Captain John Smith was an English explorer and historical writer. He was born in 1579 at Willoughby, Lincolnshire and died in 1631 or 1632. He fought against the Turks and was with Newport's expedition which founded Virginia in 1607, and on the return journey was imprisoned. Upon his release he became the practical head of Virginia colony. He explored the Chickahominy region and was taken prisoner by the Indian Powhatan, the tale of which forms the basis for the legend of Pocahontas - by his own account, Captain John Smith recounts that he was released after the intercession of the Princess Pocahontas. In 1609 he had an accident and returned to England, and in 1614 was engaged in a voyage of discovery along the New England coast., and in 1617 engaged in a further voyage before retiring to London
He wrote voluminously, but is suspected of romantic exaggeration and colouring. His chief works were: 'A True Relation', 'Generall Historic of Virginia', and a 'Description of New England'.
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Israel B Richardson was an American soldier. He was born in 1815 at vermont and died in 1862. He was brevetted major for services at Contreras, Churubusco and Chapultepec. He led a brigade at Bull Run, and commanded a division at Chickahominy, South Mountain and the Battle of Antietam, where he was mortally wounded.
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The Battle of Cold Harbor was several battles between the Federals and Confederates under Ulysses Simpson Grant and Robert E Lee, fought irregularly during twelve days, from June the 1st to June the 12th, 1864, during the American Civil War while Ulysses Simpson Grant was attempting his famous campaign against Richmond.
Lee held the vicinity of Cold Harbor with about 100,000 men, having thrown up hasty fortifications. Ulysses Simpson Grant had 120,000 troops. Philip Sheridan advanced to Cold Harbor on the 31st of May.
On June the 1st the Sixth Corps and Smithes troops began the attack by endeavouring to take the Confederate fortifications. The assault was ineffectual, the Federals being repulsed with heavy loss.
On June the 2nd rain prevented battle, so the day was passed on both sides in arranging the lines.
On June the 3rd Robert E Lee's position had been immensely strengthened by slashes and rifle trenches. Philip Sheridan's cavalry guarded the crossing of the Chickahominy, and Wilson watched the Confederates' right. Early in the morning the Federals advanced upon the Confederate entrenchments. Hancock's corps forced the enemy from their front, and with Wright, Smith and Warren made vigorous assaults upon the impregnable earthworks. Ambrose E. Burnside failed to come to their aid. Several regiments, however, mounted the parapets and placed their banners upon them. Many of the bravest Federal officers lost their lives. The last assault lasted half an hour, and then the Federals retired. For ten days the armies lay idle, their sharpshooters picking off many men. During the battles the Federals lost 10,000 troops and the Confederates 8000.
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The Battle of Fair Oaks or Battle of Seven Pines, Virginia, was a two days engagement in the Peninsular campaign of the American Civil War, on May the 31st and June the 1st 1862, between the Confederates, numbering about 35,000 men under Edward Johnston, and a detachment of some 11,000 troops of McClellan's army under Casey. That leader had been sent across the Chickahominy River, and was accordingly isolated from the main army. Edward Johnston decided to attack him. He therefore sent Hill and James Longstreet against Casey's left flank and Gustavus Smith against his right. Casey was overwhelmed, and retreated to Couch's position at Seven Pines, where the latter was fiercely defending himself and waiting for reinforcements from Heintzelman. The Confederates were forcing their way down along the Chickahominy to Bottom's Bridge, when they were intercepted by Sumner's batteries and routed with great slaughter.
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The Battle of Gaines' Mills, also known as the Battle of Chickahominy was an engagement of the American Civil War that took place on June the 27th, 1862. Porter, commanding 20,000 troops of McClellan's army, was defeated by Robert E Lee with a Confederate force of 35,000. On. the morning of June the 27th, Porter fell back to a range of low hills, and there repelled the Confederate attack until 5000 more men were sent him by McClellan. Meantime Jackson had joined Robert E Lee with 25,000 fresh troops. A P Hill first attacked Porter's position, and was driven back with great loss after a two hours' struggle. Then Jackson came up and joined the attack. Porter, having no entrenchments, was forced to give way before the superior numbers. He crossed the Chickahominy in rapid retreat, and burned the bridges behind him.
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The Battle of Mechanicsville, Virginia was a battle of the American Civil War that occurred on June the 26th, 1862, during McClellan's attempted approach to Richmond. Robert E Lee crossed the Chickahominy with 35,000 Confederates, intending to join Jackson's 25,000 troops and demolish Porter's command of 20,000 of McClellan's troops and cut off the latter's communications with his base. Jackson was for once late in arriving, and Richmond was for a time in considerable danger. A P Hill's division advanced first and encountered at Mechanicsville a small-force of Confederates, who were dispersed. Just beyond the town McCall. was drawn up with a strong force on Beaver Dam Creek. The Confederates attempted to turn McCall's flanks, but were repulsed with great loss each time.
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The Battle of White Oak Swamp Virginia was a battle of the American Civil War occurring immediately subsequent to the Battle of Savage's Station, on June the 30th, 1862. Jackson, leading his own command and the brigades of A P Hill and Longstreet, had been ordered to sweep around the Chickahominy River and destroy the retreating Federals as they emerged from the swamp. Finding the bridge over this stream destroyed, he changed his course and pursued them through the swamp. Upon arriving at the White Oak Swamp bridge he found that demolished also. There he was met by Smith, Richardson and Naglee, and Ayres and Hazard of Franklin's Federal brigade. These troops immediately offered battle. Hazard was mortally wounded and his force literally cut to pieces. Ayres and the others held out for some time, but retired during the night leaving 305 sick and wounded.
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The Peninsular Campaign was an abortive Federalist campaign of the American Civil War. On July the 21st, 1861, McClellan was appointed to command all the Federal troops about Washington. The popular cry was at that time: 'On to Richmond!' McClellan, after months of delay, finally landed his forces at Fort Monroe on April the 2nd, 1862, and marched up between the York and James Rivers toward Richmond, where Edward Johnston lay encamped. A month was spent besieging Yorktown, and after all the Confederates escaped.
At the Battle of Williamsburg on May the 4th, McClellan was successful, and again at the Battle of Fair Oaks on May the 31st. Then followed the fights at Mechanicsville, Games' Mills, White Oak Swamp, Frayser's Farm and Malvern Hill, on the whole disastrous to the national cause. By the end of July the Peninsular Campaign was ended and Richmond had not been reached, though probably at one time it might have been. McClellan retreated through the Chickahominy swamp to a base on James River.
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The Seven Days were an unbroken series of battles, between the Federal and Confederate troops, lasting from June the 26th to July the 2nd, 1862 during the American Civil War around Richmond. McClellan's army was 92,500 strong, on June the 26th; Lee's forces numbered 80,762. On June the 26th, A P Hill, with 30,000 Confederates, defeated and drove the Nationals from Mechanicsville. On June the 27th, Longstreet, Jackson and Hill, with 55,000 Confederates, attacked and routed 25,000 Federals under Porter at Games' Mills on the Chickahominy. Porter crossed the river to Savage's Station, where he defeated Magruder on June the 28th. On June the 29 and 30th, the Federals were again defeated at Frayser's Farm and White Oak Swamp. McClellan retreated to Malvern Hill, where a furious but indecisive battle occurred. After this McClellan retreated to the James. During the Seven Days' fight the Federals lost 15,249 men; the Confederates 19,000.
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The Chickahominy is a river in Virginia, USA, rising north-west of Richmond, and flowing south-east until it joins the James River.
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