The canthus is the notch at each edge of the eye, where the two eyelids meet. The inner, or medial, canthus is called the nasal canthus, because of its proximity to the nasal structures. The outer, or lateral, canthus is called the temporal canthus because of its proximity to the temporal region of the skull. The nasal canthus features the fleshy, pink lachrymal caruncle and the canaliculi which lead into the lachrymal sac.
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The eyelashes fringe the border of each eyelid. The lashes help protect the eye from dust and other foreign particles and protect the eye from glare. Each eye has about 200 lashes. They consist of three series of short hairs. Those of the upper lid are more numerous and longer than the lashes of the lower lid. The lashes of the upper lid curve upward and the lashes of the lower lid curve downward. They extend from about one-fourth of an inch from the inner canthus to near the outer canthus. The lashes last between three and five months. New lashes are continually growing.
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The eyelids are two folds of skin that shield the eyeball. The upper lid is larger and more movable. It regulates the opening and closing of the eye with the help of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. Lower-lid movement is slight. The eyelids sweep dirt from the surface of the eye, protect it from injury, and help distribute the tear fluid. When the eye is closed, the lids unite at the lid-slit in a downward curve. The corners of the eye are called the inner canthus, which is near the opening of the lachrymal duct, and the outer canthus, which ends in the crease where the upper lid overlaps the lower lid. The eyelid is lined with a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. This lining also covers the front of the eyeball. This covering, when washed with tears, gives the eye its glossy appearance.
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The facial artery runs upward from the external carotid in the neck, beneath the stylohyoid muscle, and extends forward along the lower jaw bone on a line with the corners of the mouth. The artery then extends upward across the cheek and along the side of the nose and terminates at the inner canthus of the eye. The artery has many curves and bends to accommodate the movement of the cheeks, lips, and jaw. The facial artery has several branches and supplies the face, tonsils, palate, muscles of the lips, ala and dorsum of the nose, and the muscles of facial expression.
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