Acre-fight was the name formerly given to a duel fought in an open field.
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Agriculture is the art of cultivating the ground, more especially with the plough and in large areas or fields, in order to raise grain and other crops for man and beast; including the art of preparing the soil, sowing and planting seeds, removing the crops, and also the raising and feeding of cattle or other live stock. This art is the basis of all other arts, and in all countries coeval with the first dawn of civilization. At how remote a period it must have been successfully practised in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China we have no means of knowing, but archaeologists have found evidence of agriculture being practised around 7000 BC. Egypt was renowned as a corn country in the time of the Jewish patriarchs, who themselves were keepers of flocks and herds rather than tillers of the soil. Naturally very little is known of the methods and details of agriculture in early times, though field archaeologists at Butser Ancient Farm in Hampshire have been conducting experiments for some years.
Among the ancient Greeks the implements of agriculture were very few and simple. Hesiod, who wrote a poem on agriculture as early as the eighth century BC, mentions a plough consisting of three parts, the share-beam, the draught-pole, and the plough-tail, but antiquarians are not agreed as to its exact form. The ground received three ploughings, one in autumn, another in spring, and a third immediately before sowing the seed. Manures were applied, and the advantage of mixing soils, as sand with clay or clay with sand, was understood. Seed was sown by hand, and covered with a rake. Grain was reaped with a sickle, bound in sheaves, thrashed, then winnowed by wind, laid in chests, bins, or granaries, and taken out as wanted by the family, to be ground.
Agriculture was highly esteemed among the ancient Romans. Cato, the censor, who was celebrated as a statesman, orator, and general, derived his highest honours from having written a voluminous work on agriculture. In his Georgics Virgil has thought the subject of agriculture worthy of being treated in the most graceful and harmonious verse. The Romans used a great many different implements of agriculture. The plough is represented by Cato as of two kinds, one for strong, the other for light soils. Yarro mentions one with two mould-boards, with which, he says, 'when they plough, after sowing the seed, they are said to ridge'. Pliny mentions a plough with one mould-board, and others with a coulter, of which he says there were many kinds. Fallowing was a practice rarely deviated from by the Romans. In most cases a fallow and a year's crop succeeded each other. Manure was collected from nearly or quite as many sources as have been resorted to by the moderns. Irrigation on a large scale was applied both to arable and grass lands.
The Romans introduced their agricultural knowledge among the Britons, though it is known that the Britons were already practising agriculture, and during the most flourishing period of the Roman occupation large quantities of corn were exported from Britain to the Continent. During the time that the Angles and Saxons were extending their conquests over the country agriculture may have been neglected; but afterwards it was practised with some success among the Anglo-Saxon population, especially, as was generally the case during the middle ages, on lands belonging to the church. Swine formed at this time a most important portion of the live stock, finding plenty of oak and beech mast to eat.
The feudal system introduced by the Normans, though beneficial in some respects as tending to ensure the personal security of individuals, operated powerfully against progress in agricultural improvements. War and the chase, the two ancient and deadliest foes of husbandry, formed the most prominent occupations of the Norman princes and nobles. Thriving villages and smiling fields were converted into deer forests, vexatious imposts were laid on the farmers, and the serfs had no interest in the cultivation of the soil. But the monks of every monastery retained such of their lands as they could most conveniently take charge of, and these they cultivated with great care, under their own inspection, and frequently with their own hands. The various operations of husbandry, such as manuring, ploughing, sowing, harrowing, reaping, thrashing, winnowing, etc, are incidentally mentioned by the writers of those days; but it is impossible to collect from them a definite account of the manner in which those operations were performed.
The first English treatise on husbandry and the best of the early works on the subject was published in the reign of Henry VIII in 1534, by Sir A Fitzherbert, judge of the Common Pleas. It is entitled the Book of Husbandry, and contains directions for draining, clearing, and inclosing a farm, for enriching the soil, and rendering it fit for tillage. Lime, marl, and fallowing are strongly recommended. The subject of agriculture attained some prominence during the reign of Elizabeth I. The principal writers of that period were Tusser, Googe, and Sir Hugh Platt. Tusser's Five Hundredth Points of Good Husbandry (first complete edition published in 1580) conveys much useful instruction in metre, but few works of this time contain much that is original or valuable.
The first half of the seventeenth century produced no systematic work on agriculture, though several on different branches of the subject. About 1645 the field cultivation of red clover was introduced into England, the merit of this improvement being due to Sir Richard Weston, author of a Discourse on the Husbandry of Brabant and Flanders. The Dutch had devoted much attention to the improvement of winter roots, and also to the cultivation of clover and other artificial grasses, and the farmers and proprietors of England soon saw the advantages to be derived from their introduction. The cultivation of clover soon spread, and Sir Richard Weston seems also to have introduced turnips. Potatoes had been introduced during the latter part of the sixteenth century, but were not for long in general cultivation. A number of writers on agriculture appeared in England during the Commonwealth, the most important works on the subject being Blythe's Improver Improved and Hartlib's Legacy. The former writer speaks of a rotation, or rather alternation of crops, and well knew the use of lime, as also of other manures. In the eighteenth century the first name of importance in British agriculture is that of Jethro Tull, a gentleman of Berkshire, who began to drill wheat and other crops about the year 1701, and whose Horse-hoeing Husbandry was published in 1731.
Jethro Tull was a great advocate of the system of sowing crops in rows or drills with an interval between every two or three rows wide enough to allow of ploughing or hoeing to be carried on. After the time of Jethro Tull's publication no great alteration in British agriculture took place, until Robert Bakewell and others effected some important improvements in the breeds of cattle, sheep, and swine, in the latter half of the eighteenth century. The raising and maintenance of live stock, especially of sheep, was a characteristic of English farming from a very early time, and for several centuries the country had almost a monopoly in the supply of wool. To Bakewell we owe the breed of Leicester sheep. By the end of the nineteenth century it was a common practice to alternate green crops with grain crops, instead of exhausting the land with a number of successive crops of corn. A well-known writer on agriculture at this period, and one who did a great deal of good in diffusing a knowledge of the subject, was Arthur Young.
Scotland was for a long time behind England in agricultural progress. Great progress was made during the eighteenth century, however, especially in the latter half of it, turnips being introduced as a field-crop, and new implements such as the swing-plough and the thrashing-machine coming into general use. The construction of good roads through the country also gave agriculture a great impulse. During the wars caused by the French revolution of 1795 to 1814 the high price of agricultural produce led to an extraordinary improvement in agriculture all over Britain. The establishment of the institution called the National Board of Agriculture was also of very great service to British husbandry at this period. Though a private association it was assisted by an annual parliamentary grant, and prizes were given by it for the encouragement of experiments and improvements in agriculture. It existed from 1793 to 1816.
Among other societies which have greatly furthered the progress of agriculture in Britain, the chief are the Royal Agricultural Society of England, established in 1838; the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, founded in 1783; and the Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland, instituted in 1841. The objects of these and similar societies were such as the following: to encourage the introduction of improvements in agriculture; to encourage the improvement of agricultural implements and farm buildings; the application of chemistry to agriculture; the destruction of insects injurious to vegetation; to promote the discovery and adoption of new varieties of grain, or other useful vegetables; to collect information regarding the management of woods, plantations, and fences; to improve the education of those supported by the cultivation of the soil; to improve the veterinary art; to improve the breeds of live stock, etc. Shows are held, at which prizes are distributed for live stock, implements, and farm produce.
Through the efforts of the above-mentioned and other societies, the investigations of scientific men, the general diffusion of knowledge among all classes, and the necessity of competing with producers in foreign countries, agriculture made vast strides in Britain during the nineteenth century. Among the chief improvements were deep ploughing and thorough draining By the introduction of new or improved implements the labour necessary to the carrying out of agricultural operations was greatly diminished, as by the steam thrashing-machine, the steam-plough, and the reaping-machine. The nineteenth century saw also the introduction of chemistry into agriculture in Britain. The organization of plants, the primary elements of which they are composed, the food on which they live, and the constituents of soils, were all investigated, and most important results obtained particularly with regard to manures and rotations. Artificial manures, in great variety to supply the elements wanted for plant growth, came into common use at the end of the nineteenth century, not only increasing the produce of lands previously cultivated, but extending the limits of cultivation itself. An improvement in all kinds of stock became more and more general, feeding was conducted on more scientific principles, and improved varieties of plants used as field crops were introduced at the same time. At the end of the nineteenth century was introduced the system of ensilage for preserving fodder in a green state. However, by the start of the 20th century writers were proclaiming that, chiefly owing to foreign competition, agriculture had become a very unprofitable industry in Britain.
It is only since the nineteenth century that much progress was made in perfecting implements and machinery for cultivating the soil, sowing seed, drilling, rolling, hoeing, reaping, digging, etc. The first application of steam to ploughing dates from 1770, when Richard Edgeworth took out a patent for a steam ploughing machine, but it was 1852 before such application proved of any economic value. As early as 1829 a reaping-machine was invented by the Reverend Mr. Bell of Carmylie, Forfarshire, which, in an improved form, was still in use at the start of the twentieth century when numerous mowing and reaping-machines of ingenious construction were also introduced, many of which not only cut down the grain, but also bind it up into sheaves. At the start of the twentieth century steam was extensively used as a motive power in thrashing, in chaff-cutting, turnip-slicing, and even in churning. Only to be replaced after the invention of the combustion engine with petrol-power. Mechanisation led to the enlargement of fields, with small fields being amalgamated by the destruction of separating hedgerows to enable mechanical tractors and other farm vehicles to operate efficiently. The effect upon wildlife in Britain was devastating, and public concern started to grow.
The Second World War revolutionized agriculture in Britain, and led to the development of intensive farming techniques known as 'factory farming' and new anonymous breeds of livestock being developed which mature very quickly. During the later half of the twentieth century the public in Britain rebelled against the inhumanity of intensive animal husbandry, typified by 'battery hens' in which thousands of hens are kept in individual tiny cages within massive warehouses, unable to stretch let alone move around, and free-range or more traditional animal husbandry started to reappear in commercial agriculture.
The twentieth century also saw the wide scale introduction of chemical fertilizers and insecticides, many of which were harmful to the consumers and from a public backlash emerged a return to traditional farming, known as organic farming.
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The American Centennial Exhibition was a massive World's Fair industrial exhibition held at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia from April the 19th 1876 until November the 10th 1876.
The approach of the Centennial of American Independence was deemed a fitting opportunity to show other nations, by means of a World's Fair, the immense strides that America had made in the arts and manufactures, and as early as 1866 that movement to this end began. In 1870 the general plan and principal features of the celebration had been settled in the minds of its projectors, and a place and time had been agreed upon - the former to be Philadelphia, full of historic memories of the struggle for liberty; the latter from April 19th to October 19th, 1876. the aid of Congress was evoked, and on March 3rd 1871, a bill was passed by the House of Representatives which formed the basis of all the subsequent proceedings. Stock was issued by the Centennial Commission, subscription lists were opened in all of the principal cities of the country, by an act of Congress the government contributed $1,500,000, and so from all these sources the sum of money estimated to be necessary, $8,500,000, was raised, though not without much opposition.
After much deliberation, the Centennial Commission determined upon the erection of five principal buildings, the name and character of each to be determined by the nature of the materials therein to be displayed.
The first of these, called the Main Building, was designed with special reference to the products of the mine, workmanship in the metals, manufactures in general, educational and scientific displays. the second building - called the Memorial Hall, or Art Gallery - was planned for the exhibition of the fine arts in all their various branches and modifications - sculpture, painting, engraving, lithography, photography, industrial and architectural designs, decorations, and mosaics. The third principal building was named Machinery Hall, and was designed for the display of machines of every pattern and purpose known to man - motors, generators of power, pneumatic and hydraulic apparatuses, railway enginery, and contrivances for aerial and water transportation. The fourth edifice projected by the Commissioners was called Agricultural Hall, and was planned for the exhibition of all tree and forest products, fruits of every grade and description, agricultural products proper, land and marine animals, including the apparatus used in the care and culture of the same, animal and vegetable products, textile materials, implements and processes peculiar to agriculture, farm engineering, tillage and general management of field, forest, and homestead. the fifth and last building, called Horticultural Hall, was designed for the proper display of ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers - hot-houses, and conservatories, graperies; tools, accessories, designs, construction, and management of gardens. Such was the general plan under which the principal edifices of Fairmount Park were begun. Other buildings - illustrative of various interests and enterprises brought together from the ends of the earth - were rapidly planned and constructed.
A Woman's Pavilion, projected and carried to completion by an organization called the Women's Centennial Executive Committee, was begun in the middle of October, 1875, and finished in the following January. The building was designed for the special exhibition of whatever woman's skill, patience, and genius have produced and are producing, in the way of handicraft, invention, decorations, letters, and art. Next came the several States and Territories, selecting grounds and constructing a series of State buildings, commemorative of the spirit and illustrating the resources of the respective commonwealths of the Union. Nearly all the foreign nations participating in the Exposition erected Government buildings which became a kind of head-quarters and rendezvous for the several nationalities. Then came model dwellings and bazaars, school-houses and restaurants, judges' halls and model factories, newspaper buildings and ticket-offices - until the Centennial grounds were filled with the most imposing, spacious, and ornate ever seen in the world.
The first and largest of them all was the Main Building, situated immediately east of the intersection of Belmont and Elm Avenues. The edifice was in the form of a parallelogram, having a length from east to west of 1,880 feet, and a breadth from north to south of 464 feet the building throughout its greater extent was one story high, the main cornice being 45 feet from the ground. The general height within was 70 feet, rising to 90 feet under the principal arcades. From each of the four corners of the building rose a rectangular tower 48 feet square and 75 feet high. The water and drainage pipes - laid for the most part underneath the floor - were 4 miles in length. Light - whether streaming through acres of stained and fretted glass by day, or blazing from thousands of gas-jets and burnished reflectors by night - was equally and abundantly distributed. Hydrants - every where and ever full - promised security against fire. Such were the principal features of the largest, if not the most imposing, edifice in the world. The general effect, notwithstanding the immense size of the building, was especially airy and pleasing. Happy proportions and the regularity of irregularity reduced the apparent dimensions of the mammoth pavilion till the vision was nowhere oppressed with a sense of cumbrous outlines or heaviness of structure.
The building next in importance, though not in size, among the Centennial structures, was the Memorial Hall, or Art Gallery. The Art Gallery was built at a cost of $1,500,000. The funds for this purpose were the joint contribution of Philadelphia and the State of Pennsylvania. The building was designed as a permanent structure, affording for the mean time a suitable gallery for the fine art display of the International Exhibition, and, in its final purpose, becoming a national memorial of the Centennial year. After the close of the Exposition the edifice was converted, according to the purpose of its founders, into a receptacle for the Pennsylvania Museum of Industrial Art - an institution similar to that of South Kensington, in London. In its general plan and outline Machinery Hall was similar to the Main Exposition Building, and only second thereto in dimensions, but was functional rather than aesthetic. The ground-plan was a rectangular parallelogram 1402 feet in length, and 360 in width. On the south side the central transept of the main hall projected into an Annex, 208 feet in depth by 210 feet in breadth. Machinery Hall.
The fourth principal building of the Exposition grounds was Agricultural Hall, situated on the east side of Belmont Avenue, and beyond the valley of the same name. The ground-plan of the edifice presented a central nave 820 feet in length, and 125 feet wide. As to its style, Agricultural Hall had a touch of Gothicism - suggested by the Howe truss-arches of the nave and transepts - in its construction. Over the bisection of the central avenue and the main transept rose an elegant cupola surrounded by a weather-vane. The entrances were ornamental, and at each side were handsome turrets. This building, being devoted to the general purposes of an agricultural display, had the necessary concomitant of yards for the exhibition of all domestic fowls and animals.
In the erection of Horticultural Hall - fifth and smallest of the main exhibition edifices - the Centennial committees displayed their liking for the Moors. Horticultural Hall stood on the Lansdowne Terrace, north of the valley, overlooking the Schuylkill.
The American Centennial Exhibition included displays of every imaginable product and aspect of American life and culture, including displays celebrating the individual states of the Union, all to the background accompaniment of the sounds of a mammoth Hastings Organ containing 2700 pipes and a frontage of 1280 square feet.
The exhibition drew crowds varying from 5,000 to 275,000 visitors each day, with a total attendance of 9,786,151 and an average daily attendance of 61,938. The exhibition remained open for 158 days, closing on the 10th of November 1876, and took admission receipts to the sum of $3,761,598 - far less than the estimated $8,500,000 the exhibition cost to put on.
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Aratrum was the Greek name for a plough. Among the Greeks and. Romans the three most essential parts of the plough were, the buris (plough-tail), the dentale (share-beam), that is, the piece of wood to which the share is fixed, and the pole. In the time and country of Virgil it was the custom to force a tree into the crooked form of the buris or plough-tail. The upper end of the buris being held by the ploughman, the lower part, below its junction with the pole, was used to hold the dentale or share-beam, which was either sheathed with metal, or driven bare into the ground, according to circumstances. The term vomer was sometimes applied to the end of the dentale.
To these three parts, the two following are added in the description of the plough by Virgil: 1. The earth-hoards, or mould-boards (aures), rising on each side, bending outwardly in such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previously loosened and raised by the share, and adjusted to the share-beam (dentale), which was made double for the purpose of receiving them. 2. The handle (stiva). Virgil describes this part as used to turn the plough at the end of the furrow; and it is defined by an ancient commentator on Virgil as the 'handle by which the plough is directed'.
It is probable that as the dentale, the two share-beams, were in the form of the Greek letter A, which Virgil describes by duplici dorso the buris was fastened to the left share-beam and the stiva to the right, so that the plough of Virgil was more like the later Lancashire plough, which was commonly held behind with both hands. Sometimes, however, the stiva was used alone and instead of the buris or tail. In place of stiva the term capulus is sometimes employed. The only other part of the plough requiring notice is the coulter (culter), which was used by the Romans. It was inserted into the pole so as to depend vertically before the share, cutting through the roots which came in its way, and thus preparing for the more complete overturning of the soil by the share. Two small wheels were also added to some ploughs. The plough, as described by Virgil, corresponds in all essential particulars with the plough used about Mantua and Venice in the 19th century.
The Greeks and Romans usually ploughed their land three times for each crop. The first ploughing was called proscindere, or novare; the second offringere, or iterare; and the third, lirare, or tertiare. The field which underwent the 'proscissio' was called vervactum or novale, and in this process the coulter was employed, because the fresh surface was entangled with numberless roots which required to be divided before the soil could be turned up by the share. The term 'offringere' from ob and frangere, was applied to the second ploughing because the long parallel clods already turned up were broken and cut across, by drawing the plough through them at right angles to its former direction. The field which underwent this process was called ager iteratus. After the second ploughing the sower cast his seed. Also the clods were often, though not always, broken still further by a wooden mallet, or by harrowing (occatio). The Roman ploughman then, for the first time, attached the earth. boards to his share. The effect of this adjustment was to divide the level surface of the 'ager iteratus' into ridges. These were called porcae, and also lirae, whence came the verb lirare, to make ridges, and also delirare, to decline from the straight line. The earth-boards, by throwing the earth to each side in the manner already explained, both covered the newly-scattered seed, and formed between the ridges furrows for carrying off the water. In this state the field was called seges.
When the ancients ploughed three times only, it was done in the spring, summer, and autumn of the same year. But in order to obtain a still heavier crop, both the Greeks and the Romans ploughed four times, the proscissio being performed in the latter part of the preceding year, so that between one crop and another two whole years intervened.
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Binocular is an adjective describing something as being adapted for use by both eyes at the same time, such as field glasses or a microscope with eyepieces for each eye, as distinct from a monocular device.
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Boustrophedon is the name given to a method of writing or printing, alternatively from right to left and from left to right. Boustrophedon is found on Greek inscriptions of the remotest antiquity. It is called boustrophedon (turning like oxen), because in this way oxen used to plough a field.
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In ancient Rome, a campus was a field used for military drill.
A campus is the grounds of a school or college.
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In Norman times, a chase (or chace) was an unfenced hunting ground stocked with beasts and under private, rather than royal ownership which was called a forest. A chase was protected only by common law.
In everyday language, to chase is to pursue something with the intention of capturing or killing it, or to follow with hostile intent. For example children chase each other with the intention of capturing or tagging them, fox hunters chase a fox with the intention of killing it.
To chase is to drive away, to dispel. Hence a farmer may chase away the rabbits from his field of carrots.
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Chivalry is a term which indicates strictly the organization of knighthood as it existed in the middle ages, and in a general sense the spirit and aims which distinguished the knights of those times. The chief characteristics of the chivalric ages were a warlike spirit, a lofty devotion to the female sex, a love of adventure, and an indefinable thirst for glory. The Crusades gave for a time a religious turn to the spirit of chivalry, and various religious orders of knighthood arose, such as the Knights of St John, the Templars, the Teutonic Knights, etc.
The education of a knight in the days of chivalry was as follows: In his twelfth year he was sent to the court of some baron or noble knight, where he spent his time chiefly in attending on the ladies, and acquiring skill in the use of arms, in riding, etc. When advancing age and experience in the use of arms had qualified the page for war, he became an esquire, or squire. This word is from the Latin scutum, a shield, it being among other offices the squire's business to carry the shield of the knight whom he served. The third and highest rank of chivalry was that of knighthood, which was not conferred before the twenty-first year, except in the case of distinguished birth or great achievements. The individual prepared himself by confessing, fasting, etc; religious rites were performed; and then, after promising to be faithful, to protect ladies and orphans, never to lie nor utter slander, to live in harmony with his equals, etc, he received the accolade, a slight blow on the neck with the flat of the sword from the person who dubbed him a knight. This was often done on the eve of battle, to stimulate the new knight to deeds of valour; or after the combat, to reward signal bravery.
The rules of chivalry only applied to the nobility. While knights on the battle field and in combat enjoyed rules of engagement and a degree of mutual respect - with the notable exception of the Battle of Agincourt where the captured French knights were murdered at the order of king Henry V - peasants, or the ordinary common folk, were slaughtered and raped by knights as though they were not human at all, and certainly not treated in a chivalrous fashion.
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Historically the Democratic Party was the most important of the American political parties, having been in continuous existence since the end of the 18th century. The rise of such a party, as soon as national politics began under the new Constitution, was natural. The love of individual liberty rather than strong government, was native in the minds of most Americans. Those who felt this most strongly would be likely to look with apprehension upon the Federal Government, and the possibility of its encroaching upon the States under cover of the new Federal Constitution. They were therefore likely to be advocates of strict construction of the Constitution and of States' rights. To these elements of party feeling, which had drawn the Anti-Federalists together in 1788, was added a few years later the strong sympathy of many Americans with the French Revolution, and the desire that Government should aid France in her contest with England.
Thomas Jefferson put himself at the head of the party drawn together by agreement in these sentiments, and led them in opposition to the Federalists. The party took the name of Democratic-Republican. Before Monroe's administration its members were more commonly called Republicans, since then most commonly Democrats. From the first the party was strongest in the Southern States. From its origin in 1792 to 1801, it was in opposition. In 1798 and 1799, upon the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws, it took strong ground for States' rights in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. The election of Jefferson. in 1801 brought it into power. The chief tenets of the party were, belief in freedom of religion, of politics, of speech and of the press, in popular rule, in peace, in economical government, in the utmost possible restriction of the sphere of government, in hospitality to immigrants, and in the avoidance of foreign complications.
Placed in control of the government, the majority of the party drifted away from its strict constructionist ground, and supported measures of a nationalizing character. After the War of 1812, the Federalist party went out of existence, and the Democratic party had complete possession of the field. In 1820, Monroe was re-elected without opposition. But opposing tendencies in the nation and in the party were already showing themselves, and preparing the way for a new party division, between the Whigs, advocates of protection and other nationalizing measures, and those Democrats who held to the old programme of States' rights and free trade and restricted government. With the accession of Jackson in 1829, new social strata came into power in the Democratic party, the widening of the suffrage giving it a more popular character. Managed by skilful politicians, not without the aid of the spoils system, the party won every Presidential election but two (1840, 1848) from this time to 1860, destroyed the US bank, annexed Texas, and carried the country through the war with Mexico. But meanwhile the slavery question, coming into increasing prominence, was gradually forcing a division between the Democrats of the South and the great body of those in the North, who were unwilling to go so far in the protection of slavery by national authority as was desired by their Southern allies. The final split came in the nominating convention of 1860.
Two candidates were nominated, Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans won the election, and the American Civil War broke out. Though many War Democrats aided the administration in preserving the Union, the party was discredited in the eyes of many by its previous connection with the Southern leaders and the pro-slavery cause, and won no Presidential election until that of 1884, when in the minds of many the war issues were extinct and economic questions had taken their place. Defeated in 1888, it was again successful in 1892. By the end of the 19th century the party was hardly more strict-constructionist than the Republican, nor more marked by devotion to States' rights and the party was mostly noted as the opponent of a high tariff.
By the end of the 20th century the differences between the Democratic party and Republicans had become blurred, though the Democratic party was generally perceived - not always accurately - as more left-wing or liberal than the Republicans.
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