the renal, the saphenous, the scapular, the thoracic, the tibial, and the ulnar nerves.
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The spinales are human muscles which extend the vertebral column.
The spinalis capitis muscle (biventer cervicis) is a small muscle situated on the inner side of the spinalis cervicis. It is an extension of the spinalis cervicis and extends upward to the occipital bone, or it may fuse with the semispinalis capitis. The spinalis muscles link the vertebrae, helping you to stand upright. The spinalis capitis is innervated by dorsal branches of the cervical nerve and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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The presence of the spinalis cervicis muscle (spinalis colli) varies from individual to individual. When present, it is a small muscle that originates from the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae and inserts in the axis and third cervical vertebra. This muscle extends the cervical spine. The spinalis muscles link the vertebrae, helping the body to stand upright. The spinalis cervicis is innervated by dorsal branches of the cervical nerve and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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The spinalis thoracis muscle (spinalis dorsi) originates from the spinous processes of the upper lumbar and two lower thoracic vertebrae. It inserts in the spinous processes of the middle and upper thoracic vertebrae. The spinalis thoracis muscle is innervated by branches of the thoracic and lumbar nerves and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta.
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Spine (from the Latin spina meaning a rgorn) is a popular term for the vertebral column (spinal column), and so called from the thorn-like processes of the vertebrae.
The spine of the scapula is a ridge which runs laterally along the posterior surface of the bone. This spine separates the surface of the back of the scapula into two unequal areas: the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa. The spine continues laterally to form the coracoid process and the acromion (which articulates with the clavicle). The spine and these two projections serve to anchor much of the connective tissue in the shoulder. The trapezius and deltoid muscles are especially responsible for giving the scapula its stability and strength during movement.
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The spinous process is a projection of bone from the arch of almost every vertebra toward the posterior. This projection is located at the apex of the arch and bordered on the arch by the laminae. It is the series of these processes which is visible as the bumps beneath the skin on the back. The spinous process serves as an anchor point for ligaments which help control the flexibility of the spine. The vertebrae feature different types of spinous processes. Typical cervical vertebrae have bifid spinous processes, with the exception of the atlas which has no spinous process. Thoracic vertebrae generally have a single tubercle, and point downward as well as back. The lumbar vertebrae feature spinous processes which are rectangular or hatchet-shaped and have a section which points back and one which points down. The spinous processes of the sacrum and coccyx are generally fused together, to form a ridge called, in the sacrum, the sacral crest. Often, the coccygeal vertebrae (fused or not) show no evidence of any ridge, crest, or
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The spleen is a solid organ lying between the left wall of the stomach and the diaphragm, protected by the lower ribs and held in position by its capsule which is formed of peritoneum. Its very large artery comes almost directly from the aorta and its vein is one of the main tributaries of the portal system. The spleen has many functions which are known and probably others which are not known. It contains smooth muscle and is capable of contracting. It has a sponge-like structure in which the sinuses or spaces of the sponge are filled with blood. By its power of contraction it is able to expel into the circulation a large amount of this reserve blood, to meet sudden demands such as may be produced by shock or haemorrhage. In addition to this reservoir function, the spleen is the 'headquarters' of the reticulo-endothelial system. Cells of this system are found in various parts of the body, the liver, lymph glands and bone marrow. The function of the reticulo- endotheliai system with its macrophage cells is to deal with foreign particles which circulate in the blood or gain entrance to the tissues, such as bacteria, viruses and other tissue cells. Red blood cells are being continuously destroyed in the spleen. It is probable that antibodies against disease are also produced by the reticulo-endothelial system and by the masses of lymphatic tissue to be found in the spleen.
A splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. It may be necessary following injury to the spleen, or in the course of some blood diseases.
The splenic artery is the largest of the three branches of the celiac artery. It extends outward from the celiac artery to the spleen, where is divides into branches that supply the spleen.
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The splenic vein arises from five or six branches which return blood from the spleen. The splenic vein merges with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.
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The splenius capitis muscle runs along the back of the neck and joins the skull and spine. It is narrow and pointed at its origin from the last four cervical vertebrae and the supraspinous ligament of the first and second thoracic vertebrae. It becomes broader, dividing into two portions with separate insertions. The splenius capitis is inserted into the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the splenius colli (splenius cervicis) is inserted in two or three upper cervical vertebrae. The splenius capitis is innervated by dorsal branches of the second to sixth cervical nerves and is supplied by muscular branches of the aorta. It is used to rotate and tilt the head from side to side.
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The splenius cervicis (splenius colli) muscles originate from the spinous processes of the third, fourth, and fifth thoracic vertebrae and extend upward to insert into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the first, second, and third cervical vertebrae. These muscles are important to movement of the head. They extend and rotate the neck. They are innervated by dorsal branches of the fourth to eighth cervical nerves and supplied by branches of the aorta.
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A splint is a medical structure used to immobilise a broken or diseased limb.
Splints may be made of any material, for example wood, leather, zinc, aluminium, or perspex. A fractured limb may be immobilised in an inflatable plastic splint as a first-aid measure, and a more permanent and less bulky splint applied later, moulded to the shape of the limb, for example plaster-of-Paris bandages, applied wet and allowed to harden, or glass-fibre bandages, which are lighter and more waterproof. Other splints are available for treatment of deformities and diseased limbs. Lively splints, which give support while at the same time allowing movement against tension springs, are used to restore hand function. Padded splints are used for babies with congenital dislocation of the hips. The legs are held in such a position that the hip joint develops normally.
Sporadic is a term applied to a disease which occurs in single and scattered cases as distinct from epidemic and endemic, when many persons are affected.
Spotted fever is a name given to various severe febrile diseases characterised by small irregular spots on the skin, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick fever.
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A sprain is the violent straining or twisting of the ligaments and tendons which form the soft parts surrounding a joint. The ordinary consequence of a sprain is to produce some degree of swelling and inflammation in the injured part. The best treatment is to give the limb perfect rest, by means of splints or otherwise, and to foment the part for an hour or two with warm water.
Sputum is mucus coughed up from the respiratory tracts.
Squill is a medicine derived from the bulb of the squill plant. Squill resembles digitalis in its action, but its effects on the heart and blood vessels are much more powerful. In large doses Squill produces nausea and vomiting, and as such it was at one time used as an emetic. In smaller doses it mildly irritates the stomach, and produces reflex secretion from the bronchioles, and it is this characteristic that causes it to be much used as an expectorant in the treatment of coughs in chronic bronchitis.
The stapedius is a small ear muscle. It originates from the walls of the tympanic cavity and inserts in the neck of the stapes. It is innervated by branches of the trigeminal nerve through the otic ganglion.
Stasibasiphobia is the fear of standing or walking.
Stasophobia is the fear of standing.
Staurophobia is the fear of crosses or the crucifix.
Stelazine is a trade name for trifluoperazine hydrochloride.
Stenophobia is the fear of narrow things or places.
Stenson's duct is the duct leading from the parotid gland to the inside of the cheek, where it discharges saliva.
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The sternocleidomastoid (sternocleidomastoideus; sternomastoid) muscle is located in the neck. It is a thin, broad muscle that narrows at the center. It originates from two heads, one from the sternum and and one from the clavicle , and runs upward, inserting into the mastoid process. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is innervated by the accessory nerve and the cervical plexus. It is supplied by the occipital artery ans the superior thyroid artery. This muscle is used to tilt the head from side to side.
The Sternocostal head is that part of the pectoralis major muscle that originates from the sternum and the costal cartilage of the first to sixth ribs.
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The sternohyoid (sternohyoideus) is a narrow, ribbon-thin muscle located on the front of the neck. It originates on each side of the neck from the clavicle and the upper part of the first piece of the sternum (breast bone). The muscles run upward and come together in the middle of their course (both pieces of the muscle lie side by side), but do not actually touch and are inserted in the front of the hyoid bone. The muscle is innervated by the upper cervical nerves through the ansa cervicalis and is supplied by the inferior and superior thyroid arteries. This muscle pulls the hyoid bone down, as in swallowing, and assists in flexion of the head and neck.
The sternomastoid is a muscle in the human neck.
The sternothyroid (sternothyroideus) is a short wide muscle that lies just beneath the sternohyoid muscle. It originates from the first bone of the sternum (breast bone) and from the edge of the cartilage of the first rib and is inserted into the thyroid cartilage. It is innervated by the upper cervical nerves through the ansa cervicalis and is supplied by the inferior and superior thyroid arteries. This muscle acts as a depressor of the thyroid cartilage.
In anatomy, the sternum (also known as the breastbone) is a flat, blade-like bone located at the center of the chest. It serves as the anterior site of articulation for the ribs via cartilaginous connections, called costal cartilage. The pectoralis major also anchors to the sternum, giving the shoulder joint much of its strength during flexion of the arm. The sternum features two articulations in addition to its costal articulations. One of these, called the manubriosternal joint, is between the body of the sternum and the broader upper section, called the manubrium. The manubrium of the sternum articulates with the clavicles and the sternocleidomastoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid muscles connect here. The lower articulation is called the xiphisternal joint, and is between the body of the sternum and a small, teardrop-shaped bone called the xiphoid process. The xiphoid process anchors the rectus abdominis, the transverse thoracic, and the diaphragm muscles, responsible for much of the muscular expansion and contraction of the abdomen.
A stethoscope is an instrument employed in medicine (and safe cracking) for the purpose of listening to the sounds produced in the body. Stethoscopes are generally two rubber tubes forming a Y arrangement. One tube goes in each ear and at the end of the single leg is a cup or microphone which is placed against the patient's body.
The early and simplest form of stethoscope consisted of a hollow wooden cylinder with one extremity funnel-shaped, the other with a comparatively large circular ivory plate. In using it the funnel-shaped extremity was placed upon the body of the patient, and the ivory plate to the ear of the listener, this broad plate helping to exclude foreign sounds.
A stimulant is a drug that acts upon the brain to increase alertness.
The stomach (fundus) is one of the primary organs of the digestive system. It is located in the middle of the abdominal cavity and extends from the lower end of the esophagus to the duodenum. A curved sac, the stomach has a lesser curvature along the top and a greater curvature along the bottom. The bolus of chewed food paste enters the stomach from the esophagus, propelled by peristaltic waves. The cardiac gastric glands are located near the entrance to the stomach and lubricate the food as it comes in. The stomach secretes hydrochloric acid and the enzymes pepsin, rennin, and lipase which help digest the carbohydrates, proteins and fats in food. The stomach is lined with a durable mucous lining which protects it from the gastric juices so that the stomach itself is not digested. Occasionally, a portion of this lining wears thin and the digestive juices do aggravate the stomach lining. This condition is known as an ulcer and is a frequent occurrence which may affect the stomach, the lower esophagus, or the duodenum. The lower end of the stomach is guarded by the pylorus, a sphincter muscle which admits digested food into the duodenum after it has been adequately processed by the digestive juices.
The average stomach can hold about a liter, but can stretch to hold much more than this. When empty, or nearly empty, the stomach contracts to form folds, or rugae, in its mucous lining. Though it was once thought that the contractions of the stomach in the absence of food was what caused the sensation of hunger, it is now known that the primary impulse of hunger is due to low glucose levels in the bloodstream. However, the contraction of the stomach can often be felt, and this and the 'grumbling' heard as food is passed through the lower digestive tract also serve to remind one of the sensation of hunger.
Stomatology is the branch of medicine or dentistry concerned with the structures, functions, and diseases of the mouth.
Storax is a balsam obtained by boiling the inner bark of the tree Liquidambar orientalis. It forms a brownish- yellow syrup with an aromatic taste and smell. It was used in medicine for destroying parasites and internally as an expectorant and mucous disinfectant.
The straight sinus vein is a continuation of the inferior longitudinal vein. The straight sinus vein increases in size as it passes downward and backward to the sinus of the opposite side.
Research Straight Sinus Vein
Stramonium is a drug obtained from the seeds and leaves of the thorn-apple. The chief constituent is an alkaline daturine. Stramonium was once used at treat bronchial spasms in asthma.
The stratum basale is the deepest layer of the epidermis, consisting of a single row of columnar or cuboidal cells. The epidermal cells originate from this layer and new cells are continually being produced. Some of these cells make the protein keratin, which toughens them. Others produce melanin, the substance that gives skin colour. As the cells in this layer increase in number, they are pushed outward and become part of the stratum granulosum.
Research Stratum Basale
The stratum corneum is the outer layer of the epidermis. It is composed of flat, dead cells which have lost their nuclei. It is constantly being sloughed off as dandruff. These cells are rubbed off as you move, wear clothes, and wash. Keratin, a horny protein found in hair and fingernails, is also found in the cells of the stratum corneum and prevents evaporation. It also helps to ward off injury because of its toughness.
Research Stratum Corneum
The stratum granulosum is the thin layer of epidermis, composed of only a few layers of cells just above the stratum spinosum. The cells of the stratum granulosum fill with keratin and die as they continue upward to reach the top layer, the stratum corneum. The entire process takes about a month and the cells are worn away with friction.
Research Stratum Granulosum
The stratum spinosum is the middle layer of the epidermis between the stratum basale and the stratum granulosum.
Research Stratum Spinosum
Streptomycin is an antibiotic.
The striated muscle cells, which comprise about 40% of the body weight, are voluntary. They are mostly attached to the bones to move the skeleton and are fast acting and powerful. The voluntary muscles are of three series: those more or less arranged around the axial skeleton (head, neck, and trunk), and those nonsegmentally arranged around the appendicular skeleton (arms and legs), and those associated with the visceral skeleton (brachiometric muscles).
All muscles have basically the same structure. Each muscle has an attachment at both ends, called the origin and insertion, and a fleshy contractile part, called the muscle belly. The point of origin is the point of attachment where the muscle is anchored to the bone. The point of insertion is the attachment of the muscle to the bone it moves. These muscles are attached either directly or indirectly (via tendons) to the bones, and work in opposing pairs (one muscle in the pair contracts, while the other relaxes) to produce body movements (The muscles work together to produce movement of a joint, to steady a joint, and to prevent movement in the direction opposite to those intended.). As a rule, only the insertion bone moves. The shortening of the muscle as it contracts pulls the insertion bone toward the origin bone. The origin bone stays put, holding firm while the insertion bone moves toward it. These muscles always tire with continued use and require rest. Because of their cross-striped appearance under a microscope, these muscles are called striated.
There are two types of striated muscle: dark fibres and light fibres. The dark fibres are a deep red colour and predominantly produce slow, tonic movement. The light fibres are lighter in colour and predominantly produce quick and contracted motions. Each muscle fiber is encased in a thin, transparent membrane called the sarcolemma. The fibres are subdivided longitudinally into minute fibrils and myofibrils encased in a fluid called sacroplasm. The muscle cells are elongated tubular structures with as many as several hundred nuclei and are actually fusions of cells (syncytia). The muscles are bound together in bundles of white fibrous connective tissue called perimysia. Striated muscles not directly under voluntary control include vocal cord muscles and the diaphragm.
Research Striated Muscle
Strongyloidiasis is an intestinal disease caused by infection with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis.
Strychnine is a white, odourless, crystalline powder, almost insoluble in water, with an intensely bitter taste. It is a poisonous alkaloid obtained from the dried seeds of nux vomica and other species of Strychnos. In small does it is administered as a heart stimulant. In toxic doses strychnine causes convulsions which are interspersed with periods of relaxation, which gradually reduce until the convulsions are almost continuous, and contraction of the chest muscles prevents breathing and causes death.
A stye or hordeolum is a little boil on the margin of the eyelid, which commences in the follicle of one eyelash. The tumour generally bursts in a few days, and it is very seldom necessary to puncture it.
Stygiophobia is the fear of hell.
The styloglossus is a small and short muscle. One is located on each side of the tongue. The muscles link the sides of the tongue to the base of the skull via the bony styloid process, extending downward from the temporal bones. Contraction of these two muscles pulls the tongue back and up. The genioglossus, the styloglossus, the palatoglossus and the hyoglossus work together to move the tongue.
The stylohyoid muscle (stylohyoideus) lies just above and in front of the digastric muscle and is perforated by the digastric tendon. It is a thin and slender muscle that originates at the base of the styloid process on the temporal bone and inserts into the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) and supplied by the facial artery. This muscle raises the hyoid bone and the base of the tongue and is used when swallowing.
At the base of each temporal bone is a thorn-like protrusion called the
styloid process. Located near the articulation of the occipital and temporal bones, this process connects with muscular and ligamentous tissue which attaches to the hyoid bone (the only bone in the skeleton not in direct contact with another bone).
Research Styloid Process
The stylomastoid foramen is a small opening that allows the facial nerve to be transmitted through the bone between the mastoid and styloid processes of each temporal bone.
Research Stylomastoid Foramen
A styptic is a remedy that has the virtue of clotting blood, or of closing the aperture of a wounded vessel. Oak bark decoction, gall-nuts in powder or infusion, matico, and turpentine, are styptics derived from the vegetable kingdom; and from the mineral are derived salts of iron, the sulphates of copper and zinc, the acetate of lead, the nitrate of silver, and alum.
The right subclavian artery branches from the innomate artery and passes beneath the clavicle . The left subclavian artery branches from the aorta. Both subclavian arteries bring oxygen-rich blood to the upper extremities of the body.
Research Subclavian Artery
The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein (vein of the armpit) from the upper arm. It extends from the first rib to the clavicle , where it merges with the internal jugular vein to form the innominate. The subclavian veins are also important to the lymphatic system as a means of introcucing lymph back into the blood. The thoracic duct, which carries lymph, joins the left subclavian near the junction with the internal jugular vein. The lymphatic duct carries lymph to the right subclavian vein and also joins it near the junction with the internal jugular vein.
Research Subclavian Vein
The subclavius muscle originates from the costal cartilage of the first rib and inserts in the clavicle near the acromion. It is innervated by the subclavian nerve, which branches from the brachial plexus. The subclavius muscle is supplied by the thorocoacromion artery. This muscle helps stabilize the clavicle and elevate the first rib.
The subcostal nerve (subcostalis) extends from the twelfth thoracic nerve just below the last rib. It innervates the abdominal muscles with branches to the skin and lower abdominal wall.
Research Subcostal Nerve
The sublingual glands are salivary glands in the floor of the mouth, close under the mucous membrane, one on either side of the fraenum of the tongue. they secret saliva through numerous ducts of Rivini, some of which unite to form the duct of Bartolin.
Research Sublingual Glands
The submaxillary gland is a salivary gland located below the jaw bone in the mouth at nearly half way between the parotid gland and the sublingual gland. Its duct is about 5 cm long and opens by a narrow orifice on the top of a papilla, at the side of the fraenum of the tongue.
Research Submaxillary Gland
The subscapularis is a large triangular shoulder muscle that lies on the front surface of the scapula. It originates in the concave area called the subscapular fossa and converges at its lower end into a tendon which inserts in the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. The subscapularis is innervated by the upper and lower subscapular nerves which branch from the fifth and sixth cervical nerves. It is supplied by branches of the subscapular artery. This muscle rotates the head of the humerus when the arms are raised to prevent displacement. It is also used to move the arms forward and down.
The substantia spongiosa (spongy tissue or trabeculae) is the porous, inner layer of bone beneath the compact bone shell. So called because of its sponge-like structure of bony fiber, the spongy layer is actually very strong and resistant to compressive damage. The spongy bone is particularly prevalent in the ends of long bones, where they are more subject to such damage. Osteoporosis is a disease common in post-menopausal women (as well as others who do not get sufficient calcium and phosphorus in their diets) which degrades the structural integrity of the spongy tissue, causing it to become brittle and more likely to chip or fracture.
Research Substantia Spongiosa
A shallow groove called the sulcus terminalis runs outward and forward on each side of the back of the tongue.
Research Sulcus Terminalis
Sulfasalazine is a sulfonamide drug used to treat ulceration and bleeding during the active phase of ulcerative colitis. Its anti-inflammatory action reduces tissue destruction in the colon.
Sulphisoxazole is a sulpha drug used in the treatment of meningitis and certain diseases of the eye, such as trachoma.
Sulphonal (Dimethylmethane diethylsulphone) is a colourless, tasteless hypnotic manufactured by the interaction of acetone and ethyl mercaptan in the presence of zinc chloride and the oxidation of the resulting product with potassium permanganate. It is used in medicine to induce sleep.
Sunstroke (heat-stroke) is a disorder produced by exposure to the sun or very hot air.
Supercillin is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Superfoetation is a second conception after a prior one, and before the birth of the first child, by which two foetuses are growing at once in the same womb. Several certified cases have occurred in which women have given birth to two children, the second child being born at periods varying from 90 to 140 days later than the first. These certainly appear to be cases of superfoetation. The possibility of superfoetation in the human female has been vigorously opposed by some eminent physicians, and as vigorously defended by others. Some believe that up to the third month of gestation a second conception may follow the first, and that this will satisfactorily account for all the cases of superfoetation on record. It has also been argued that the human uterus may be double in some cases, and that in each of its cavities a foetus may be contained.
The superior obliques capitis muscle (oblique capitis superior) helps rotate the head. It originates from the atlas and inserts in the inferior nuchal line of the occiput. It is innervated by the suboccipital nerves and is supplied by muscular branches of the vertebral artery.
Research Superior Obliques Capitis Muscle
The superior tibiofibular joint is the site of articulation between the head, or upper end, of the fibula and the head of the tibia.
Research Superior Tibiofibular Joint
Superpeni is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
The supinator longus is commonly known as the brachioradialis muscle. It originates two-thirds of the way down the humerus between the triceps and the brachialis. The muscle begins wide and flat and twists toward the front of the arm as it descends. It then widens and flattens again before ending in a flat tendon, which inserts on the thumb side of the radius. It is innervated by branches of the radial nerve and supplied by radial recurrent artery. Unlike most of the long tendons of the forearm, the tendon does not cross the wrist joint, but rather ends at the distal end of the radius. This muscle bends the forearm at the elbow. It does not assist in turning the forearm.
Research Supinator Longus
The supinator radii brevis is a broad cylindrical muscle that arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the supinator ridge of the ulna at the elbow joint and curves around the upper third of the radius and inserts in the lateral surface. It is innervated by the radial nerve and supplied by the radial artery. This muscle works in opposition of the pronator and flexor muscles. It helps turn the forearm and the wrist.
Research Supinator Radii Brevis
Supramox is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
Suprapen is a brand name for Amoxicillin.
The adrenal (suprarenal) glands are positioned on the top, or crown, of each kidney. They are relatively flat, yellowish, and measure about 2.5 cm wide by 5 cm long, though they are slightly smaller in the female than in the male. Each adrenal gland features a cortex and a medulla. The function of the adrenal glands is to produce a variety of steroidal hormones which help regulate a number of body functions. These include glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone, cortisone, and corticosterone), mineralcorticoids (aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone), and sex hormones (androgens). These steroids regulate cell metabolism, stress-resistance, electrolyte and water balance, waste excretion, and other processes. The deficiency of one of the adrenal hormones results in a disease such as Addison's disease, while hypersecretion of adrenal hormones leads to Cushing's disease. The adrenal glands constantly work to keep the level of these hormones balanced in the system.
Research Suprarenal Gland
Cell waste is discharged in the veins for excretion through the kidneys. The body circulates about 425 gallons of blood through the kidneys on a daily basis, but only about a thousandth of this is converted in urine. The remainder goes back into circulation through the renal arteries. From the Bowman's capsule, the blood is carried through the compact network of capillaries that forms the glomerulus within the capsule. The capillaries eventually reconverge into small venules which lead to the larger renal veins. There are two renal veins, one extending from each lobe of the kidney, and opening into the vena cava.
Research Suprarenal Vein
Suprasma is a brand name for albuterol.
The supraspinatus muscle originates along the broad inner edge of the scapula. It narrows into a strong tendon that inserts firmly to the great tuberosity at the top of the humerus . The supraspinatus muscle runs along the top of the shoulder under the trapezius muscle. It is innervated by the subscapular nerve, which branches from the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and is supplied by the subscapular artery. This muscle works with the infraspinatus muscle to help lift and twist the upper arm. They also help to protect the shoulder joint by keeping the head of the humerus bone in place.
Research Supraspinatus Muscle
Surgery is the operative branch of medicine, or that part of the medical art which is concerned with the removal of injured parts or organs, or with the healing of lesions by means of operations on the parts affected, either by the hand or with instruments. Surgery early became separated, for practical ends, from medicine, and by a natural expansion came to embrace two parts, the science pertaining to surgical operations, and the art required for conducting them. From this arose a mischievous distinction between medical and surgical cases, We have thus surgical and medical anatomy, surgical and medical pathology, and surgical and medical clinics. But the progress of science has both extended the domain of surgery, and made the relation between it and medicine more intimate. The origin of surgery may almost be held to be coeval with the human race. Prehistoric remains show evidence of surgical operations, but documentation has not survived. Herodotus says that the medical art in Egypt was divided into numerous branches representing each member of the body. The Greeks made considerable progress in surgery, and the Hippocratic collection contains six surgical treatises in which important operations are described as conducted in a mode little behind that of the 19th century.
Medicine was first cultivated at Borne by Greek slaves. It afterwards became a special science, and among its professors who advanced the art of surgery were Archagathus (200 BC), surnamed the executioner, from his frequent use of the knife; Asclepiades, to whom is attributed the origin of laryngotomy; and Themision, the first person documented to use leeches.
On the decline of the Roman Empire, the medical art in Europe fell entirely into the hands of the monks, and when, in 1163, the Council of Tours prohibited the clergy from performing any operation, surgery became incorporated with the trade of barber, and was reduced to the simplest operations, chiefly that of letting blood.
The earliest revival of science arose from the contact of Europeans with the Eastern nations, particularly the Arabs, and before the close of the llth century Salerno, in Italy, acquired celebrity for a school of medicine in which all the teachers were laymen. This school acquired the right to confer the degrees of master and doctor. Among surgeons of reputation of the Salernian school, may be mentioned Roger of Parma, and his disciple Roland, who made great use of cataplasms and other emollients. Guy de Chauliac, the first great surgeon of France, belongs to the latter half of the 14th century. Berengario de Carpi held a chair at Bologna from 1502 to 1507. He boasted of having dissected more than 100 dead bodies, and made important discoveries. Vesalius, a Belgian physician, born 1514, died 1564, is regarded as the father of modern anatomy. He prepared the way for Ambrose Pare, who did for surgery what Vesalius had done for anatomy. Pare was surgeon in ordinary to Henry II, Charles IX, and Henry III. His works were translated into English, and include a general treatise on surgery, and a special treatise on wounds.
Among the great surgeons of the 16th century were Paracelsus, who advocated a thorough reform in surgery; Guillemeau, whose special study was ophthalmia; Pineau, a skilful surgeon and lithotomist; Jacques Demarque, one of the first authors who wrote on bandages; and Fabricius of Hilden in Germany, the author of a complete course of clinical surgery, and the inventor of surgical instruments for the extraction of foreign bodies from the ear, urethra, etc, which were still in use as late as the 29th century.
In England Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, lectured on surgery; but a genuine school of surgery was first founded by Richard Wiseman, who has been called the Pare of England. His works were published in two volumes in 1676. In England the Company of Barber Surgeons, incorporated by Edward IV in 1461, gave place to a separate corporation of surgeons in 1745. In 1731 the Royal Academy of Surgery was founded in Paris, and soon produced a school of surgeons so eminent as to take the lead of their profession in Europe. Among eminent French physicians at this time we may mention J. L. Petit, Mareschal, Quesney, Morand, and Louis. In the English school we have Cowper, Cheselden, Percival Pott, and John and William Hunter. Pre-eminent among these are Pott and John Hunter, the latter being the most eminent surgeon and physiologist of his day. The rapid advance of scientific knowledge in the nineteenth century naturally had a decided influence on the art of surgery. The 19th century is conspicuous in the annals of surgery as that in which the inestimable boon of anaesthetics was conferred upon mankind, by which not only was pain in surgery abolished, but the extent of its operative department immensely enlarged. Of no less importance was the discovery of the relation of micro-organisms to putrefaction and to infectious diseases, and the consequent introduction of the antiseptic method of treating wounds. A scarcely less noticeable feature of this epoch was the application of the rules of hygiene to the construction and management of hospitals, by which the general health of the patients much benefited, and the mortality reduced. Among only a few eminent surgeons of the 19th century we may mention Astley Cooper, Abernethy, Brodie, Simpson, Lister, in Britain; Dupuytren, Dubois, Bichat, in France; Grafe, Langenbeck, Dieffenbach, in Germany.
If air enters the tissues of the body, particularly in the loose cellular tissue immediately under the skin, its presence is detected by a crackling sensation as the skin surface is palpated. This condition is 'surgical emphysema' and it develops most commonly in injuries of the thorax because of the continuous pumping action of the thoracic muscles and diaphragm. A puncture of the skin alone may result in air being drawn in with each movement and being unable to escape. Occasionally this condition is present around fractures (for instance, fractures of the tibia where there has been a puncture wound). Air may escape from a pneumothorax into the tissues surrounding the pleura and this happens particularly with fractures of the ribs. The area of surgical emphysema may spread with alarming rapidity beneath the skin over the chest, extending well up into the neck and down onto the abdominal wall. It is sometimes very painful and its presence makes examination of the thorax or the abdomen very misleading. Surgical emphysema may also be induced by gas-forming organisms - gas gangrene. In thoracic surgery, surgical emphysema is most likely to arise in association with tension pneumothorax.
Research Surgical Emphysema
There are several methods of controlling bleeding during surgical operations. 1. When an incision is made, much of the bleeding comes from the skin edges and from subcutaneous tissue: small towels are often used, clipped to the edges of the wound to protect the cut surface, and prevent the repeated rubbing away of clot which would otherwise occur. These are called variously 'side-towels','skin towels' or 'tetra towels'. The latter term arose as these towels are commonly attached with four- pronged forceps ('tetra forceps'). 2. By pressure. As the surgeon makes his incision, he or his assistant applies a gauze swab to the raw area. Capillary and most venous bleeding stops almost immediately, and does not re-start unless the surface is rubbed. 3. Pressure forceps (artery forceps) are applied to the cut ends of arteries, as little of the surrounding tissue as possible being included in the jaws of the forceps.
These bleeding points are dealt with at some later stage in the operation in one of four ways. (i) The artery forceps are simply removed. Bleeding does not recur as the crushed end of the vessel has sealed itself off. (ii) Surgical diathermy current is applied to the pressure forceps, thus coagulating the end of the blood vessel. (iii) A surgical ligature is tied round the tissue included in the forceps which are then removed. (iv) A stitch is inserted and tied round the tissue held in the forceps in order to secure more firmly the end of the cut vessel. 4. The surgical diathermy is used to make the incision through the muscle and deep tissue layers. This technique is used especially in the treatment of cancer and particularly in the removal of vascular structures such as the breast. Small blood vessels are thus sealed as the tissue is divided. 5. The application of gauze soaked in adrenaline solution. This drug constricts the ends of the vessels and is particularly useful in the nose.
Where extensive bleeding may be expected - such as in plastic operations on the face - the operation area is sometimes infiltrated with a saline solution of adrenaline. By the time the effect of the adrenaline has passed off, the divided vessels have become blocked by clots. 6. The application of hot packs. The combination of pressure and heat speeds the clotting process and the retraction of the cut ends of vessels. 7. Thromboplastin released by enzymes from damaged tissue is essential to start the clotting process. There is very little damage in a clean surgical incision and thromboplastin formation can be brought about by the surgeon taking a small piece of muscle, and pulping it by repeated crushing with pressure forceps. This ' muscle graft' is applied to the bleeding area. Purified thrombin is supplied in powder in sterile ampoules ready to mix with sterile water: the solution is then applied with a swab or a spray and is particularly useful under skin grafts where it acts as a kind of glue. Fibrin foam is another preparation used extensively in neurosurgery where even a small amount of bleeding into the brain or nerve, may do irreparable damage. Gelatin 'sponge' supplied in small biscuit-like strips, can be used in bleeding cavities or tied to the surface of a bleeding organ. The sponge acts as an artificial network in which clotting occurs and the substance is itself absorbed.
Oxycel (oxidised cellulose) acts in a similar way and promotes rapid clotting. It is used in such sites as the prostatic cavity and can be tied around the catheter which is left in place at the end of operation. Calcium alginate is a similar preparation and is manufactured from sea-weed. The raw oozing surface is moistened with one solution which is then activated by spraying with a second solution containing calcium. All these artificial coagulants are only of use for 'low pressure' bleeding - that is from capillaries or small veins.
Research Surgical Haemostasis
Suriphobia is the fear of mice.
A suture is an anatomical term for an articulation found only in the skull, where the margins of the bones articulate with one another, but are separated by a thin layer of fibrous tissue (sutural ligament) and is continuous externally with the periosteum on the outside of the skull and internally with the fibrous layer of the dura mater.
The sweat ducts spiral up through the epidermis to the surface from the sweat glands located in the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis).
Research Sweat Duct
The sweat that dampens the skin comes from the eccrine glands. They lie in the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) just under the dermis. The human body has between two and three million eccrine glands that secrete moisture on the skin primarily to cool the body through evaporation. The eccrine glands react to signals from the hypothalamus in the brain.
Research Sweat Gland
The sweat pores allow loss of fluid as part of temperature control of the body. As a rise in external temerature is sensed by the nerve endings in the skin, the message is relayed to the hypothalamus, the temperature-regulating area of the brain. The brain then sends nerve impulses to the sweat glands stimulating them to release sweat until the skin receptors detect that the skin's temperature is back to normal. The brain then sends messages to stop the release of sweat.
Research Sweat Pore
Sweating sickness (Miliary fever) is a disease characterised by pyrexia, profuse sweats and an eruption of miliary vesicles or sudamina. At one time it was epidemic over a large part of Europe, and was often fatal in Britain in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The epidemics of the 15th and 16th centuries appear to have spared no age or condition, but is said to have attacked more particularly persons in good health, of middle age, and of the better class. Its attack was very sudden, and the patient was frequently dead within one, two, or three hours. It seems to have first appeared in the army of the Earl of Richmond upon his landing at Milford Haven in 1485, and soon spread to London. It broke out in England four times after this, in 1506, 1517, 1528, and 1551. The process eventually adopted for its cure was to promote perspiration and carefully avoid exposure to cold.
Research Sweating Sickness
Swine fever is an infectious viral disease of pigs, characterised by fever, refusal to eat, weight loss, and diarrhoea. In the USA it is called hog cholera. It is a specific contagious fever, generally very rapid in its course, death ensuing in a very few days. To suppress the disease, all affected pigs must be killed and the carcasses and litter burned or deeply buried.
Research Swine Fever
swinepox (variola porcina) is an acute infectious viral disease of pigs characterised by skin eruptions.
Symbolophobia is the fear of symbolism.
Symmetrophobia is the fear of symmetry.
In physiology, sympathy is that quality of the animal organization by which, through the increased or diminished activity of one organ, that of others is also increased or diminished. The idea of an organized system - the union of many parts in one whole, in which all these parts correspond to each other - includes the idea of a mutual operation, of which sympathy is a part. The sympathetic medium has been sometimes supposed to be the nervous system, sometimes the vascular or cellular system; but sympathy takes place between such organs as have no discoverable connection by nerves or vessels. The phenomenon of sympathy appears even in the healthy body; but its effect is much more often observed in diseases. Sympathy is further used to express the influence of the pathological state of one individual upon another, as in the contagion of hysteria or of yawning.
The symphysis pubis is the frontal site of articulation between the two bones of the pubis. The symphysis is composed of hardened, calcified cartilage. It is covered by a thick pad of fat, called the mons pubis, which is just above the labia majora. Following puberty, the mons pubis is covered by hair, which remains through the life of the adult female.
Research Symphysis Pubis
The synapse is a specialized region where one nerve signal jumps form one nerve cell to another. It is the site of communication between two nerve cells. A tiny gap, called the synaptic gap, exists between cells. A nerve impulse must pass through the synaptic gap via the release of transmitter substances to be transmitted from one nerve cell to another. At the tip of the axon are tiny secretory cups, or vesicles, which produce a trace of a chemical substance known as a neurotransmitter when the electrical impulses reach them. Neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synapse and excite the dendrites of the next cell to induce a new electrical impulse in their cell. The process continues down the chain. Nerve impulses flow only in one direction and are subject to fatigue, oxygen deficiency, anaesthetics and other chemical agents.
In medicine, syncope is fainting due to a loss of blood flow to the brain. The term is also used for a loss of blood pressure to a local part of the body.
Syngenesophobia is the fear of relatives.
In anatomy, a synovial joint is one where the bones are covered with articular cartilage but are not attached to each other. These joints allow extensive movement. A typical synovial joint is the knee joint.
Research Synovial Joint
In anatomy, a synovial membrane is a thin, delicate membrane, secreting a thick viscid and glairy fluid similar to egg-white. Synovial membranes are arranged in the form of short, wide tubes around joints such as the lining of synovial bursae, and as sheaths for tendons. The synovial membrane secrets its lubricating fluid into the joint or tendon to allow easy movement.
Research Synovial Membrane
Synthroid is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
Synthrox is a brand name for Levothyroxine sodium.
Syntonin or acid albumin is an intermediate product of the gastric digestion of albuminates, or proteids, which are eventually transformed into peptones. Syntonin may be produced outside the body by the prolonged action of dilute hydrochloric acid upon minced muscle. It is precipitated by sodium chloride and many other salts, as well as by neutralisation with alkalis, but not by heat.
Syphilis is a venereal disease (VD, STD) due to the micro-organism Treponema Pallidum. It is usually transmitted by sexual contact with an infected person, but may also be transmitted by contact with an infected person through cuts or scratches in the skin, making medical staff particularly at risk of contracting the disease. The initial stage of syphilis is a 'chancre' which resembles a large infected wart. It appears on the lips or in the genital area, but frequently this stage of the disease is overlooked and heals spontaneously.
Primary syphilis, as this stage is called, may then pass unnoticed. The secondary stage lasts for several weeks and is characterised by rashes and ulcerative lesions in the mouth. This stage also may be overlooked and if treatment is not instituted the patient will develop tertiary syphilis of which there are various manifestations. One is the development of a syphilitic tumour or gumma which breaks down and produces an ulcer - gummatous ulcer. Tertiary syphilis also affects the nervous system, producing tabes dorsalis (locomotor ataxia). In this condition the victim develops degenerative changes in the joints (Charcot's joints) and perforating ulcers in the feet. The child of an infected mother may be born with congenital syphilis which shows itself during the first two or three years of life in special changes which affect the child's bones, liver and eyes.
Syphilis deribes its name from Syphilus, the name of a character in a 16th century Latin poem on the subject of the disease.
Syphilization is the treatment of syphilis by means of repeated syphilitic inoculations. It was originated by Auzias of Turin in 1844, and warmly advocated by Professor Boeck of Christiania in 1851. Since his death, in 1875, syphilization as a method of treatment has fallen into disuse.
Syphilophobia is the fear of venereal disease.
Syringomyelia is a chronic progressive disease of the spinal cord in which cavities form in the grey matter. It is characterised by the loss of the senses of pain and temperature.
In medicine, the term systemic describes something as of or pertaining to, or affecting the system or body as a whole. The term systemic is especially used in designating the general circulation, as distinguished from the pulmonary circulation supplying the respiratory organs.
The term systemic is increasingly used outside of medicine and means of, relating to, or common to a system, or arrangement according to plan.