Infant schools were invented by Jean Oberlin, the Protestant pastor of Waldbach, in Alsace. The first infant school in Britain opened in 1812, established by Robert Owen at New Lanark, Scotland, followed in 1819 by one at Westminster of which Samuel Wilderspin was one of the first teachers.
Infant schools have changed little in their objectives and guides since then. They were established in Britain to teach children between the ages of three and six, and while this is now five to seven years, the basic premise that the schools should 'amuse, interest and instruct' has little changed. When established it was realised that elementary instruction should be simple, pleasing and as much as possible imparted by means of models, pictures and singing.
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Sanctuary is the name given to a consecrated place which gives protection to criminals taking refuge there. The word is also given to the privilege of taking refuge in such a consecrated place.
Among the Jews there were cities of refuge to which the slayer might flee who killed a man unawares, and something analogous to a right of sanctuary may also be traced in pagan communities. In the ancient Greek states certain temples afforded protection to criminals, whom it was unlawful to drag from them, although the supply of food might be intercepted. As early as the 7th century the protection of sanctuary was afforded to persons fleeing to a church or certain boundaries surrounding it. The canon law recognised this protection to criminals as continuing for a limited period, sufficient to admit of a composition for the offence; or, at all events, to give time for the first heat of resentment to pass before the injured party could seek redress.
In several English churches there was a stone seat beside the altar where those fleeing to the peace of the church were held to be guarded by its sanctity. One of these frith-stools (' peace-stools') still remains at Beverley and another at Hexham; while the sanctuary knocker is still visible at Durham. The privilege of sanctuary did not extend to persons accused either of the crime of sacrilege or of the crime of treason. Connected in England with the privilege of sanctuary was the practice of abjuration of the realm. By the ancient common law, if a person guilty of felony took the benefit of sanctuary, he might within forty days afterwards go clothed in sackcloth before the coroner, confess his guilt, and take an oath to quit the realm and not return without the king's license. On confessing and taking the oath he became attainted of the felony, but had forty days allowed him to prepare for his departure. All privileges of sanctuary and abjuration were entirely abolished by statute 21 Jac. I. chap. 28. Yet as regards the execution of civil process, sanctuaries continued in defiance of the law for another century. This is shown by the statutes 8 and 9 Will. III. chap. 27, which makes it penal in sheriffs not to execute process in certain 'pretended privileged places', such as Whitefriars or Alsatia and the Savoy; and 9 Geo. I. chap. 28, which contains provisions against resistance to process in the Mint and Stepney.
By the ancient canons of the Scottish councils, excommunication was incurred by the offence of openly taking thieves out of the protection of the church. The most celebrated ecclesiastical sanctuaries in Scotland were the church of Wedale, now Stow, near Galashiels, where there was an image of the Virgin Mary, believed to have been brought by King Arthur from Jerusalem; and the church of Lesmahagow, near Lanark, fugitives to which had the benefit of the ' King's Peace', granted by David I, in addition to the protection of the church. The institution of sanctuary, though probably useful in early times in enabling innocent persons to escape oppression or private enmity pursuing them under the name of law, tended after the rise of settled government to become highly mischievous by enabling criminals to bid defiance to the civil power. Consequently for a century before the Reformation we find a continuous struggle going on between the legislature and the church, caused by attempts on the part of the former to check the evils arising out of the privileges of sanctuary and to maintain the authority of the law. The Reformation finally abolished all religious sanctuaries in Scotland.
Of the places which owe their privilege of giving sanctuary to the respect due to the person of the sovereign the most famous is the Abbey of Holyrood House and its precincts. The precincts of the palace, to which the privilege belongs, are extensive, including Arthur's Seat and the Queen's Park;
and the whole are placed under the protection of a bailie appointed by the Duke of Hamilton, the heritable keeper of Holyrood House. This time-honoured sanctuary afforded protection against imprisonment for debt only; to a criminal it gave no protection. For twenty-four hours after passing the confines the debtor was protected against personal diligence; but in order to enjoy protection for a longer period he had to enter his name in the books kept by the bailie of the abbey. Neither crown debtors nor fraudulent bankrupts nor persons under an obligation to perform an act within their power could claim protection; while within the precincts there was a prison for debtors against whom diligence had been brought for debts contracted within the sanctuary. To retire to the abbey is by 1696, chap. 5, made one of the circumstances which, combined with insolvency, constitute legal bankruptcy. The Castle of Edinburgh, the Mint or 'cunxie-house,' and several other places seem to have enjoyed the privilege of giving sanctuary; but by the 19th century Holyrood was the only sanctuary which the law of Scotland recognised, and the abolition of imprisonment for debt in 1880 rendered it obsolete.
By the privilege of Clan Macduff, alleged to have been granted by Malcolm Canmore, any person related within the ninth degree to the chief of Clan Macduff who should have committed homicide without premeditation was entitled, on fleeing to Macduff's Cross in Fife, to have his punishment remitted for a fine, or at least to be repledged from any other jurisdiction by the Earl of Fife.
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Gavin Hamilton was a Scottish painter. He was born in about 1730 at Lanark and died in 1797. He studied at Rome, devoting himself to historic painting. In 1773 he published at Rome a folio volume, The Italian School of Painting, illustrated with splendid plates. His illustrations of Homer are amongst his best productions. He was very successful also as a discoverer of classical antiquities.
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James Keir Hardie was a British labour leader. He was born in 1856 at Scotland and died in 1915. A miner from the age of seven, when he was 24 he was elected secretary to the Lanarkshire Miners' Union. From 1882 until 1886 he was editor of The Cumnock News, and in 1888 unsuccessfully contested Mid Lanark. In 1892 he became Labour MP for West Ham, holding the seat until 1895. He founded the Independent Labour Party in 1893 and in 1900 was elected MP for Merthyr Tydvill.
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Robert Owen was an English socialist reformer. He was born in 1771 at Newtown, Montgomeryshire and died in 1858. Early distinguished by his business talenta, at the age of eighteen he became manager of a spinning-mill at Chorlton, near Manchester, and subsequently of the New Lanark cotton-mills, belonging to Dale, a wealthy Glasgow manufacturer, whose daughter he married. Here Robert Owen introduced many important reforms, having for their object the improvement of the condition of the labourers in his employment. In 1812 he published New Views of Society, or Essays upon the Formation of Human Character; and subsequently a Book of the New Moral World, in which he completely developed his socialistic views, insisting upon an absolute equality among men. He had three opportunities of setting up social communities on his own plan - one at New Harmony in America, another at Orbiston in Lanarkshire, and the last in 1844, at Harmony Hall in Hampshire, all of which proved signal failures. In his later years Robert Owen became a firm believer in Spiritualism.
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William Roy was a Scottish antiquarian and geodesist. He was born in 1726 near Lanark in Scotland and died in 1790. He entered the army and attained the rank of major-general. In 1746 he made the survey of Scotland afterwards known as the 'Duke of Cumberland's Map;' and in 1784 he measured a base-line on Hounslow Heath, for the ordnance survey of England. He afterwards directed the observations for connecting the English triangulation with the French. His chief literary work is The Military Antiquities of the Romans in Scotland (published in 1793).
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Highland Regiments is a term applied to regiments in the British army originally raised in the Highlands of Scotland. Their origin is found in certain companies of Highlanders armed by government about 1725-1730, for the purpose of keeping order in the Highlands, and called the Black Watch from the sombre colours of their tartans. These were embodied as a regiment of the regular army in 1739, the first Highland regiment being the 43rd, afterwards the 42nd, which bore a distinguished part in almost all the wars in which Britain had been engaged.
Seven other regiments were raised at different times, the 71st and 72nd in 1777; the 74th in 1787; the 78th or Rossshire Buffs in 1793; the 92nd or Gordon Highlanders in 1796; the 93rd or Sutherland Highlanders in 1800; and the 79th or Cameron Highlanders in 1805. The Highland Regiments and the old corresponding regiments consisted of the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders), 1st battalion 42nd Foot, 2nd battalion 73rd Foot, 3rd battalion Royal Perth Militia; The Highland Light Infantry, 1st battalion 71st Foot, 2nd battalion 74th Foot, 3rd and 4th battalions. 1st Royal Lanark Militia; the Seaforth Highlanders (Rossshire Buffs, Duke of Albany's), 1st. battalion 72nd Foot, 2nd battalion 78th Foot, 3rd battalion Highland (Rifle) Militia; the Queen's own Cameron Highlanders, 1st battalion. 79th Foot, 2nd battalion Highland Light Infantry Militia; the Gordon Highlanders, 1st battalion 75th Foot, 2nd batralion 92nd Foot, 3rd battalion Royal Aberdeenshire Militia; Princess Louise's (Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders), 1st battalion 91st Foot, 2nd battalion 93 Foot, 3rd battalion Highland Borderers Militia, 4th battalion Royal Renfrew Militia. Each regiment had its own distinctive tartan, some retaining the kilt, others wearing trousers. There were also several Highland volunteer regiments which were brigaded with the various corps mentioned.
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Lanark Blue is a Scottish, modern, farmhouse, vegetarian blue cheese made from un-pasteurised sheep's milk.
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Lanark is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Lanark is a city in Carroll County, Illinois, USA.
Lanark is a town in Portage County, Wisconsin, USA.
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Lanarkshire, also known as Lanark or Clydesdale, is a former county of south-western Scotland. It was bounded by the counties of Dumbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Peebles, Dumfries, Ayr, and Renfrew, and covered an area of 564,284 acres. It was divided into three principal districts or wards, called respectively the Upper or Southern Ward, the Middle Ward, and the Lower or Northern Ward, the last containing the greater part of Glasgow. The upper ward consisted largely of mountain, moorland, and pastoral heights, several of the elevations reaching from 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea. The middle and lower wards comprised a large aggregate of arable land, woodland, and a rich tract of orchard country which has long been famous. The principal river was the Clyde, which traverses the entire county from south-south-east to north-north-west, and for the greater part of its course nearly through its centre. The contributory streams were the Douglas, Avon, and Caldsr, besides several others of minor importance. The county was divided into six
parliamentary divisions (Southern, Mid, North-Western, North-Eastern, Govan, and Partick), each returning one member. The chief towns were Glasgow, Coatbridge, Airdrie, Hamilton, Rutherglen, Motherwell,Wishaw, and Lanark, the county town, which was smaller than any of the others.
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