Coca (Erythroxylum coca) is a South American shrub yielding a powerful narcotic (cocaine).
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Erythroxylon Coca is a South American shrub which grows from one to two metres tall and is cultivated for its leaves (Coca) which are a powerful stimulant and the alkaloid derived from the leaves, cocaine.
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George V was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1910 to 1936. George V's reign began amid the continuing constitutional crisis over the House of Lords, which refused to pass a Parliament Bill limiting its powers. After the Liberal government obtained the King's promise to create sufficient peers to overcome Conservative opposition in the Lords the Parliament Bill was passed by the Lords in 1911 without a mass creation of peers.
George V visited India in 1911, the only British monarch to have visited India until then, and was proclaimed Emperor of India during his visit. During the Great War the King made over 450 visits to troops on the French front and over 300 visits to hospitals visiting wounded servicemen, he pressed for proper treatment of German prisoners-of-war and he pressed also for more humane treatment of conscientious objectors. In 1917 anti-German feeling led him to adopt the family name of Windsor (after the Castle of the same name).
George V, having become ill, and passed into a coma, the king's physician judged that it should be better for the king to die in the morning so that news of his death could be published in the quality morning press, rather than in the evening press which the doctor considered tabloid, and so he took it upon himself to deliberately administer a lethal injection of morphia and cocaine to the king, killing him instantly. The doctor then publicly announced that king had passed away peacefully. Details of the unlawful killing were discovered when the physician's diary was discovered and published some fifty years later.
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Angus Deayton is an English actor and writer. He was born in 1956. Although an actor, he is best known for presenting the satirical television quiz show 'Have I Got News For You' from 1990 to 2002 before being publicly sacked amidst accusations of cocaine addiction and promiscuity..
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Lance Kerwin is an American actor. He was born in 1960 at Newport Beach, California. In 1989 he was arrested in San Fancisco for possession of crack cocaine.
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Mary Anissa Jones was an American actress. She was born in 1958 at West Lafayette, Indiana and died in 1976 of a drug overdose comprising a combination of cocaine, angel dust, Quaaludes and Seconal.. She was known for her role as the daughter, 'Ava Elizabeth Patterson-Davis' (Buffy) in the 1960's television comedy series 'Family Affair'.
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Laura MacKenzie Phillips is an American actress. She was born in 1959 at Alexandria, Virginia. Mackenzie Phillips, was known for her role in the 1973 megahit 'American Graffiti'. Two years later, she got the role that changed her life in the 1975 sitcom 'One Day At A Time'. The show was an instant hit, and everything was going well until the third season was launched, Mackenzie was arrested for cocaine possession, though she lied about the incident on her appearance on the Dinah Shore show. During the run of the 1979-1980 season, Mackenzie started to behave peculiarly. The producers, didn't know what was wrong. She started getting tired, and showing up late for rehearsals. As she got to the set, she was incoherent and the producers gave her an ultimatum and she took a six week leave of absence. In 1980, she was fired from the series, and went to rehab, then in 1981, she returned to the show. Sadly, in 1983, she fell asleep during a rehearsal. The producer told her that she has to take another drug test but, she refused, and she left.
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Addiction is a state of dependence caused by the habitual use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. It is characterised by uncontrolled craving, tolerance, and symptoms of withdrawal when access is denied. Habitual use produces changes in body chemistry and treatment must be geared to a gradual reduction in dosage. Initially, only opium and its derivatives (morphine, heroin, codeine) were recognised as addictive, but many other drugs, whether therapeutic (such as tranquillisers) or recreational (such as cocaine and alcohol), are now known to be addictive. Research points to a genetic predisposition to addiction; environment and psychological make-up are other factors. Although physical addiction always has a psychological element, not all psychological dependence is accompanied by physical dependence. A carefully controlled withdrawal programme can reverse the chemical changes of habituation. A cure is difficult because of the many other factors contributing to addiction.
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Anaesthetics are medical agents employed for the removal of pain, especially in surgical operations, by suspending sensibility either locally or generally.
In ancient writers we read of insensibility or indifference to pain being obtained by means of Indian hemp, (canuabis Indica) either inhaled or taken into the stomach. The Chinese more than 1,500 years ago used a preparation of hemp, or ma-yo, to annul pain. The Greeks and Romans used mandragora for a similar purpose, (poiein, anaisthesian) and as late as the 13th century the vapor from a sponge filled with mandragora, opium, and other sedatives was used. Compression of the nerves and blood-vessels and the inhalation of the vapor of mixtures containing carbonic anhydride were practiced at an early date. In the 16th century ether was probably the active ingredient of a volatile anaesthetic described by Porta. The use of anaesthetics was, however, but little understood and rarely practiced. Even the suggestion of Sir Humphry Davy that nitrous oxide should be used in minor operations not attended by loss of blood was of little practical value, on account of the inefficient apparatus then available.
In 1818 Faraday established the anaesthetic properties of sulphuric ether, but this agent made no advance beyond the region of experiment, until 1844, when Dr. Horace Wells, an American dentist of Hartford, Connecticut, applied the inhalation of sulphuric ether in the extraction of teeth, but owing to some misadventure did not persevere with it an in 1845 Horace Wells inhaled laughing-gas so successfully that he may be said to have introduced the practice; but he appears to have so often failed to produce the desired effect that this agent fell into disuse on the introduction of ether in 1846 by Dr. Morton, a Boston dentist, who also extended the use of ether to other surgical operations. The practice was soon after introduced into England by Mr. Listen, and a London dentist, Mr. Robinson. A few weeks later Sir James Simpson made the first application of ether in a case of midwifery. This was early in 1847. Towards the end of the same year Simpson had his attention called to the anaesthetic efficacy of chloroform, and announced it as a superior agent to ether. This agent was at the start of the 20th century the most extensively used anaesthetic, though the use of ether still largely prevailed in the United States. In their general effects ether and chloroform are very similar; but the latter tends to enfeeble the action of the heart more readily than the former. For this reason great caution has to be used in administering chloroform where there is weak heart action from disease. Local anaesthesia is produced by isolating the part of the body to be operated upon, and producing insensibility of the nerves in that locality. Dr. Richardson's method was to apply the spray of ether, which, by its rapid evaporation, chills and freezes the tissues and produces complete anaesthesia. This mode of treatment, besides its use in minor surgical operations, has recently begun to have important remedial applications. Around 1905 a new valuable local anaesthetic, cocaine was
duced which is now the prevalent local anaesthetic in use.
In 1933 the first barbiturate general anaesthetic was used, hexobarbitone, other barbiturates are now used, most commonly thiopentone and also propofol and ketamine which have effects lasting a shorter period of time and less of a hangover effect on the patient. Chloroform and ether not being used since the introduction of barbiturates due to the reduction of complications, though barbiturates are still dangerous and premedication is widely used with them.
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Cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a white crystalline powder used as a local anaesthetic and also, illegally, as a euphoric drug. Cocaine taken recreationally is cut into a fine powder, arranged in what is termed a line, and inhaled through the nose - typically through a rolled-up banknote. A form of cocaine, known as crack, is smoked.
Cocaine provides the user with about thirty minutes of good-feeling, users report an increase in awareness, self confidence and sexual pleasure - the cocaine prevents the re-absorption of dopamine in the brain. Taking alcohol with cocaine enhances the effect of the cocaine. However, after about thirty minutes the effects wear off and the users may be left feeling depressed and paranoid. Inhaling cocaine often causes irritation to the sinuses, a condition known as a Columbian cold, and prolonged use can destroy the lining of the nose. Some sources claim that cocaine can cause cardiac arrest or strokes through increased blood pressure.
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