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Research Results For 'Etiquette'


To breed is to produce offspring, to have children, to reproduce. By extension the term also means to cause, as in the phrase to breed trouble.

To breed means to train or bring up, such as to teach a child proper etiquette or to train someone for a profession.

A breed is a type or class. Thus we speak of a breed of cattle, such as the Hereford breed. And of people we speak of them having breeding meaning they are of high class or belong to a noble family.
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The term civil has various meanings, generally it means of or pertaining to civilians as distinct from military or ecclesiastical etc. Hence a civil marriage is one conducted by a registrar as distinct from a religious marriage conducted by a priest.

Civil also means taking place in or relating to affairs within a nation, hence a civil war is a war within a nation.

In interaction, civil means formally polite, observing social etiquette. Thus one might hear the expression 'keep a civil tongue in your head' meaning be polite, though there is no implication of being friendly. One is usually civil to someone one dislikes, the word civil implies a lack of warmth or friendliness.

Civil designates the customary and legally sanctioned divisions of time, for example in the context of a civil year.

In law, the term civil refers to the private legal rights and remedies of citizens, as distinct from the term criminal.
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Civility is the quality of being polite, courteous. The quality of civility is frequently also extended to imply 'good breeding' or proper and correct etiquette and behaviour.
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Etiquette is a collective term for the established ceremonies and usages of society, from the forms which are to be observed in particular places such as courts, levees, and public occasions, to the general forms of polite society. Amongst courts the Byzantine and Spanish courts, and the French court under Louis XIV and Louis XV, have been noted for the strictness of their etiquette.

Victorian social etiquette consisted in so many minute observances that a tolerable familiarity with it could be acquired only by a considerable intercourse with 'polite society'. It was often said during the Victorian era that all that is necessary to constitute good social manners is common sense and good feeling; but not to mention those formal rules of society which, though intrinsically worthless, demanded a certain amount of respect, there were also many difficulties and emergencies in social intercourse which required peculiar tact and delicacy of judgment. Hence quickness of sympathy and a certain fineness of observation were more needed for proficiency in this sphere than pure power of intellect.

During the Victorian and Edwardian eras in Britain the rules and rituals of etiquette became so complex and sophisticated that a general revolt against them took place. Today the rules are less laws than guidelines, the most reliable being contained in 'Debrett's' which offers advice on the correct terms of address for royalty and other members of the aristocracy.
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Japanese drama commenced around the 7th century and to date has evolved a wide variety of genres characterised generally by the fusion of dramatic, musical, and dance elements. The music and dance, as well as the subjects, settings, costumes, and acting styles, were rigidly stylised and, until recent times, offered relatively few realistic or naturalistic qualities. Some genres utilise almost exclusively a fixed repertoire of plays, often many centuries old. The earliest known type of Japanese theatrical entertainment is gigaku, which was introduced into Japan in 612 from southern China; it is thought to have been ultimately of Indian or possibly even of Greek origin. Gigaku dances, performed with masks, seem to have been humorous. In the 8th century gigaku fell into disfavour because its frivolous character displeased the Japanese rulers of the period. It was supplanted largely by bugaku, an entertainment introduced from China. Bugaku dances portrayed simple situations such as the return of a general from war.

The performers wore impressive robes, and their dances had exotic splendour. Japanese rulers, intent on imitating Chinese court etiquette, favoured bugaku, both because of its solemnity and because of its similarity to Chinese court entertainments, and it quickly acquired a ritual character. Bugaku may now be seen only at ceremonies. A type of acrobatic entertainment known as sangaku, transmitted similarly to Japan from the Asian continent and popular in the 8th century, also influenced Japanese drama. Typical acts included tightrope walking, juggling, and sword swallowing. A Combination of these secular entertainments and the sacred dances and songs associated with the Shinto religion gradually evolved into more complex forms of drama. Surviving documents from the 11th century describe comic playlets, and one play still performed, the ritual dance Okina, may date from this period.

Plays were also performed at shrine festivals in support of prayers for harvests or to depict the history of the shrine. The actors and musicians were organised into troupes. By the 14th century the theatre had developed one of its foremost artistic achievements, No drama. These plays included solemn dances intended to suggest the deepest emotions of the principal character and were written in the poetic language of the Japanese classics. A program also often included kyo gen, or farces written in colloquial language. No was brought to the level of great art by the genius of two dramatists, Kanami Kiyotsugu and his son Zeami Motokiyo. No was patronised by the Ashikaga shogunate after a shogun saw the boy Zeami perform in 1374. Zeami developed No into refined aristocratic drama, but after his death it tended to lose its creative vitality and become ritualistic. Many No plays performed at present are by Zeami, and his books of criticism are considered the final authority on the subject.

For a short period after the Meiji restoration in 1868, No was threatened with extinction because of its connections with the discredited shogunate. It survived the threat, however, and thereafter enjoyed popularity with specialised audiences. An entire program of No drama traditionally consists of five No plays in poetry with music and four kyo gen farces in prose without music, performed alternately. Kyogen farces feature representational acting, and the actors wear neither masks nor makeup. No plays avoid representational accuracy in favour of a symbolic treatment of subjects concerning the worlds of the living and the dead. The principal types of No plays are those dealing with deities, the ghosts of warriors, women with tragic destinies, mad persons, and devils or festive spirits. The actors, who often wear masks, are richly and elaborately costumed. The No drama is performed in a theatre with a roofed stage. The audience is seated on two or, less commonly, three sides of the stage. The actors reach the stage by a passageway, called the bridge, which is marked by three pine trees. The only backdrop is a large painted pine. The scenery consists entirely of impressionistic props suggesting the outlines of a building, a boat, or any other object of importance to the play. Only male actors perform in No dramas. When they play the roles of women or of men whose age is markedly different from their own, they wear masks, many of which are exceptionally beautiful. The No drama also includes a chorus that sits at one side of the stage and recites for the actors when they dance, but the chorus has no identity in the drama. Full programs are seldom presented any longer, but kyo gen continues to be an indispensable part of the entire performance, for it presents the humorous aspects of life with which No is never concerned.

At the end of the 15th century two new popular forms appeared; they were the puppet theatre, jo ruri, also called bunraku, and a form known as kabuki. The puppet theatre combines three elements: the puppets; the chanters who sing and declaim for the puppets; and the players of the samisen, a three-stringed instrument, who provide the accompaniment. The greatest Japanese dramatist, Chikamatsu Monzaemon, wrote chiefly for the puppet theatre, the artistic level of which is perhaps higher in Japan than anywhere else in the world. The puppet theatre, after attaining its greatest popularity in the 18th century, lost in public favour to the kabuki, which has continued to be the most popular traditional dramatic genre. By the mid-1980s kabuki was popular with American audiences, and troupes made annual appearances in the USA Kabuki tends to be spectacle rather than drama. Original kabuki texts, as opposed to those adapted from the puppet theatre, are of lesser importance than the remarkable acting, the music and dance, and the brilliantly collared settings.

Kabuki plays are performed in large theatres, with a hanamichi, or raised platform, extending from the back of the theatre to the stage. In addition to the traditional drama, a modern theatrical repertoire consisting of original Japanese plays in a modern idiom and of translations of European plays has been active in Japan since the beginning of the 20th century. Some 20th-century playwrights have attempted to compromise between traditional Japanese forms and essentially Western idioms, either by introducing modern psychology into their treatment of the ancient tales or by making kabuki-style plays out of such European classics as Shakespeare's Macbeth. Highly successful modern presentations of traditional themes are offered in Five Modern No Plays (1956) by Mishima Yukio. Other plays, notably Twilight Crane, produced in 1949, by Kinoshita Junji, are derived from old folktales. Many contemporary Japanese playwrights deal with such themes as conflict in modern Japanese society and problems of social injustice; other playwrights prefer to work out Japanese equivalents of modern symbolic drama or of the American musical comedy.
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King's Counsel or Queen's Counsel, in England are barristers, and in Scotland members of the faculty of advocates, appointed counsel to the crown, and specially sworn as such, their oath binding them to faithful service. They do not act against the government or crown except by special permission, which is always granted. They have precedence over other barristers, and rank among themselves according to seniority. They are appointed by patent from the crown on the nomination of the lord-chancellor. They can act as judges of assize when named in the commission. It is the established etiquette that no king's counsel conducts any case without the assistance of a junior counsel. The professional robes of king's counsel are of silk instead of stuff like those of ordinary barristers; hence the phrase 'to take silk '. The first to be appointed to the rank of queen's counsel was Sir Francis Bacon in 1604.
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Kissing is mouth contact with slightly pursed lips. Kissing and being kissed is pleasant partly because it triggers subconscious memories and instincts of early childhood, of feeding at the mother's breast and of feeding babies.

Deep kissing, in which the mouths are pressed together and the tongues probe within each other's mouths is a popular and common part of pair bonding in human beings and originates, probably, from the way in which mothers fed their young many years ago. In early civilisations mothers would chew food for their toddler and then feed it to them by mouth-to-mouth contact which involved pushing the food into the child's mouth with the tongue, much like birds still feed their young. Psychologically, kissing is a subconscious reminder of this feeding and being fed instinct - it is a relic gesture - and helps pair bonding between lovers.

Kissing was banned in England by an Acto of Parliament passed in July 1439 as a means of controlling the spread of the plague. It was also, formerly believed, that kissing passed venereal disease from one person to another, freeing the carrier of the disease which moved to the other party. In Victorian England, writers on etiquette argued that women should not even kiss a man before they were both wed to each other.
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A geisha is a Japanese female professional entertainer. They undergo a long training in singing, conversation and etiquette and often contract with tea- houses. It is an honourable profession, often combined with prostitution.
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George Bryan Brummell (Beau Brummell) was an English playboy and expert on etiquette and fashion. He was born in 1778 at London and died in 1840. He was educated at Eton and at Oxford, and at the age of sixteen made the acquaintance of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV, who made him a cornet in his own regiment of the 10th Hussars, and secured his rapid promotion. The death of his father in 1794 brought him a fortune which he squandered on sumptuous living over a twenty-one year period. His creditors at length became clamorous, and in 1816 he took refuge in Calais, where he resided for many years, partly supported by the remains of his own fortune and partly by remittances from friends in England. Subsequently in 1830 he was appointed consul at Caen, but on the abolition of the post was reduced to absolute poverty, and died in a lunatic asylum at Caen in 1840.
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Winfield Scott was an American general. He was born in 1786 near Petersburg, Virginia and died in 1866. Educated at William and Mary College, he entered the army at the age of twenty-two. In the opening year of the War of 1812 he was taken prisoner at the battle of Queenstown Heights. Being released, he served in the campaign of 1813, was made a brigadier-general, and distinguished himself at the battles of Chippewa and Bridgewater in 1814. He was promoted to be major-general, and saw little more service for a generation.

In the Nullification excitement he commanded at Charleston, and he served against the Seminoles and Creeks, succeeding Macomb as commander-in-chief of the US army in 1841. In the second year of the Mexican War General Winfield Scott took command of the main army. He besieged and took Vera Cruz, stormed Cerro Gordo, and reached Puebla. Having rested his army, he pushed on to the plain of the capital, won the victories of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, and entered the city of Mexico, on September the 14th, 1847.

In 1852 he was the Whig candidate for President, and was overwhelmingly defeated by Pierce. Later he was engaged on a commission for rectifying the boundary line with Great Britain. The outbreak of the war found him still in command of the army, but he retired in October, 1861. Winfield Scott's imposing stature, strict discipline, and attachment to military etiquette won for him the nickname of 'Old Fuss and Feathers'.
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