1,2-Dichloroethane is a clear, thick man-made liquid that is not found naturally in the environment. It has a pleasant odour and sweet taste. It is used primarily to make vinyl chloride and a number of other solvents that remove grease, glue, and dirt, including trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, vinylidene chloride, and ethyleneamines. It is also found in commercial solvents used by industry to clean cloth, remove grease from metal, and break down oils, fats, waxes, resins, and rubber. In the household, 1,2-dichloroethane can be found in some cleaning agents and pesticides; in some adhesives, such as those used to glue wallpaper or carpeting; and in some paint, varnish, and finish removers. It is also added to leaded petrol to prevent engine knock.
1,2-Dichloroethane is used as an insect fumigant for stored grains and in mushroom houses, as a soil fumigant in peach and apple orchards, and as an extractant in certain food processes.
1,2-Dichloroethane is volatile at room temperature; it is flammable and burns with a smoky flame. Small amounts of 1,2-dichlorethane released in water or onto soil can vaporize into the air. It does not remain in the air for very long but can remain in water for possibly more than 40 days. 1,2-Dichloroethane is miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, and chlorinated solvents, and soluble in common organic solvents. It is sparingly soluble in water. When heated to decomposition, it produces toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid. Other names for 1,2-dichloroethane are 1,2-ethylene dichloride; aethylenchlorid; alpha, beta-dichloroethane; borer sol; di-chlor-mul-son; dichloro-1,2-ethane; dichloroethylene; Dutch liquid or oil; ethane dichloride; ethane 1,2-dichloride; ethyleen dichloride; ethylene chloride; ethylene dichloride; freon 150; glycol dichloride; and sym-dichlorothane.
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Flour paste, comprising just wheat flour and water, is an adhesive formerly much used for hanging wallpaper.
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Arsenic is a trivalent and pentavalent, solid, poisonous common element usually found combined with metals as arsenides, the commonest of which is arsenical pyrites, FeAsS. It has a steel colour and high metallic lustre, and tarnishes on exposure to the air, first changing to yellow (hence its name, which derives from the Greek word for yellow), and finally to black. In hardness it equals copper; it is extremely brittle, and very volatile, beginning to sublime before it melts. It burns with a blue flame, and emits a smell of garlic. Its specific gravity is 5.76. It forms compounds with most of the metals. Combined with sulphur it forms or-piment and realgar, which are the yellow and red sulphides of arsenic. Orpiment is the true arsenicum of the ancients. With oxygen arsenic forms two compounds, the more important of which is arsenious oxides or arsenic trioxide (As40e), which is the white arsenic, or simply arsenic of the shops. It is usually seen in white, glassy, translucent masses, and is obtained by sublimation from several ores containing arsenic in combination with metals, particularly from arsenical pyrites.
Of all substances arsenic is that which has most frequently occasioned death by poisoning, both by accident and design. During the Victorian period, arsenic compounds were widely used in dyes used for household products such as wallpaper, and this led to the death of thousands of people in Britain before its use was finally outlawed - despite the best efforts of arsenic mine owners such as the renowned arts and crafts movement advocate William Morris. The best remedies against the effects of arsenic on the stomach are ferric hydroxide or magnesic hydroxide, or a mixture of both, with copious draughts of bland liquids of a mucilaginous consistence, which serve to procure its complete ejection from the stomach. Oils and fats generally, milk, albumen, wheat-flour, oatmeal, sugar or syrup, have all proved useful in counteracting its effect. Like many other virulent poisons it has been described as a safe and useful medicine, especially in skin diseases, when judiciously employed. Arsenic was also employed by men during the Victorian era to enhance sexual prowess However, arsenic is also addictive and the body becomes dependent upon it, not receiving enough when dependant can cause heart failure.
Arsenic is used as a flux for glass, and also for forming pigments. The arsenite of copper (Scheele's green) and a double arsenite and acetate of copper (emerald green) were formerly largely used to colour paper-hangings for rooms, but as poisonous gases are liable to be given off, the practice was abandoned. Arsenic compounds have in the past been used for colouring confectionery, and other articles, bright green. It is found in crude oil of vitriol, and occasionally in the past in products such as grape-sugar, beer, etc, in the manufacture of which oil of vitriol was employed. Arsenic tablets were formerly worn as protection against the plague.
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A casing wheel is a circular cutter mounted on a wooden handle used in paperhanging, where it is used for cutting wallpaper quickly and cleanly around architrave, door casings and the like.
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A corner knife is a broad, sharp-edged knife mounted on a light wooden handle and used in the decorating trade in a manner similar to a casing wheel for rapidly trimming surplus wallpaper from around skirtings and architraves.
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Duplex paper is quality embossed wallpaper, reinforced with an additional backing paper that takes most of the strain when the paper is hung and reduces the tendency for the embossing to be misshapen or flattened during hanging.
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In decorating, moire refers to a wallpaper with a watered silk effect produced by means of a delicate emboss.
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Pitch paper was a type of paper formerly used in the treatment of damp walls. Pitch paper consisted of stout brown lining paper coated on one side with pitch. This paper was hung with standard wallpaper paste, the pitch side towards the wall, before ordinary wallpaper was later hung over it.
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A soirette paper is a self-coloured satinette wallpaper with a low-relief pattern.
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Paper-hangings, ornamental papers often pasted on the walls of the rooms in dwelling-houses, known known as wallpaper, were introduced to France from China at the beginning of the 17th century, and by the 20th century were popular throughout Britain and France.
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