Michaelmas is the feast of St Michael the Archangel. It falls on the 29th of September, and is supposed to have been established towards the close of the 5th century. In England, Michaelmas was traditionally one of the regular terms for settling rents.
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The deadnettle or dead-nettle is a species of plant of the genus Lamium, family Labiatae which resemble the nettle in appearance but have no sting. The white deadnettle (Lamium album) or archangel is a perennial herb with a creeping rhizome and an erect, square, leafy stem. The leaves are opposite, stalked, cordate, long-pointed and sharply serrated. The flowers are white, arranged in loose whorls, and grow from the upper leaf axils. The corolla is distinctly two-lipped. The upper lip forms a hoop, the lower lip has two very small lateral lobes each with a small tooth and a notched middle lobe. The anthers are black and tucked under the hooded upper lip. The fruit consists of four nutlets.
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The Russian Blue is a natural breed of domestic cat first introduced to Britain from Archangel in 1900, when it was grouped along with other breeds under the name Foreign Shorthair, and in the USA as the Maltese. In 1939 the breed was recognised in Britain as its own, and given the name Russian Blue. The
Russian Blue has a double coat, which is short, plush, silky and soft. The
Russian Blue is an affectionate, but quiet cat, fond of playing and of sitting in the warm and are renowned for being attentive parents.
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Sir William Edmund Ironside was a Scottish military commander and first Baron Ironside. He was born in 1880 at Ironside, Aberdeenshire and died in 1959. After entering the Royal Artillery in 1899 he served as a Secret Agent during the Second Boer War of 1899 to 1902 disguised as a railwayman. During the Great War he held staff appointments and commanded the Archangel expedition against the Bolsheviks in 1918, and commanded the Allied contingent in North Persia in 1920, before being made Chief of the Imperial General Staff and promoted to field marshal in 1940 and placed in charge of the home defence forces.
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An archangel is an angel of the highest order.
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In theology, a devil (from the Greek, diabolos, a slanderer or accuser), is an evil spirit or being; specifically the evil one, represented in Scripture as the traducer, father of lies, etc. Most of the old religions of the East acknowledge a host of devils. The doctrine of Zoroaster, who adopted an evil principle called Ahriman, opposed to the good principle and served by several orders of inferior spirits, spread the belief in such spirits among the people.
The Greek mythology did not distinguish with the same precision between good and bad spirits. With the Muslim Eblis, or the devil, was an archangel whom god employed to destroy a pre-Adamite race of jinns, or genii, and who was so filled with pride at his victory that he refused to obey god.
The Satan of the New Testament is also a rebel against god. He uses his intellect to entangle men in sin and to obtain power over them. But he is not an independent self-existent principle like the evil principle of Zoroaster, but a creature subject to omnipotent control. The doctrine of Scripture on this subject soon became blended with numerous fictions of human imagination, with the various superstitions of different countries, and the mythology of the pagans. The excited imaginations of hermits in their lonely retreats, sunk as they were in ignorance and unable to account for natural appearances, frequently led them to suppose Satan visibly present; and innumerable stories were told of his appearance, and his attributes - the horns, the tail, cloven foot, etc - distinctly described.
The New Testament hardly describes more regarding the devil than that he has a distinct personality; that he is a spirit or angel who in some way fell; that he is devoid of truth and of all moral goodness, always warring against the soul of man and leading him towards evil; that he has demons, spirits, or angels under him who work his will, and enter into or 'possess' men; but of his or their origin, original state, or fall, the New Testament doesn't say.
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The first Battle of the Vardar was fought between the Allies and Bulgaria, and began on October the 19th, 1915, and went on intermittently until December the 12th. The first allied troops of the Salonica expedition reached Greece between October the 3rd and 8th, 1915, and the French were railed up the Vardar valley to link up with the Serbians at Koprulu and Uskub. They took Strumnitza on October the 19th, Krivolak on October the 27th, crossed the Tcherna to join the Serbians at the Babuna Pass, and seized the bridge at Vozarci on November the 10th, but were checked at Mount Archangel.
On November the 10th the Serbians lost the pass and retired to Prilep. Attacked by superior numbers, the French retreated by the Demir Kapu gorge, and on December the 9th reached the Boyemia, where they had on their right the British 10th division. On December the 6th the Bulgarians had attacked this division, which mustered only one-fourth of the number of the enemy, and, after a battle lasting three days, it had retired to the Boyemia. The Allies were not sufficiently strong to stand on the Boyemia, and retired into Greece on December the 12th.
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The Expedition to Archangel was a Joint Allied (British, French, and American) operation during 1918 and 1919 officially to stabilise the Eastern Front following the Russian Revolution and safeguard the large concentration of military stores which had been sent to Archangel and other Western military interests in the area, though secretly it was intended to support the White Russians against the Bolsheviks. The Allied force succeeded in capturing Murmansk in July 1918 and then bombarded Archangel by air and sea, taking the city in August 1918. The Bolsheviks were driven from the area and a new local government established.
However by early 1919, Archangel was little more than an enclave in an otherwise almost entirely Bolshevik country and it was evacuated during August and September 1919. The expedition had three main objectives: to safeguard the large concentration of military stores which had been sent to the Russians and which lay in Archangel; to safeguard the flank of the Murmansk Expedition; and to try to stabilise the Eastern Front and make contact with the Czech Legion and the White Russian forces of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. A mixed force of British, French, and American troops occupied Murmansk in July 1918. Using this as a base, the Allied naval squadron, with air support, attacked and captured Modiuga Island, some 48 km north of Archangel, which allowed them to bypass Bolshevik defences and enter Archangel. A land force then cleared the valleys of the rivers Dvina and Vaga and defeated the Bolshevik forces which had been occupying Archangel. A local government was formed and formally recognised and several thousand Russians enlisted with the Allies.
After the Armistice, the Bolsheviks were able to concentrate troops in the area and by early 1919 there seemed little point in holding on to this enclave in a country which had almost entirely become Bolshevik. Archangel was successfully defended until August, when withdrawal began, and the British naval base was finally closed and the last troops evacuated on the 27th of September, having handed their equipment over to White Russian forces.
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The Russian civil war was a bitter conflict of nearly three years lasting from 1918 1921 which followed Russian setbacks in the Great War and the upheavals of the 1917 Revolution. In December 1917 counterrevolutionary armies, the 'Whites', began to organise resistance to the October Revolution of 1917. The Red Army (Bolsheviks), improvised by Leon Trotsky, opposed them and civil war resulted. Hostilities continued for nearly three years with the Bolsheviks being successful. The war was fought in the regions of the Caucasus and southern Russia, the Ukraine, the Baltic, northern Russia, and Siberia. The Bolsheviks also had to fight against the armies of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Finland. In northern Russia the British and French landed troops at Murmansk in June 1918, seized Archangel, and set up a puppet government. There continued outbursts of fighting against the Bolsheviks until October 1919. In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak, with the assistance of a Czech legion (composed of prisoners of war) and of Japanese forces that had landed at Vladivostok established a 'White' government at Omsk. Kolchak was captured and executed by the Bolsheviks in February 1920. While each of the 'White' armies was engaged in an isolated operation, the Soviet forces were waging a single war. Trotsky was an active agent for the Bolsheviks in all the crucial operations of the war. The Bolsheviks put down peasant risings in 1920 and a mutiny by sailors at Kronstadt in 1921. The Bolsheviks were far superior to the Whites in both organisation and propaganda. The last foreign forces left Soviet soil in 1922 when the Japanese evacuated Vladivostok. The Soviet government was recognised by Britain in 1924, and by the USA in 1933.
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The Angel or Angel-Noble was a gold coin struck first in France in 1340, and introduced to England in 1465 by Edward IV and ceased in the reign of Charles I. The value varied from 6s 8d to 10s. It was so named from the fact that it had on one side a representation of the Archangel Michael in conflict with the Dragon. The reverse side had a ship with a large cross for the mast, the letter E on the right side, and a rose on the left; whilst against the ship was a shield with the royal arms.
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